1995 in science
Astronomy and space explorationEdit
- February – Project Phoenix begins looking for extraterrestrial transmissions using the Parkes Observatory radio telescope in New South Wales, Australia, the largest telescope in the Southern Hemisphere.
- February 8 – Asteroid 6349 Acapulco is discovered by Masahiro Koishikawa.
- March 22 – Cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov returns after setting a record for 438 days in space.
- July 23 – Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered by Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp independently.
- October 6 – 51 Pegasi b: Didier Queloz and Michel Mayor of the University of Geneva at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence announce the first definitive detection of an extrasolar planet orbiting an ordinary main sequence star (51 Pegasi) and the first "hot Jupiter".
- The "Big Ear" at the Ohio State University Radio Observatory ends its full-time search for extraterrestrial intelligence radio survey, having run continuously for 22 years, beginning in 1973.
- Richard P. Binzel devizes the original of what will become the Torino Scale for categorizing the impact hazard associated with near-Earth objects.
- The first brown dwarf – Teide 1 – is discovered.
- The genome of Haemophilus influenzae is the first genome of a free living organism to be sequenced.
- January 27 – Prodigy (online service) offers access to the World Wide Web.
- March 1 – The first Yahoo! Search interface is founded.
- March 25 – Ward Cunningham loads the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, in Oregon.
- May 23 – The Java programming language is announced to the world.
- June 8 – Danish/Greenlandic/Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf releases the first version of the scripting language PHP, which in 15 years will be used as the server-side language on 75% of all Web servers.
- July 16 – Amazon.com, incorporated a year earlier by Jeff Bezos in Washington (state) as an online bookstore, sells its first book, Douglas Hofstadter's Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought.
- Andy Harter and colleagues devise Virtual Network Computing.
- Bruce Luyendyk first proposes the name Zealandia for a southern continent.
- Nobel Prizes
- Turing Award – Manuel Blum
- Wollaston Medal for Geology – George P. L. Walker
- Enshrinement in the Panthéon, Paris – Pierre and Marie Curie
- Spinoza Prize first awarded in the Netherlands.
- January 30 – Gerald Durrell (b. 1925), British wildlife conservationist.
- March 24 – Joseph Needham (b. 1900), English biochemist & writer on the history of science and technology in China.
- April 2 – Hannes Alfvén (b. 1908), Swedish astrophysicist.
- June 23 – Jonas Salk (b. 1914), American medical researcher.
- August 11 – Alonzo Church (b. 1903), American mathematician.
- September 13 – A. E. Wilder-Smith (b. 1915), British organic chemist.
- December 2 – Mária Telkes (b. 1900), Hungarian-American scientist and inventor
- Mayor, Michael; Queloz, Didier (1995). "A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star". Nature. 378 (6555): 355–359. Bibcode:1995Natur.378..355M. doi:10.1038/378355a0.
- "A Near-Earth Object Hazard Index" presented at a United Nations conference and published in its proceedings, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 822 (1997).
- Lerdorf, Rasmus (1995-06-08). "Announce: Personal Home Page Tools (PHP Tools)". Newsgroup: comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
- "History & Timeline". Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- Byers, Ann (2006). Jeff Bezos: the founder of Amazon.com. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9781404207172.
- Wiles, Andrew (1995). "Modular elliptic curves and Fermat's Last Theorem" (PDF). Annals of Mathematics. 141 (3): 443–551. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.169.9076. doi:10.2307/2118559. ISSN 0003-486X. JSTOR 2118559. OCLC 37032255. Zbl 0823.11029.; Taylor, Richard; Wiles, Andrew (1995). "Ring-theoretic properties of certain Hecke algebras" (PDF). Annals of Mathematics. 141 (3): 553–572. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.128.531. doi:10.2307/2118560. JSTOR 2118560. OCLC 37032255. Zbl 0823.11030.
- Loftus, E. F.; Pickrell, J. E. (1995). "The formation of false memories" (PDF). Psychiatric Annals. 25 (12): 720–725. doi:10.3928/0048-5713-19951201-07. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2011-02-27.