List of governors of Missouri

(Redirected from Governor of Missouri)

The governor of Missouri is the head of government of the U.S. state of Missouri and the commander-in-chief of the Missouri National Guard. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Missouri Legislature, to convene the legislature and grant pardons, except in cases of impeachment.

Governor of Missouri
Incumbent
Mike Parson
since June 1, 2018
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceMissouri Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once[1]
PrecursorGovernor of Missouri Territory
Inaugural holderAlexander McNair
FormationSeptember 18, 1820
(203 years ago)
 (1820-09-18) Constitution of Missouri
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Missouri
SalaryUS$133,820.88 per year
(2013)[2]
Websitegovernor.mo.gov

The current governor is Republican Mike Parson, who took office on June 1, 2018. He is ineligible to run in the 2024 election-or any future election--since he served more than two years of the unexpired term of predecessor Eric Greitens.

List of governors

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Louisiana was purchased from France in 1803, with it being proclaimed in St. Louis in Upper Louisiana on March 10, 1804, by Amos Stoddard, who remained as military commander of the region until October 1, 1804, when Orleans Territory was split from it. The remainder was designated the District of Louisiana and placed under the jurisdiction of Indiana Territory and its governor, William Henry Harrison.[3][4]

Louisiana Territory and Missouri Territory

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The District of Louisiana was organized as Louisiana Territory on July 4, 1805;[5] it was renamed Missouri Territory on June 4, 1812, after the admission of the state of Louisiana.[6] It had four governors appointed by the president of the United States, including both Meriwether Lewis and William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Governors of Louisiana and Missouri Territory
No. Governor Term in office[a] Appointed by
1   James Wilkinson
(1757–1825)
[7]
July 4, 1805[b]

March 3, 1807
(successor appointed)[c]
Thomas Jefferson
2   Meriwether Lewis
(1774–1809)
[12]
March 3, 1807[d]

October 11, 1809
(died in office)[e]
Thomas Jefferson
3   Benjamin Howard
(1760–1814)
[16]
April 18, 1810[f]

October 31, 1812
(resigned)[g]
James Madison
4   William Clark
(1770–1838)
[19]
July 1, 1813[h]

September 18, 1820
(lost election)
James Madison
James Monroe

State of Missouri

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Missouri was admitted to the union on August 10, 1821.[25]

The original constitution of 1820 created the offices of governor[26] and lieutenant governor,[27] to serve terms of four years[28] without being able to succeed themselves.[29] Terms were shortened to 2 years in 1865,[30] with a limit of serving no more than four out of every six years.[31] They were returned in 1875 to the four-year term and limit on succession of the 1820 constitution,[32] and the term limit changed to two terms in 1965.[33] Originally, the lieutenant governor would act as governor in the event of a vacancy;[34] a 1968 amendment made it so that the lieutenant governor becomes governor in that situation.[33]

A group including the governor, lieutenant governor, and members of the Missouri General Assembly, proclaimed Missouri's secession from the Union on October 31, 1861,[35] and it was admitted to the Confederate States of America on November 28, 1861.[36] The Confederate government elected two governors, but only had any control in the south of the state, and was forced into exile in Marshall, Texas, after the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862.

Governors of the State of Missouri
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[i]
1     Alexander McNair
(1775–1826)
[37][38]
September 18, 1820[39]

November 17, 1824
(term-limited)[j]
Democratic-
Republican
[41]
1820   William Henry Ashley
2   Frederick Bates
(1777–1825)
[42][43]
November 17, 1824[k]

August 4, 1825
(died in office)
Democratic-
Republican
[41]
1824 Benjamin Harrison Reeves
(resigned July 1825)
Vacant
3   Abraham J. Williams
(1781–1839)
[45][46]
August 4, 1825[47]

January 20, 1826
(successor took office)
Democratic-
Republican
[41]
President of
the Senate
acting
4   John Miller
(1781–1846)
[48][49]
January 20, 1826[50]

November 21, 1832
(term-limited)[j]
Democratic[41] 1825
(special)[l]
1828 Daniel Dunklin
5   Daniel Dunklin
(1790–1844)
[51][52]
November 21, 1832[53]

September 30, 1836
(resigned)[m]
Democratic[n] 1832 Lilburn Boggs
6   Lilburn Boggs
(1796–1860)
[56][57]
September 30, 1836[58]

November 18, 1840
(term-limited)[j]
Democratic[41] Lieutenant
governor
acting
Acting as governor
1836 Franklin Cannon
7   Thomas Reynolds
(1796–1844)
[59][60]
November 18, 1840[61]

February 9, 1844
(died in office)
Democratic[41] 1840 Meredith Miles Marmaduke
8   Meredith Miles Marmaduke
(1791–1864)
[62][63]
February 9, 1844[64]

November 20, 1844
(successor took office)
Democratic[41] Lieutenant
governor
acting
Acting as governor
9   John Cummins Edwards
(1804–1888)
[65][66]
November 20, 1844[67]

December 27, 1848
(term-limited)[j]
Democratic[41] 1844 James Young
10   Austin Augustus King
(1802–1870)
[68][69]
December 27, 1848[70]

January 3, 1853
(term-limited)[j]
Democratic[41] 1848 Thomas Lawson Price
11   Sterling Price
(1809–1867)
[71][72]
January 3, 1853[73]

January 5, 1857
(term-limited)[j]
Democratic[41] 1852 Wilson Brown
(died August 27, 1855)
Vacant
12   Trusten Polk
(1811–1876)
[74][75]
January 5, 1857[76]

February 27, 1857
(resigned)[o]
Democratic[41] 1856 Hancock Lee Jackson
13   Hancock Lee Jackson
(1796–1876)
[77][78]
February 27, 1857[79]

October 22, 1857
(successor took office)
Democratic[41] Lieutenant
governor
acting
Acting as governor
14   Robert Marcellus Stewart
(1815–1871)
[80][81]
October 22, 1857[82]

January 3, 1861
(term-limited)[j]
Democratic[41] 1857
(special)[p]
Hancock Lee Jackson
15   Claiborne Fox Jackson
(1806–1862)
[83][84]
January 3, 1861[85]

July 31, 1861
(office declared vacant)[q]
Democratic[41] 1860 Thomas Caute Reynolds
16   Hamilton Rowan Gamble
(1798–1864)
[87][88]
July 31, 1861[86]

January 31, 1864
(died in office)
Unconditional Union[87] Provisional
governor
elected by
convention
Willard Preble Hall
17   Willard Preble Hall
(1820–1882)
[89][90]
January 31, 1864[91]

January 2, 1865
(successor took office)
Unconditional Union[89] Lieutenant
governor
acting
Acting as governor
18   Thomas Clement Fletcher
(1827–1899)
[92][93]
January 2, 1865[94]

January 12, 1869
(term-limited)[r]
Republican[41] 1864 George Smith
19   Joseph W. McClurg
(1818–1900)
[96][97]
January 12, 1869[98]

January 9, 1871
(lost election)
Republican[41] 1868 Edwin O. Stanard
20   Benjamin Gratz Brown
(1826–1885)
[99][100]
January 9, 1871[101]

January 8, 1873
(did not run)[s]
Liberal
Republican
[41]
1870 Joseph J. Gravely
(died April 28, 1872)
Vacant
21   Silas Woodson
(1819–1896)
[102][103]
January 8, 1873[104]

January 12, 1875
(did not run)
Democratic[t] 1872 Charles Phillip Johnson
22   Charles Henry Hardin
(1820–1892)
[105][106]
January 12, 1875[107]

January 8, 1877
(did not run)[105]
Democratic[u] 1874 Norman Jay Colman
23   John S. Phelps
(1814–1886)
[108][109]
January 8, 1877[110]

January 10, 1881
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1876 Henry Clay Brockmeyer
24   Thomas Theodore Crittenden
(1832–1909)
[112][113]
January 10, 1881[114]

January 12, 1885
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1880 Robert Alexander Campbell
25   John S. Marmaduke
(1833–1887)
[115][116]
January 12, 1885[117]

December 28, 1887
(died in office)
Democratic[41] 1884 Albert P. Morehouse
26   Albert P. Morehouse
(1835–1891)
[118][119]
December 28, 1887[120]

January 14, 1889
(lost nomination)[121]
Democratic[41] Lieutenant
governor
acting
Acting as governor
27   David R. Francis
(1850–1927)
[122][123]
January 14, 1889[124]

January 9, 1893
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1888 Stephen Hugh Claycomb
28   William J. Stone
(1848–1918)
[125][126]
January 9, 1893[127]

January 11, 1897
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1892 John Baptiste O'Meara
29   Lawrence Vest Stephens
(1858–1923)
[128][129]
January 11, 1897[130]

January 14, 1901
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1896 August Henry Bolte
30   Alexander Monroe Dockery
(1845–1926)
[131][132]
January 14, 1901[133]

January 9, 1905
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1900 John Adams Lee
(resigned April 25, 1903)
Thomas L. Rubey
(appointed April 25, 1903)
31   Joseph W. Folk
(1869–1923)
[134][135]
January 9, 1905[136]

January 11, 1909
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1904 John C. McKinley
32   Herbert S. Hadley
(1872–1927)
[137][138]
January 11, 1909[139]

January 13, 1913
(term-limited)[v]
Republican[41] 1908 Jacob F. Gmelich
33   Elliott Woolfolk Major
(1864–1949)
[140][141]
January 13, 1913[142]

January 8, 1917
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1912 William Rock Painter
34   Frederick D. Gardner
(1869–1933)
[143][144]
January 8, 1917[145]

January 10, 1921
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1916 Wallace Crossley
35   Arthur M. Hyde
(1877–1947)
[146][147]
January 10, 1921[148]

January 12, 1925
(term-limited)[v]
Republican[41] 1920 Hiram Lloyd
36   Sam Aaron Baker
(1874–1933)
[149][150]
January 12, 1925[151]

January 14, 1929
(term-limited)[v]
Republican[41] 1924 Philip Allen Bennett
37   Henry S. Caulfield
(1873–1966)
[152][153]
January 14, 1929[154]

January 9, 1933
(term-limited)[v]
Republican[41] 1928 Edward Henry Winter
38   Guy Brasfield Park
(1872–1946)
[155][156]
January 9, 1933[157]

January 11, 1937
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1932 Frank Gaines Harris
(died December 30, 1944)
39   Lloyd C. Stark
(1886–1972)
[158][159]
January 11, 1937[160]

February 26, 1941
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[41] 1936
40   Forrest C. Donnell
(1884–1980)
[161][162]
February 26, 1941[w]

January 8, 1945
(term-limited)[v]
Republican[41] 1940
Vacant
41   Phil M. Donnelly
(1891–1961)
[164][165]
January 8, 1945[166]

January 10, 1949
(term-limited)[x]
Democratic[41] 1944 Walter Naylor Davis
42   Forrest Smith
(1886–1962)
[168][169]
January 10, 1949[170]

January 12, 1953
(term-limited)[x]
Democratic[41] 1948 James T. Blair Jr.
43   Phil M. Donnelly
(1891–1961)
[164][165]
January 12, 1953[171]

January 14, 1957
(term-limited)[x]
Democratic[41] 1952
44   James T. Blair Jr.
(1902–1962)
[172][173]
January 14, 1957[174]

January 9, 1961
(term-limited)[x]
Democratic[41] 1956 Edward V. Long
(resigned September 23, 1960)
Vacant
45   John M. Dalton
(1900–1972)
[175][176]
January 9, 1961[177]

January 11, 1965
(term-limited)[x]
Democratic[41] 1960 Hilary A. Bush
46   Warren E. Hearnes
(1923–2009)
[178][179]
January 11, 1965[180]

January 8, 1973
(term-limited)[y]
Democratic[41] 1964 Thomas Eagleton
(resigned December 27, 1968)
Vacant
1968 William S. Morris
47   Kit Bond
(b. 1939)
[182][183]
January 8, 1973[184]

January 10, 1977
(lost election)
Republican[41] 1972 Bill Phelps
48   Joseph P. Teasdale
(1936–2014)
[182][185]
January 10, 1977[186]

January 12, 1981
(lost election)
Democratic[185] 1976
49   Kit Bond
(b. 1939)
[182][183]
January 12, 1981[187]

January 14, 1985
(did not run)
Republican[183] 1980 Ken Rothman
50   John Ashcroft
(b. 1942)
[188]
January 14, 1985[189]

January 11, 1993
(term-limited)[y]
Republican[188] 1984 Harriett Woods
1988 Mel Carnahan
51   Mel Carnahan
(1934–2000)
[190]
January 11, 1993[191]

October 16, 2000
(died in office)[z]
Democratic[190] 1992 Roger B. Wilson
1996
52   Roger B. Wilson
(b. 1948)
[192]
October 16, 2000[aa]

January 8, 2001
(did not run)
Democratic[192] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
Joe Maxwell
(appointed November 15, 2000)
53   Bob Holden
(b. 1949)
[194]
January 8, 2001[195]

January 10, 2005
(lost nomination)[ab]
Democratic[194] 2000
54   Matt Blunt
(b. 1970)
[196]
January 10, 2005[197]

January 12, 2009
(did not run)
Republican[196] 2004 Peter Kinder
55   Jay Nixon
(b. 1956)
[198]
January 12, 2009[199]

January 9, 2017
(term-limited)[y]
Democratic[198] 2008
2012
56   Eric Greitens
(b. 1974)
[200]
January 9, 2017[201]

June 1, 2018
(resigned)[ac]
Republican[200] 2016 Mike Parson
57   Mike Parson
(b. 1955)
[203]
June 1, 2018[204]

Incumbent[ad]
Republican[203] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
Mike Kehoe
(appointed June 18, 2018)
2020

Confederate governors

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Thomas Caute Reynolds, 2nd Confederate governor of Missouri

During the Civil War, after the capture of Jefferson City by the Union, a constitutional convention declared the office then held by Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson to be vacant.[86] In October, Jackson, Lieutenant Governor Thomas Caute Reynolds, and some members of the General Assembly, organized at Neosho and passed an Ordinance of Secession. This Confederate government never displaced the government in Jefferson City, and Missouri remained in the Union through the entire war. Jackson continued on as governor until his death on December 6, 1862, at which time Reynolds took over, serving until he fled to Mexico in June 1865 after the end of the war.[205]

