Chang Hsüeh-liang (Chinese: 張學良, 3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), also romanized as Zhang Xueliang, nicknamed the "Young Marshal" (少帥), known in his later life as Peter H. L. Chang, was the effective ruler of Northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin (the "Old Marshal"), by the Japanese on 4 June 1928. He was an instigator of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, in which Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of China's ruling party, was arrested in order to force him to enter into a truce with the insurgent Communist Party of China and form a united front against Japan, which had occupied Manchuria. As a result, he spent over 50 years under house arrest, first in mainland China and then in Taiwan. He is regarded by the Communist Party of China as a patriotic hero for his role in the Xi'an Incident. He was also known for having an affair with Edda Mussolini.
|Warlord of Manchuria|
4 June 1928 – 26 December 1936
|Preceded by||Zhang Zuolin|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
|Born||3 June 1901|
Tai'an, Fengtien, Qing Empire
|Died||15 October 2001 (aged 100)|
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
|Nationality||Republic of China (controlled Taiwan Area only after 1949)|
Yu Feng Tze
(m. 1916; div. 1964)
Edith Chao Chang
(m. 1964; died 2000)
|Domestic partner||Gu Ruiyu (1924-1931)|
|Relatives||Zhang Xueming (brother)|
|Awards||Order of Rank and Merit|
Order of Wen-Hu
Order of the Sacred Treasure
Order of Blue Sky and White Sun
|Allegiance||Republic of China|
|Branch/service||National Revolutionary Army|
|Rank||General of the Army|
|Commands||Northeast Peace Preservation Forces|
Chang Hsüeh-liang was born in Haicheng, Liaoning province on 3 June 1901, Chang was educated by private tutors and, unlike his father, felt at ease in the company of westerners. He graduated from Fengtian Military Academy, was made a colonel in the Fengtian Army, and appointed the commander of his father's bodyguards in 1919. In 1921 he was sent to Japan to observe military maneuvers, where he developed a special interest in aircraft. Later, he developed an air corps for the Fengtian Army, which was widely used in the battles that took place within the Great Wall during the 1920s. In 1922, he was promoted to Major General and commanded an army-sized force. Two years later, he was also made commander of the air units. Upon the death of his father in 1928, he succeeded him as the leader of the Northeast Peace Preservation Forces (popularly "Northeast Army"), which controlled China's northeastern provinces of Heilongjiang, Fengtian, and Jilin (Kirin). In December of the same year he proclaimed his allegiance to the Kuomintang (KMT; Chinese Nationalist Party).
Warlord to republican generalEdit
The Japanese believed that Chang Hsüeh-liang, who was known as a womanizer and an opium addict, would be much more subject to Japanese influence than was his father. On this premise, an officer of the Japanese Kwantung Army therefore killed his father, Zhang Zuolin (the "Old Marshal"), by exploding a bomb above his train while it crossed under a railroad bridge. Surprisingly, the younger Chang proved to be more independent and skilled than anyone had expected and declared his support for Chiang Kai-shek, leading to the reunification of China in 1928. With the assistance of Australian journalist William Henry Donald, he overcame his opium addiction in 1933.
He was given the nickname "Hero of History" (千古功臣) by PRC historians because of his desire to reunite China and rid it of Japanese invaders; and was willing to pay the price and become "vice" leader of China (not because it was good that he was supporting the Kuomintang). In order to rid his command of Japanese influence, he had two prominent pro-Tokyo officials executed in front of the assembled guests at a dinner party in January 1929. It was a hard decision for him to make. The two had powers over the heads of others. In May 1929, relations between the Kuomintang Nanjing and the excessively strengthened Feng Yuxiang worsened. In addition, the Japanese government, dissatisfied with the pro-Kuomintang policy of Zhang Zolin, and now his son, threatened to "take the most decisive measures to ensure that the Kuomintang flag never flies over Manchuria". The" young Marshal " supported Nanjing, and Feng's troops were pushed back to the outlying provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, and in July 1929, Japan officially recognized Kuomintang China. At the same time, Zhang Xueliang and Chiang Kai-shek held a personal meeting in Beiping, at which a decision was made on the armed seizure of the Chinese Eastern Railway or CER. By pushing Zhang Xueliang to take this step, Chiang Kai-shek sought to make the young marshal completely dependent on Nanjing and at the same time raise his prestige and get most of the profits from the operation of the CER at the disposal of Nanjing. Zhang Xueliang, in turn, believed that the capture of the CER would strengthen his position in the Northeast, allow him to personally manage the profits of the CER, and ensure his independence from Nanjing. As a result, on July 10, 1929, the Conflict on the CER began. However, the Red Army showed a higher combat capability, and the conflict ended with the signing of the Khabarovsk Protocol of December 22, 1929.
