1837 in the United States
Events from the year 1837 in the United States of America.
- President: Andrew Jackson (D-Tennessee) (until March 4), Martin Van Buren (D-New York) (starting March 4)
- Vice President: Martin Van Buren (D-New York) (until March 4), Richard Mentor Johnson (D-Kentucky) (starting March 4)
- Chief Justice: Roger B. Taney (Maryland)
- Speaker of the House of Representatives: James K. Polk (D-Tennessee)
- Congress: 24th (until March 4), 25th (starting March 4)
- January 1 – Don's Rok founded.
- January 10 – DePauw University founded in Greencastle, Indiana.
- January 26 – Michigan is admitted as the 26th U.S. state (see History of Michigan).
- February 4 – Seminoles attack Fort Foster.
- February 8 – Richard Johnson becomes the only Vice President of the United States chosen by the United States Senate.
- February 15 – Knox College founded in Galesburg, Illinois.
- February 25
- March – Victor Séjour's short story "Le Mulâtre", the earliest known work of African American fiction, is published in the French abolitionist journal Revue des Colonies.
- March 4
- May 10 – Panic of 1837: New York City banks fail, and unemployment reaches record levels.
- June 5 – Houston, Texas, is granted a city charter.
- June 11 – The Broad Street Riot occurs in Boston, Massachusetts, fueled by ethnic tensions between the Irish and the Yankees.
- July – Charles W. King sets sail on the American merchant ship Morrison. In the Morrison incident, he is turned away from Japanese ports with cannon fire.
- October – First publication of The United States Magazine and Democratic Review.
- October 21 – General Thomas Jesup captures Seminole leader Osceola under pretext of negotiations.
- November 7 – In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy is shot and killed by a pro-slavery mob while he attempts to protect his printing shop from being destroyed a fourth time.
- November 8 – Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which will later become Mount Holyoke College.
- John Deere (inventor) begins his agricultural implement manufacturing business, John Deere, in Grand Detour, Illinois.
- The Little, Brown and Company publishing house opens its doors in Boston.
- John Greenleaf Whittier's first poetry book, Poems Written During the Progress of the Abolition Question in the United States, is published by Boston abolitionists.
- Second Seminole War (1835–1842)
- January 9 – Julius C. Burrows, U.S. Senator from Michigan from 1895 to 1911 (died 1915)
- January 19 – William Williams Keen, brain surgeon (died 1932)
- February 5 – Dwight L. Moody, evangelist (died 1899)
- March 1 – William Dean Howells, writer, historian, editor and politician (died 1920)
- March 7 – Henry Draper, physician and astronomer (died 1882)
- March 18 – Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and 1893 to 1897 (died 1908)
- March 27 – Kate Fox, medium (died 1892)
- April 3 – John Burroughs, nature writer (died 1921)
- April 10 – (Byron) Forceythe Willson, poet (died 1867)
- April 17 – J. P. Morgan, financier (died 1913 in Italy)
- May 26 – Washington Roebling, civil engineer (died 1926)
- May 27 – James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok, gunfighter (killed 1876)
- May 28
- June 22
- June 25 – Charles Yerkes, financier of rapid transit systems in Chicago and London (died 1905)
- July 1 – Henry Rathbone, military officer and diplomat (died 1911 in Germany)
- July 31 – William Quantrill, Confederate leader during the American Civil War (died 1865)
- August 30 – Nell Arthur, wife of Chester A. Arthur (died 1880)
- September 2 – James H. Wilson, Union Army general in the Civil War (died 1925)
- September 8
- October 10 – Robert Gould Shaw, Union Army general in the Civil War and reformer (killed in action 1863)
- October 12 – Preston B. Plumb, U.S. Senator from Kansas from 1877 to 1891 (died 1891)
- October 29 – Harriet Powers, African American folk artist (died 1910)
- November 20 – Lewis Waterman, inventor and businessman (died 1901)
- November 28 – John Wesley Hyatt, inventor and industrial chemist (died 1920)
- December 10 – Edward Eggleston, novelist and historian (died 1902)
- December 15 – George B. Post, architect (died 1913)
- December 26
- September 28 – David Barton, U.S. Senator from Missouri from 1821 to 1831 (born 1783)
- October 1 – Robert Clark, politician (born 1777)
- October 9 – Oliver H. Prince, U.S. Senator from Georgia from 1828 to 1829 (born 1787)
- November 7 – Elijah P. Lovejoy, abolitionist (born 1809)
- November 11 – Thomas Green Fessenden, poet (born 1771)
- U.S. Patent No. 132. "Improvement in Propelling Machinery by Magnetism And Electro-Magnetism". Google patents. Retrieved 2011-12-13.
- "Making of America". Cornell University Library. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
- "A Brief History of Little, Brown and Company". New York: Little, Brown and Company. 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
- Media related to 1837 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons