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|Ab urbe condita||1809|
|Balinese saka calendar||977–978|
|English Regnal year||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||乙未年 (Wood Goat)|
3752 or 3692
— to —
丙申年 (Fire Monkey)
3753 or 3693
|- Vikram Samvat||1112–1113|
|- Shaka Samvat||977–978|
|- Kali Yuga||4156–4157|
|Japanese calendar||Tengi 4|
|Minguo calendar||856 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||1367/1368 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1598–1599|
1182 or 801 or 29
— to —
1183 or 802 or 30
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1056.|
- August 31 – Empress Theodora (a sister of the former Empress Zoë) dies after a 18-month reign by a sudden illness at Constantinople. She is succeeded by Michael VI (the Old) who has served as military finance minister under the former Emperor Romanos III. Michael is appointed through the influence of Leo Paraspondylos, Theodora's most trusted adviser. This ending the Macedonian Dynasty.
- Theodosius, a nephew of the former Emperor Constantine IX, tries to usurp the Byzantine throne and liberates all the prisoners who flocks his banner. With their support he marches through the streets of Constantinople to the Palace. There, the Varangian Guard forms up outside to stop him. Theodosius losses heart and heads for Hagia Sophia. Later he is captured and exiled to Pergamum.
- October 5 – Emperor Henry III (the Black) dies after a 10-year reign at Bodfeld, a imperial hunting lodge (Königspfalz) in the Harz Mountains. He is succeeded and enthroned by his 5-year-old only son Henry IV as "king of the Germans" by Pope Victor II (a German too) at Aachen – while his mother, Empress Agnes of Poitou, becomes co-regent.
- Ottokar I, count of Steyr, becomes margrave of the Karantanian March (later known as Styria).
- June 16 – In response to the attack on Hereford Cathedral (see 1055), Leofgar the bishop of Hereford takes an army into Wales to deal with the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. He along with a large number of English troops is killed in battle at Glasbury-on-Wye by the Welsh. Earl Harold Godwinson raises an army to take revenge, but comes to peaceful terms with Gruffydd.
- The Pagoda of Fogong Temple in Shanxi in northern China is built during the Liao Dynasty. Work begins on the Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple in Shandong under the opposing Song Dynasty.
- Dromtön, a Atiśa chief disciple, founds Reting Monastery in the Reting Tsangpo Valley (north of Lhasa) as the seat of Kadam lineage of Tibetan Buddhism.
- The Muslims expel 300 Christians from Jerusalem, and European Christians are forbidden to enter the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
- Abdallah ibn Buluggin (the Conqueror), emir of Granada
- Al-Muqtadi, caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate (d. 1094)
- Baldwin II of Mons, count of Hainaut (approximate date)
- Ermengol IV (or Armengol), Spanish nobleman (d. 1092)
- Fujiwara no Kiyohira, Japanese nobleman and samurai (d. 1128)
- Hildegarde of Burgundy, French noblewoman (approximate date)
- Ibn Tahir of Caesarea, Arab scholar and historian (d. 1113)
- Sæmundur Sigfússon, Icelandic priest and scholar (d. 1133)
- William II (or William Rufus), king of England (d. 1100)
- Zhou Bangyan, Chinese bureaucrat and ci poet (d. 1121)
- February 10 – Æthelstan (or Athelstan), bishop of Hereford
- February 11 – Herman II (or Heriman), archbishop of Cologne
- June 16 – Leofgar (or Leovegard), bishop of Hereford
- August 31
- September 10 – William, margrave of the Nordmark
- October 5 – Henry III (the Black), Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1017)
- November 25 – Flann Mainistreach, Irish poet and historian
- Áed Ua Forréid, bishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland)
- Anselm of Liège, French chronicler (approximate date)
- Benedict IX, pope of the Catholic Church (approximate date)
- Ekkehard IV, Swiss monk and chronicler (approximate date)
- Hilal al-Sabi', Buyid historian, bureaucrat and writer
- Leo of Ohrid, Byzantine archbishop and theologian
- Yahya ibn Umar al-Lamtuni, Almoravid chieftain
- John Julius Norwich (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee – Michael the Aged, p. 327. ISBN 0-394-53779-3.
- Jonathan Riley-Smith (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume IV – Part II (c. 1024–c. 1198), p. 50. ISBN 978-0-521-41411-1.
- Fryde, E.B.; Greenway, D.E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology, p. 217. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.
- "Theodora - Byzantine empress [981-1056]". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- "Henry III - Holy Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 17, 2018.