1905 in the United States
Events from the year 1905 in the United States.
- President: Theodore Roosevelt (R-New York)
- Vice President: vacant (until March 4), Charles W. Fairbanks (R-Indiana) (starting March 4)
- Chief Justice: Melville Fuller (Illinois)
- Speaker of the House of Representatives: Joseph Gurney Cannon (R-Illinois)
- Congress: 58th (until March 4), 59th (starting March 4)
- March 4 – Theodore Roosevelt begins his first full term as President.
- March 10 – In Cleveland, Ohio, Cassie Chadwick is sentenced for 14 years in prison for fraud.
- March 17 – Franklin D. Roosevelt marries his fifth cousin Eleanor Roosevelt; President Roosevelt, the bride's uncle, gives her away.
- March 20 – Grover Shoe Factory disaster: A boiler explosion, building collapse and fire in Brockton, Massachusetts kills 58.
- April 6 – Lochner v. New York: The Supreme Court of the United States invalidates New York's 8-hour-day law.
- April 6–July 19 – The 1905 Chicago Teamsters' strike; 21 people die and 416 are injured in the violence.
- May–June – John C. Merriam leads the Saurian Expedition, a paleontological research mission in northern Nevada.
- May 10 – The 1905 Snyder, Oklahoma tornado destroys much of Snyder, Oklahoma, killing at least 97.
- May 15 – Las Vegas, Nevada is founded when 110 acres (45 ha), in what later becomes downtown, are auctioned off.
- June 1–October 14 – The Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition is held in Portland, Oregon, celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Lewis and Clark expedition.
- June 24 – The founding convention of the Industrial Workers of the World, A radical workers union, which had great impact during the first two decades of the 20th century.
- July 11 – W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter establish the Niagara Movement, a precursor to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
- July 29 – U.S. Secretary of War William Howard Taft has talks with Prime Minister of Japan Katsura Taro. Notes from these conversations (known as the Taft–Katsura Agreement) are later found in 1924 and cause a controversy as it appears to contain U.S. recognition of Japan's claims in Korea.
- September 5 – Russo-Japanese War – Treaty of Portsmouth: In New Hampshire, a treaty mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt is signed by victor Japan and Russia. Russia cedes the island of Sakhalin and port and rail rights in Manchuria to Japan.
- September 11 – 19 die and 48 are seriously injured when the Ninth Avenue Elevated train derails in Manhattan.
- October – John W. Taylor and Matthias F. Cowley resign from the Quorum of Twelve in protest, disputing the Church of Latter Day Saints' stance against polygamy that was reaffirmed in the Second Manifesto (following the Reed Smoot hearings).
- October 5 – The Wright Brothers' third aeroplane (Wright Flyer III) stays in the air for 39 minutes with Wilbur piloting. This is the first aeroplane flight lasting over half an hour.
- December 30 – A bomb kills Frank Steunenberg, ex-governor of Idaho; the case leads to a trial against leaders of the Western Federation of Miners.
- Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer are banned from the Brooklyn Public Library for setting a "bad example."
- The Institute of Musical Art, now known as the Juilliard School, is founded in New York City.
- March 26 - The Pacific Coast Hockey Association's Seattle Metropolitans became the First American team to win the Stanley Cup by defeating the National Hockey Association's Montreal Canadiens 3 game to 1. The Metropolitans would win their only Cup in front of their home crowd at Seattle Ice Arena
- October 14 - the National League's New York Giants won their 1st World Series by defeating the American League's Philadelphia Athletics 4 games to 1 New York City's Polo Grounds
- February 6 – Merze Tate, African American academic (died 1996)
- March 15 – Nat Perrin, comedy screenwriter (died 1998)
- April 9 – J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator from Arkansas from 1945 to 1974 (died 1995)
- May 15 – Joseph Cotten, actor (died 1994)
- May 16 – Henry Fonda, actor (died 1982)
- July 4 – Irving Johnson, sailor and author (died 1991)
- July 15 – Dorothy Fields, lyricist (died 1974)
- July 21 – David M. Kennedy, U.S. 60th Secretary of Treasury, 8th U.S. Representative to N.A.T.O., Special Representative of The First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ and Latter-day Saints (died 1996)
- August 23 – Abbie Rowe, White House photographer (died 1967)
- October 11 – Fred Trump, real estate developer, father of Donald Trump (died 1999)
- November 3 – Joseph H. Ball, U.S. Senator from Minnesota from 1940 to 1942 and 1943 to 1949 (died 1993)
- November 4 – Nannie Doss, serial killer who murdered eleven people (died 1965)
- December 24 – Howard Hughes, American business magnate, investor, director, pilot, and philanthropist (died 1976}
- January 19 – Benjamin F. Rice, United States Senator from Arkansas from 1868 till 1873. (born 1828)
- February 15 – Lew Wallace, Union general in the American Civil War and politician. (born 1827)
- February 27 – George S. Boutwell, United States Senator from Massachusetts from 1851 till 1853. (born 1818)
- March 1 – Edward O. Wolcott, United States Senator from Colorado from 1889 till 1901. (born 1848)
- March 6 – John Henninger Reagan, United States Senator from Texas, Acting Confederate States Secretary of the Treasury, Confederate States Postmaster General (born 1818)
- March 9 – William B. Bate, 23rd Governor of Tennessee from 1883 till 1887 and United States Senator from Tennessee from 1887 till 1905. (born 1826)
- March 18 – Joseph Roswell Hawley, United States Senator from Connecticut from 1881 till 1905. (born 1826)
- April 21 – Orville H. Platt, United States Senator from Connecticut from 1879 till 1905. (born 1827)
- July 1 – John Hay, author, biographer, 37th United States Secretary of State (born 1838)
- Fitch, Solidarity for Sale, 2006.
- Media related to 1905 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons