Chiang Ching-kuo

Chiang Ching-kuo (27 April[nb 1] 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a Chinese nationalist politician in mainland China and later in Taiwan. The eldest and only biological son of former president Chiang Kai-shek, he held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China. He served as Premier of the Republic of China between 1972 and 1978, and was the President of the Republic of China from 1978 until his death in 1988.


Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
ChiangChingkuo photo.jpg
President of the Republic of China
In office
20 May 1978 – 13 January 1988
Vice PresidentHsieh Tung-min
Lee Teng-hui
Preceded byYen Chia-kan
Succeeded byLee Teng-hui
Premier of the Republic of China
In office
29 May 1972 – 20 May 1978
PresidentChiang Kai-shek
Yen Chia-kan
Vice PremierHsu Ching-chung
Preceded byYen Chia-kan
Succeeded bySun Yun-suan
Other positions
Chairman of the Kuomintang
In office
5 April 1975 – 13 January 1988
Preceded byChiang Kai-shek (Director-General of the Kuomintang)
Succeeded byLee Teng-hui
Vice Premier of the Republic of China
In office
1 July 1969 – 1 June 1972
PremierYen Chia-kan
Preceded byHuang Shao-ku
Succeeded byHsu Ching-chung
Minister of National Defense of the Republic of China
In office
14 January 1965 – 30 June 1969
Preceded byYu Da-wei
Succeeded byHuang Chieh
Minister without Portfolio
In office
15 July 1958 – 13 January 1965
PremierChen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Minister of Vocational Assistance Commission for Retired Servicemen of the Executive Yuan
In office
25 April 1956 – 1 July 1964
Preceded byYen Chia-kan
Succeeded byChau Chu-yue
Personal details
Born(1910-04-27)27 April 1910
Fenghua, Zhejiang, Qing Dynasty
Died13 January 1988(1988-01-13) (aged 77)
Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Resting placeTouliao Mausoleum, Daxi District, Taoyuan, Taiwan
NationalityRepublic of China
Political partyKuomintang
Spouse(s)
(m. 1935)
ChildrenChiang Hsiao-wen
(1935–1989)
Chiang Hsiao-chang
(born 1938)
Chang Hsiao-tzu
(1941–1996)
Chiang Hsiao-yen
(born 1942)
Chiang Hsiao-wu
(1945–1991)
Chiang Hsiao-yung
(1948–1996)
Alma materMoscow Sun Yat-sen University
OccupationPolitician
Signature
Military service
AllegianceRepublic of China
Branch/serviceRepublic of China Army
RankGeneral
Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo (Chinese characters).svg
"Chiang Ching-kuo" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese蔣經國
Simplified Chinese蒋经国

Chiang Ching-kuo was sent as a teenager to study in the Soviet Union during the First United Front in 1925, when his father's Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party were in alliance. He attended university there, but when the Chinese Nationalists violently broke with the Communists, Stalin sent him to work in a steel factory in the Ural Mountains. There, Chiang met and married Faina Vakhreva. When war between China and Japan was imminent in 1937, Stalin sent the couple to China. During the war Ching-kuo's father gradually came to trust him, and gave him more and more responsibilities, including administration.

After the Japanese surrender Ching-kuo was given the job of ridding Shanghai of corruption, which he attacked with ruthless efficiency. The victory of the Communists in 1949 drove the Chiangs and their government to Taiwan. Chiang Ching-kuo was first given control of the secret police, a position he retained until 1965 and in which he used arbitrary arrests and torture to ensure tight control. He then became Minister of Defense (1965–1969), Vice-Premier (1969–1972) and Premier (1972–1978). After his father's death in 1975 he took leadership of the Nationalist Party as chairman, and was elected President in 1978 and again in 1984.

Under his tenure the government of the Republic of China, while authoritarian, became more open and tolerant of political dissent. Chiang courted Taiwanese voters, and reduced the preference for those who had come from the mainland after the war. Toward the end of his life Chiang relaxed government controls on the media and speech, and allowed Taiwanese Han into positions of power, including his successor Lee Teng-hui.

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

 
Chiang Ching-kuo in his youth

The son of Chiang Kai-shek and his first wife, Mao Fumei, Chiang Ching-kuo was born in Fenghua, Zhejiang, with the courtesy name of Jiànfēng (建豐). He had an adopted brother, Chiang Wei-kuo. "Ching" literally means "longitude", while "kuo" means "nation"; in his brother's name, "wei" literally means "parallel (of latitude)". The names are inspired by the references in Chinese classics such as the Guoyu, in which "to draw the longitudes and latitudes of the world" is used as a metaphor for a person with great abilities, especially in managing a country.

While the young Chiang Ching-kuo had a good relationship with his mother and grandmother (who were deeply rooted to their Buddhist faith), his relationship with his father was strict, utilitarian and often rocky. Chiang Kai-shek appeared to his son as an authoritarian figure, sometimes indifferent to his problems. Even in personal letters between the two, Chiang Kai-shek would sternly order his son to improve his Chinese calligraphy. From 1916 until 1919 Chiang Ching-kuo attended the "Grammar School" in Wushan in Hsikou. Then, in 1920, his father hired tutors to teach him the Four Books, the central texts of Confucianism. On 4 June 1921, Ching-kuo's grandmother died. What might have been an immense emotional loss was compensated for when Chiang Kai-shek moved the family to Shanghai. Chiang Ching-kuo's stepmother, historically known as the Chiang family's "Shanghai Mother", went with them. During this period Chiang Kai-shek concluded that Chiang Ching-kuo was a son to be taught, while Chiang Wei-kuo was a son to be loved.

During his time in Shanghai, Chiang Ching-kuo was supervised by his father and made to write a weekly letter of 200–300 Chinese characters. Chiang Kai-shek also underlined the importance of classical books and of learning English, two areas he was hardly proficient in himself.[1] On 20 March 1924, Chiang Ching-kuo was able to present to his now-nationally famous father a proposal concerning the grass-roots organization of the rural population in Hsikou.[2] Chiang Ching-kuo planned to provide free education to allow people to read and to write at least 1000 characters. In his own words:

I have a suggestion to make about the Wushan School, although I do not know if you can agree to it. My suggestion is that the school establish a night school for common people who cannot afford to go to the regular school. My school established a night school with great success. I can tell you something about the night school:

Name: Wuschua School for the Common People Tuition fee: Free of charge with stationery supplied Class hours: 7 pm to 9 pm Age limit: 14 or older Schooling protocol: 16 or 20 weeks. At the time of the graduation, the trainees will be able to write simple letters and keep simple accounts. They will be issued a diploma if they pass the examinations. The textbooks they used were published by the Commercial Press and were entitled "One thousand characters for the common people." I do not know whether you will accept my suggestion. If a night school is established at Wushan, it will greatly benefit the local people.

In early 1925, Chiang entered Shanghai's Pudong College, but Chiang Kai-shek decided to send him on to Beijing because of warlord action and spontaneous student protests in Shanghai. In Beijing he attended the school organized by a friend of his father, Wu Zhihui, a renowned scholar and linguist. The school combined classical and modern approaches to education. While there, Ching-kuo started to identify himself as a progressive revolutionary and participated in the flourishing social scene inside the young Communist community. The idea of studying in Moscow now seized his imagination.[3] Within the help program provided by the Soviet Union to the countries of East Asia there was a training school that later became the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University. The participants to the university were selected by the CPSU and KMT members, with a participation of CPC Central Committee.[4]

Chiang Ching-kuo asked Wu Zhihui to name him as a KMT candidate. Wu did not try to dissuade him, even though Wu was a key figure of the right-leaning and anti-Communist "Western Hills Group" of the KMT. In the summer of 1925, Chiang Ching-kuo traveled south to Whampoa Military Academy to discuss his plans for study in Moscow with his father. Chiang Kai-shek was not keen, but after a discussion with Chen Guofu he finally agreed. In a 1996 interview, Ch'en's brother, Chen Li-fu, recalled that Chiang Kai-shek accepted the plan because of the need to have Soviet support at a time when his hold over the KMT was tenuous.[5]

MoscowEdit

With or without his father's enthusiastic approval, Chiang Ching-kuo went on to Moscow in late 1925. He stayed in the Soviet Union for nearly twelve years. While there, Chiang was given the Russian name Nikolai Vladimirovich Elizarov (Николай Владимирович Елизаров) and put under the tutelage of Karl Radek at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East. Noted for having an exceptional grasp of international politics, his classmates included other children of influential Chinese families, most notably the future Chinese Communist party leader, Deng Xiaoping. Chiang Ching-kuo joined the Communist Youth League under Deng.[6][7] Soon Ching-kuo was an enthusiastic student of Communist ideology, particularly Trotskyism; though following the Great Purge, Joseph Stalin privately met with him and ordered him to publicly denounce Trotskyism. Chiang even applied to be a member of the All-Union Communist Party, although his request was denied.

In April 1927, however, Chiang Kai-shek purged KMT leftists, had Communists arrested or killed, and expelled his Soviet advisers. Chiang Ching-kuo responded from Moscow with an editorial that harshly criticized his father's actions but was nonetheless detained as a "guest" of the Soviet Union, a practical hostage. Debate still continues as to whether he was forced to write the editorial, but he had seen Trotskyist friends arrested and killed by the Soviet secret police. The Soviet government sent him to work in the Ural Heavy Machinery Plant, a steel factory in the Urals, Yekaterinburg (then Sverdlovsk), where he met Faina Ipat'evna Vakhreva, a native Belarusian. They married on 15 March 1935, and she would later take the Chinese name, Chiang Fang-liang. In December of that year, their son, Hsiao-wen was born.

Chiang Kai-shek refused to negotiate a prisoner swap for his son in exchange for a Chinese Communist Party leader.[8] He wrote in his diary, "It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son."[9][10] In 1937, he maintained that "I would rather have no offspring than sacrifice our nation's interests", since he had no intention of stopping the war against the Communists.[11]

Return to China and the warEdit

Stalin allowed Chiang Ching-kuo to return to China with his Belarusian wife and son in April 1937 after living in the USSR for 12 years.[12][13]

By then, the NRA under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists under Mao Zedong had signed a ceasefire to create the Second United Front and fight the Japanese invasion of China, which began in July 1937. Stalin hoped the Chinese would keep Japan from invading the Soviet Pacific coast, and he hoped to form an anti-Japanese alliance with the senior Chiang.[citation needed]

On Ching-kuo's return, his father assigned a tutor, Hsu Dau-lin, to assist with his readjustment to China.[14] Chiang Ching-Kuo was appointed as a specialist in remote districts of Jiangxi where he was credited with training of cadres and fighting corruption, opium consumption, and illiteracy. Chiang Ching-kuo was appointed as commissioner of Gannan Prefecture (贛南) between 1939 and 1945; there he banned smoking, gambling and prostitution, studied governmental management, allowed for economic expansion and a change in social outlook. His efforts were hailed as a miracle in the political war in China, then coined as the "Gannan New Deal" (贛南新政). During his time in Gannan, from 1940 he implemented a "public information desk" where ordinary people could visit him if they had problems, and according to records, Chiang Ching-kuo received a total of 1,023 people during such sessions in 1942.[citation needed]

In regard to the ban on prostitution and closing of brothels, Chiang implemented a policy where former prostitutes became employed in factories. Due to the large number of refugees in Ganzhou as a result from the ongoing war, thousands of orphans lived on the street; in June 1942, Chiang Ching-kuo formally established the Chinese Children's Village (中華兒童新村) in the outskirts of Ganzhou, with facilities such as a nursery, kindergarten, primary school, hospital and gymnasium. During the last years of the 1930s, he met Wang Sheng, with whom he would remain close for the next 50 years.[citation needed]

The paramilitary "Sanmin Zhuyi Youth Corps" was under Chiang's control. Chiang used the term "big bourgeoisie", in a disparaging manner to call H.H. Kung and T. V. Soong.[15]

While in mainland China, Chiang and his wife had a daughter, Hsiao-chang, born in Nanchang (1938), and two more sons, Hsiao-wu, born in Chungking (1945),[13] and Hsiao-yung, born in Shanghai (1948).[13]

Relationship with Chang Ya-juo and her deathEdit

Chiang met Chang Ya-juo when she was working at a training camp for enlistees and he was serving as the head of Gannan Prefecture during the war. The two had a relationship that brought twin sons: Chang Hsiao-tz'u and Chang Hsiao-yen, born in 1942.[16][17] In August 1942, Chang felt sick at a dinner party, and died the next day in a Guilin hospital. The circumstances of her death raised speculation that it was murder. Over the years, many of her relatives, including her sons and highly ranked ex-security personnel, insisted that KMT's security apparatus orchestrated her murder to keep a lid on CCK's marital affair, and to protect CCK's political career.[18]

Hostage claimEdit

Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim Chiang Kai-shek allowed the Communists to escape on the 1934–1935 Long March because he wanted Stalin to return Chiang Ching-kuo.[19] This is contradicted by Chiang Kai-shek's diary, "It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son."[9][10] He refused to negotiate for a prisoner swap of his son in exchange for the Chinese Communist Party leader.[20] Again in 1937 he stated about his son: "I would rather have no offspring than sacrifice our nation's interests." Chiang had absolutely no intention of stopping the war against the Communists.[11] Chang and Halliday likewise claim that Chiang Ching-kuo was "kidnapped" in spite of the evidence that he went to study in the Soviet Union with his father's own approval.[19]

Economic policies in ShanghaiEdit

 
Chiang Ching-kuo in 1948
 
Chiang Ching-kuo (left) with father Chiang Kai-shek in 1948.

After the Second Sino-Japanese War and during the Chinese Civil War, Chiang Ching-kuo briefly served as a liaison administrator in Shanghai, trying to eradicate the corruption and hyperinflation that plagued the city. He was determined to do this because of the fears arising from the Nationalists' increasing lack of popularity during the Civil War. Given the task of arresting dishonest businessmen who hoarded supplies for profit during the inflationary spiral, he attempted to assuage the business community by explaining that his team would only go after big war profiteers.

Chiang Ching-kuo copied Soviet methods, which he learned during his stay in the Soviet Union, to start a social revolution by attacking middle class merchants. He also enforced low prices on all goods to raise support from the Proletariat.[21]

As riots broke out and savings were ruined, bankrupting shopowners, Chiang Ching-kuo began to attack the wealthy, seizing assets and placing them under arrest. The son of the gangster Du Yuesheng was arrested by him. Ching-kuo ordered KMT agents to raid the Yangtze Development Corporation's warehouses, which was privately owned by H.H. Kung and his family, as the company was accused of hoarding supplies. H.H. Kung's wife was Soong Ai-ling, the sister of Soong Mei-ling who was Chiang Ching-kuo's stepmother. H.H. Kung's son David was arrested, and the Kungs responded by blackmailing the Chiangs, threatening to release information about them. He was eventually freed after negotiations, and Chiang Ching-kuo resigned, ending the terror on the Shanghainese merchants.[22]

Political career in TaiwanEdit

After the Nationalists lost control of mainland China to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War, Chiang Ching-kuo followed his father and the retreating Nationalist forces to Taiwan. On 8 December 1949, the Nationalist capital was moved from Chengdu to Taipei, and early on 10 December 1949, Communist troops laid siege to Chengdu, the last KMT-controlled city on mainland China. Here Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo directed the city's defense from the Chengdu Central Military Academy, before the aircraft May-ling evacuated them to Taiwan; they would never return to mainland China.