See also

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Notes

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  1. ^ The range given is from the date the governor was confirmed by the Senate, or appointed by the President during a Senate recess, to the date the governor left office.
  2. ^ Wilkinson was appointed on March 11, 1805, during a Senate recess, for a term to begin July 4.[8] He was formally nominated on December 20, 1805;[9] confirmed by the Senate on January 27, 1806;[10] and confirmation was communicated to the president on January 30.[11]
  3. ^ Wilkinson left the territory August 16, 1806, after which point Secretary of the Territory Joseph Brown acted as governor.[7]
  4. ^ Lewis was nominated on February 28, 1807;[13] confirmed by the Senate on March 2;[14] and confirmation and communicated to the president on March 3.[15] He arrived in the territory on March 8, 1808.[12]
  5. ^ Lewis died in Tennessee while en route to Washington to answer complaints about his actions as governor; it is unknown if he was murdered or died by suicide.[12] Secretary of the Territory Frederick Bates acted as governor until his successor arrived.[16]
  6. ^ Howard was nominated on April 17, 1810,[17] confirmed by the Senate on April 18,[18] and arrived in the territory on September 17.[16]
  7. ^ Howard resigned to accept a commission as brigadier general in the United States Army.[16]
  8. ^ Clark was nominated on May 31, 1813;[20] though his nomination notes that he had been appointed during a Senate recess, no specifics on that appointment have been found. He was confirmed by the Senate on June 2,[21] and the confirmation was communicated to the president on June 16.[22] He was reconfirmed by the Senate on January 21, 1817,[23] and on January 24, 1820.[24]
  9. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Under the 1820 constitution, governors were ineligible for four years after the end of their term.[40]
  11. ^ Modern sources tend to say Bates took office on November 15; however, while this was the date McNair delivered his farewell address, Bates was not sworn in until November 17.[44]
  12. ^ Special election to fill the remainder of Frederick Bates' term.
  13. ^ Dunklin resigned to be Surveyor General for Missouri and Illinois.[51]
  14. ^ Most sources label Dunklin a Democrat,[54][41][51] but Glashan labels him a Democratic-Republican.[55]
  15. ^ Polk resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[74]
  16. ^ Special election to fill the remainder of Trusten Polk's term.
  17. ^ Jackson was pro-Confederate, and fled Jefferson City on June 17, 1861, after the Battle of Boonville in which Union forces gained control of the capital. The pro-Union constitutional convention declared his office vacant, and elected a new provisional governor, on July 31.[86] Jackson would soon establish a Confederate-aligned government in Neosho, Missouri.
  18. ^ Under the 1865 constitution, governors were ineligible to serve more than four years in six.[95]
  19. ^ Brown instead ran unsuccessfully for Vice President of the United States.[99]
  20. ^ Woodson also represented the Liberal Republican Party.[55]
  21. ^ Hardin also represented the Liberal Republican Party.[55]
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Under the 1875 constitution, governors were ineligible to be re-elected as their own successor.[111]
  23. ^ The election was very close, and the House of Representatives refused to certify Donnell's election until February 26, 1941, after being ordered to do so by the Missouri Supreme Court.[161][163]
  24. ^ a b c d e Under the 1945 constitution, governors were ineligible to be re-elected as their own successor.[167]
  25. ^ a b c Under a 1965 amendment to the constitution, governors are ineligible to be elected more than twice.[181]
  26. ^ Carnahan died in a plane crash while campaigning for a seat in the United States Senate.[190]
  27. ^ The plane crash that killed Carnahan occurred on October 16; his body was not identified until October 18, and shortly thereafter Wilson was sworn in.[193]
  28. ^ Holden lost the Democratic nomination to Claire McCaskill.
  29. ^ Greitens resigned due to allegations of sexual assault and campaign finance impropriety.[202]
  30. ^ Parson's first full term expires on 13 January 2025; he will be term-limited.