In 1930, when warlords Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government, Chang stepped in to support the Nanking (Nanjing)-based government against the Northern warlords in exchange for control of the key railroads in Hopeh (Hebei) and the customs revenues from the port city of Tianjin. A year later, in the September 18 Mukden Incident, Japanese troops attacked Chang's forces in Mukden (Shenyang) in order to provoke a full-on war with China, which Chiang did not want to face until his forces were stronger. In accordance with this strategy, Zhang's armies withdrew from the front lines without significant engagements, leading to the effective Japanese occupation of Zhang's former northeastern domain. There has been speculation that Chiang Kai-Shek wrote a letter to Chang asking him to pull his forces back, but Zhang later stated that he himself issued the orders. Apparently, Chang was aware of how weak his forces were compared to the Japanese and wished to preserve his position by retaining a sizeable army. Nonetheless, this would still be in line with Chiang's overall strategic standings. Chang later traveled in Europe before returning to China to take command of the Encirclement Campaigns, first in Hopeh-Honan (Henan)-Anhui and later in the Northwest.
On 6 April 1936, Chang met with CPC delegate Zhou Enlai to plan the end of the Chinese Civil War. KMT leader Chiang Kai-shek at the time took a non-aggressive position against Japan and considered the communists to be a greater danger to the Republic of China than the Japanese, and his overall strategy was to annihilate the communists before focusing his efforts on the Japanese. He believed that "communism was a cancer while the Japanese represented a superficial wound." Growing nationalist anger against Japan made this position very unpopular, and led to Chang's action against Chiang, known as the Xi'an Incident.
On 12 December 1936, Chang and Gen. Yang Hucheng kidnapped Chiang and imprisoned him until he agreed to form a united front with the communists against the Japanese invasion. After the negotiations, Chiang agreed to unite with the communists and drive the Japanese out of China. When Chiang was released, Chang chose to return to the capital city of Nanking with him. Once they were away from Zhang's loyal troops, Chiang had him placed under house arrest. From then on, he was under constant watch and lived near the Nationalist capital city, wherever it moved to.
Later life from 1949Edit
In 1949, Chang was transferred to Taiwan, where he remained under loose house arrest for the next 40 years in a villa in Taipei's northern suburbs, where he received the occasional guests. Much of his time was spent studying Ming dynasty literature, the Manchu language, collecting Chinese fan paintings, calligraphy and other works of art by illustrious artists (a collection of more than 200 works, using his studio's name "Dingyuanzhai" (定遠齋), was auctioned with tremendous success by Sotheby's on 10 April 1994). Zhang studied the New Testament Bible. In 1964, he formally married Edith Chao, daughter of a senior official, who left her family in her teens to become his companion and later followed him into exile. His first wife, Ms. Yu, said she was so moved by Ms. Chao's devotion that she released her husband from his vows. Chang and his wife, Edith, became devout Christians who also regularly attended Sunday services at the Methodist chapel in Shilin, a Taipei suburb, with Chiang Kai-Shek's family. After Chiang's death in 1975, his freedom was officially restored.
Chang immigrated to Honolulu, Hawaii in 1995. There were numerous pleas for him to visit mainland China, but Chang declined, citing his political closeness to the KMT. He died of pneumonia at the age of 100[a] at Straub Hospital in Honolulu, and was buried in Hawaii.
- Zhang Zuolin (張作霖 Chang Tso-lin) (1875-1928), father of Chang, Warlord of Manchuria, assassinated by the Japanese
- Zhao Chungui (趙春桂) (?-1912), mother of Chang
- Yu Feng Tze (于鳳至 Yu Fengzhi) (c. 1899-1990), known in the U.S. as Feng Tze Chang, first wife of Chang (m. 1916; div. 1964), immigrated to the U.S. in 1940, died in Los Angeles, CA
- Gu Ruiyu (谷瑞玉) (1904-1946), concubine of Chang (m. 1924; div. 1931)
- Edith Chao Chang (趙一荻 Zhao Yidi) (1912-2000), mistress and later second wife of Chang (m. 1964), immigrated with him to the U.S. in 1995, died in Honolulu, HI
- Pauline Tao, born Chang Lu-ying (張閭瑛 Zhang Lüying) (c. 1916-), eldest daughter born to Yu, resides in the U.S.
- Martin Chang Lu-hsun (張閭珣 Zhang Lüxun) (c. 1918-1986), eldest son born to Yu, died in Taipei
- Raymond Chang Lu-yu (張閭玗 Zhang Lüyu) (c. 1919-1981), second son born to Yu, died in Los Angeles, CA
- Chang Lu-chi (張閭琪 Zhang Lüqi) (c. 1920-1929), third son born to Yu
- Robert Chang Lu-lin (張閭琳 Zhang Lülin) (1930-), illegitimate son born to Chao, resides in the U.S.
