1999 in science

The year 1999 in science and technology involved some significant events.

List of years in science (table)


Astronomy and space explorationEdit

Total solar eclipse of August 11, viewed from France



  • Elements 118 and 116 are claimed to be made for the first time. Later retracted when results could not be replicated.

Computer scienceEdit

  • March 26 – The Melissa worm attacks the Internet.
  • June – RFC 2616 defines HTTP/1.1, the version of Hypertext Transfer Protocol in common use.
  • September 21 – David Bowie's Hours becomes the first complete music album by a major artist available to download over the Internet in advance of the physical release.[2]
  • First working 3-qubit NMR computer demonstrated at IBM's Almaden Research Center. First execution of Grover's algorithm.
  • Probable date – First emojis introduced, in Japan.[citation needed]


History of science and technologyEdit

  • Boris Chertok publishes «Ракеты и люди» (Rockets and people), a history of the Soviet rocket program.




Physiology and medicineEdit


  • January 19 – The first BlackBerry is released, using the same hardware as the Inter@ctive pager 950, and running on the Mobitex network.




  1. ^ Merritt, David (1999). Combes, F.; Mamon, G. A.; Charmandaris, V. (eds.). Black holes and galaxy evolution. Dynamics of Galaxies: From the Early Universe to the Present. Vol. 197. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 221–232. arXiv:astro-ph/9910546. Bibcode:2000ASPC..197..221M. ISBN 978-1-58381-024-8.
  2. ^ Cummings, Sue (1999-09-22). "The Flux in Pop Music Has a Distinctly Download Beat to It". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
  3. ^ Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
  4. ^ Hales, Thomas C. (January 2001). "The Honeycomb Conjecture". Discrete and Computational Geometry. 25 (1): 1–22. arXiv:math/9906042. doi:10.1007/s004540010071. MR 1797293.
  5. ^ Randall, Lisa; Sundrum, Raman (1999). "Large Mass Hierarchy from a Small Extra Dimension". Physical Review Letters. 83 (17): 3370–3. arXiv:hep-ph/9905221. Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83.3370R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.3370.
  6. ^ Randall, Lisa; Sundrum, Raman (1999). "An Alternative to Compactification". Physical Review Letters. 83 (23): 4690–3. arXiv:hep-th/9906064. Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83.4690R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4690. S2CID 18530420.
  7. ^ Amir, Ruthie E.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia; Wan, Mimi; Tran, Charles; Francke, Uta; Zoghbi, Huda Y. (1999). "Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2". Nature Genetics. 23 (2): 185–8. doi:10.1038/13810. PMID 10508514.