References

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General
  • "Former Mississippi Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  • McMullin, Thomas A. (1984). Biographical directory of American territorial governors. Westport, CT : Meckler. ISBN 978-0-930466-11-4. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  • Sobel, Robert (1978). Biographical directory of the governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. II. Meckler Books. ISBN 9780930466008. Retrieved March 6, 2023.
  • Dubin, Michael J. (2003). United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1776-1860: The Official Results by State and County. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1439-0.
  • Dubin, Michael J. (2014). United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1861-1911: The Official Results by State and County. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5646-8.
  • Kallenbach, Joseph Ernest (1977). American State Governors, 1776-1976. Oceana Publications. ISBN 978-0-379-00665-0. Retrieved September 23, 2023.
  • Glashan, Roy R. (1979). American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775-1978. Meckler Books. ISBN 978-0-930466-17-6.
  • "Missouri History - Governors". Missouri Secretary of State. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
  • "Missouri History - Lieutenant Governors". Missouri Secretary of State. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
  • "Our Campaigns - Governor of Missouri - History". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
  • "Our Campaigns - Governor of Missouri (CSA) - History". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
Specific
  1. ^ "Missouri Constitution of 1875". Article V, Section 12. A person who has served as governor for more than one and one-half terms in two consecutive terms shall not be elected governor for the succeeding term.
  2. ^ "CSG Releases 2015 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  3. ^ Stat. 283
  4. ^ Shoemaker, Floyd Calvin (1916). Missouri's Struggle for Statehood, 1804-1821. Jefferson City: The Hugh Stephens Printing Co. OCLC 4014912. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  5. ^ Stat. 331
  6. ^ Stat. 743
  7. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 173–176.
  8. ^ "Memorandum from Thomas Jefferson, 11 March 1805," Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-09-02-0124. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 9, 1 February 1805–30 June 1805, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Mary Parke Johnson, Anne Mandeville Colony, Angela Kreider, and Katherine E. Harbury. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 123–125.], accessed March 20, 2023
  9. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 9th Cong., 1st sess., 8, accessed March 20, 2023.
  10. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 9th Cong., 1st sess., 18, accessed March 20, 2023.
  11. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 9th Cong., 1st sess., 19, accessed March 20, 2023.
  12. ^ a b c McMullin 1984, pp. 176–180.
  13. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 9th Cong., 2nd sess., 53, accessed March 20, 2023.
  14. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 9th Cong., 2nd sess., 54, accessed March 20, 2023.
  15. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 9th Cong., 2nd sess., 55, accessed March 20, 2023.
  16. ^ a b c d McMullin 1984, pp. 180–181.
  17. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 11th Cong., 2nd sess., 145, accessed March 20, 2023.
  18. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 11th Cong., 2nd sess., 146, accessed March 20, 2023.
  19. ^ McMullin 1984, pp. 181–185.
  20. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 13th Cong., 1st sess., 347, accessed March 20, 2023.
  21. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 13th Cong., 1st sess., [1], accessed March 20, 2023.
  22. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 13th Cong., 1st sess., 355, accessed March 20, 2023.
  23. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 14th Cong., 2nd sess., 72, accessed March 20, 2023.
  24. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 13th Cong., 1st sess., 196, accessed March 20, 2023.
  25. ^ Stat. 545
  26. ^ 1820 Const. art. IV, § 1
  27. ^ 1820 Const. art. IV, § 14
  28. ^ 1820 Const. art. IV, § 3
  29. ^ 1820 Const. art. IV, § 4
  30. ^ 1865 Const. art. V, § 3
  31. ^ 1865 Const. art. V, § 4
  32. ^ 1875 Const. art. V, § 2
  33. ^ a b University of Missouri Institute for Public Policy, "Constitutional Amendments, Statutory Revision and Referenda Submitted to the Voters by the General Assembly or by Initiative Petition, 1910–2010," accessed March 24, 2023
  34. ^ 1820 Const. art. IV, § 16
  35. ^ "Secession Ordinances of 13 Confederate States". University of Houston. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  36. ^ Confederate Public Law Session V, Chapter I; accessed May 22, 2015
  37. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 837.
  38. ^ "Alexander McNair". National Governors Association. January 8, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  39. ^ Journal of the House, 1st General Assembly, Regular Session, 1820, page 8, General Assembly, Record Group 550, Missouri State Archives, Jefferson City. Accessed March 21, 2023.
  40. ^ "1820 Mo. Const. art. IV, § 4". www.stateconstitutions.umd.edu. Retrieved December 19, 2023.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Kallenbach 1977, pp. 338–340.
  42. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 838.
  43. ^ "Frederick Bates". National Governors Association. January 8, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  44. ^ "Governor's Message". Missouri Intelligencer. November 27, 1824. p. 2. Retrieved March 22, 2023.
  45. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 838–839.
  46. ^ "Abraham J. Williams". National Governors Association. January 8, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  47. ^ The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of the State of Missouri. State Historical Society of Missouri. 1922. p. 91.
  48. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 839–840.
  49. ^ "John Miller". National Governors Association. January 8, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  50. ^ "none". Missouri Intelligencer. January 23, 1826. p. 2. Retrieved March 22, 2023. On the next day, General John Miller was declared to be duly elected Governor - and after being qualified, communicated to the Legislature the following...
  51. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, p. 840.
  52. ^ "Daniel Dunklin". National Governors Association. January 8, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  53. ^ Journal of the House, 7th General Assembly, Regular Session, 1832, pp. 28–29, General Assembly, Record Group 550, Missouri State Archives, Jefferson City. Accessed March 21, 2023.
  54. ^ Dubin 2003, p. 138.
  55. ^ a b c Glashan 1979, p. 176.
  56. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 841.
  57. ^ "Lilburn W. Boggs". National Governors Association. January 8, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  58. ^ The Messages And Proclamations Of The Governors Of The State Of Missouri Volume I. State Historical Society of Missouri. 1922. p. 307.
  59. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 841–842.
  60. ^ "Thomas Reynolds". National Governors Association. January 8, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
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