- Zhang Xueming (張學銘 Chang Hsueh-ming) (1908-1983), defected to the Communists, died in Beijing
- Hsueh Tseng Chang (張學曾 Zhang Xuezeng) (1911-2004), died in Novato, CA
- Zhang Xuesi (張學思 Chang Hsueh-ssu) (1916-1970), defected to the Communists, died in China
- Henry Chang Hsueh-sen (張學森 Zhang Xuesen) (1920-1995), died in Beijing while visiting
- Zhang Xuejun (張學浚 Chang Hsueh-chun) (1922-1984), died in Taiwan
- Zhang Xueying (張學英 Chang Hsueh-ying) (1924-?)
- Zhang Xuequan (張學銓 Chang Hsueh-chuan) (1925-1992 or 1996), died in Tianjin
In popular cultureEdit
- Chang was portrayed by Andy Lau in a cameo appearance in the 1994 martial arts film Drunken Master II.
- Chang was centrally featured in the 1981 Chinese film The Xi'an Incident (Xi'an Shibian), directed by Cheng Yin, with Chang played by Jin Ange.
- A 2007 TV series on the Xi'an Incident was produced and aired in mainland China, with Chang Hsüeh-liang being portrayed by Hu Jun.
- Chang is a main figure in the American novel Soul Slip Peak (2013).
- The Peter H. L. Chang reading room at Columbia University's Butler Library is named after Chang. The library hosts a collection of Chang's papers.
- Beijing microbrewery Great Leap Brewing named its Little General IPA after Chang.
- A Chinese TV series titled Young Marshal is based on Chang's life.
- Chang is featured in the grand strategy World War II video game Hearts of Iron IV, by Paradox Interactive, as a field marshal for Chiang Kai-shek's government.
- Following the Chinese way of counting, his age is often given as 101.
- According to other accounts, 1898 or 1900
- Kristof, Nicholas D. (19 October 2001). Baquet, Dean; Louttit, Meghan; Corbett, Philip; Chang, Lian; Drake, Monica; Kahn, Joseph; Kingsbury, Kathleen; Sulzberger, A.G.; Levien, Meredith Kopit; Caputo, Roland A.; Bardeen, William; Dunbar-Johnson, Stephen; Brayton, Diane (eds.). "Zhang Xueliang, 100, Dies; Warlord and Hero of China". National news. The New York Times. CL (210). The New York Times Company. p. C13. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
- "Tribute for Chinese hero". BBC News. 16 October 2001. Retrieved 21 July 2002.
- 张学良老校长. neu.edu.cn. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- 张学良先生今逝世 江泽民向其亲属发去唁电. chinanews.com. 15 October 2001. Retrieved 16 October 2001.
- 伟大的爱国者张学良先生病逝 江泽民发唁电高度评价张学良先生的历史功绩. people.com.cn. 16 October 2001. Retrieved 17 October 2001.
- Matthews, Herbert L. (29 December 1929). "Young Chang an Uneasy War Lord of Manchuria; Chang Hsueh-Liang". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- Li, Xiaobing, ed. (2012). "Zhang Xueliang (Chang Hsueh-liang) (1901-2001)". China at War: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 531.
- "Chiang Kai-shek | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- Taylor, Jay (2009). The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0674033382. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Chao, Edith (25 June 2000). Rong-San, Lin (ed.). "Wife of legendary Chinese warlord dies in US at 88". Local edition. Taipei Times. II (270). Taipei, Taiwan: The Liberty Times Group. p. 2. ISSN 1563-9525. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021.
- McDonnell, Justin (23 July 2013). "Interview: Great Leap Brewery Founder Taps into China's Thirst for a Good Microbrew". Asia Society. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Mitter, Rana. "The Last Warlord" History Today (Feb 2004), Vol. 54 Issue 2, p28-33 online
- Itoh, Mayumi. The Making of China’s War with Japan: Zhou Enlai and Zhang Xueliang (Springer, 2016).
- Shai, Aron. Zhang Xueliang: The General Who Never Fought (Springer, 2012)
- Yilin, Jin. "Yan Xishan’s Activities Opposing Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang before and after the Nanjing-Guangdong Conflict." Modern Chinese History Studies 5 (2005): 2.
- Peter H.L. Chang (Zhang Xueliang) Oral History Materials at the Wayback Machine (archived 2002-10-27)
- Iriye, Akira (November 1960). "Chang Hsueh-Liang and the Japanese". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 20 (1): 33–43. doi:10.2307/2050070. JSTOR 2050070.
- Heller, Richard (18 December 2001). "Chang Hsueh-liang". The Guardian.
- "Chang Hsueh-liang". The Daily Telegraph. 16 October 2001.
- "Chang Hsueh-liang". The Economist. 25 October 2001.
- "Chang Hsueh-liang, 101; General Abducted Chiang Kai-shek in 1936". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 16 October 2001.
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