In 1950, Chiang's father appointed him director of the secret police, which he remained until 1965. An enemy of the Chiang family, Wu Kuo-chen, was kicked out of his position of governor of Taiwan by Chiang Ching-kuo and fled to America in 1953.[23] Chiang Ching-kuo, educated in the Soviet Union, initiated Soviet-style military organization in the Republic of China Military, reorganizing and Sovietizing the political officer corps, surveillance, and KMT party activities were propagated throughout the military. Opposed to this was Sun Li-jen, who was educated at the American Virginia Military Institute.[24]

Chiang orchestrated the controversial court-martial and arrest of General Sun Li-jen in August 1955, allegedly for plotting a coup d'état with the American CIA against his father.[23][25] General Sun was a popular Chinese war hero from the Burma Campaign against the Japanese and remained under house arrest until Chiang Ching-kuo's death in 1988. Ching-kuo also approved the arbitrary arrest and torture of prisoners.[26] Chiang Ching-kuo's activities as director of the secret police remained widely criticized as heralding a long era of human rights abuses in Taiwan.[citation needed]

From 1955 to 1960, Chiang administered the construction and completion of Taiwan's highway system. Chiang's father elevated him to high office when he was appointed as the ROC Defense Minister from 1965 until 1969. He was the nation's Vice Premier between 1969 and 1972, during which he survived a 1970 assassination attempt while visiting the U.S.[27] Afterwards he was appointed the nation's Premier between 1972 and 1978. As Chiang Kai-shek entered his final years, he gradually gave more responsibilities to his son, and when he died in April 1975, Vice President Yen Chia-kan became president for the balance of Chiang Kai-shek's term, while Chiang Ching-kuo succeeded to the leadership of the KMT (he opted for the title "Chairman" rather than the elder Chiang's title of "Director-General").

PresidencyEdit

Chiang Ching-kuo was elected President of the ROC in the 1978 Taiwanese presidential election by the National Assembly on 20 May 1978.[citation needed] He was reelected to another term in the 1984 Taiwanese presidential election. At that time, the National Assembly consisted mostly of "ten thousand year" legislators, men who had been elected in 1947–48 before the fall of mainland China and who would hold their seats indefinitely. During the early years of his term in office Chiang maintained many of his father's autocratic policies, continuing to rule Taiwan as a one-party dictatorship under martial law as before.[citation needed]

In a move he launched the "Ten Major Construction Projects" and the "Twelve New Development Projects" which contributed to the "Taiwan Miracle". Among his accomplishments was accelerating the process of economic modernization to give Taiwan a 13% growth rate, $4,600 per capita income, and the world's second largest foreign exchange reserves. On 16 December 1978, U.S. President Jimmy Carter announced that the United States would no longer recognize the ROC as the legitimate government of China.[citation needed] Under the Taiwan Relations Act, the United States would continue to sell weapons to Taiwan, but the TRA was purposely vague in any promise of defending Taiwan in the event of an invasion.[citation needed] The United States would now end all official contact with the Chiang's government and withdraw its troops from the island.[citation needed]

In an effort to bring more Taiwan-born citizens into government services, Chiang Ching-kuo "exiled" his over-ambitious chief of General Political Warfare Department, General Wang Sheng, to Paraguay as an ambassador (November 1983),[28] and hand-picked Lee Teng-hui as vice-president of the ROC (formally elected May 1984), first-in-the-line of succession to the presidency. Chiang emphatically declared that his successor would not be from the Chiang family in a Constitution Day speech on 25 December 1985:[29]

The first question is the succession to the presidency. This sort of question only exists in despotic and totalitarian countries. It does not exist in the Republic of China, based on the Constitution. So the next President will be elected in accordance with constitutional procedure by the National Assembly on behalf of the people. Some people may raise the question whether any member of my family would run for the next presidency. My answer is: it can't be and it won't be.[30]

Chiang Wei-kuo, Chiang's younger brother, would later repudiate the declaration in 1990 after he was selected as a vice-presidential candidate.[31]

On 15 July 1987, Chiang finally ended martial law and allowed family visits to the Mainland China. His administration saw a gradual loosening of political controls and opponents of the Nationalists were no longer forbidden to hold meetings or publish political criticism papers.[citation needed]

Opposition political parties, though still formally illegal, were allowed to operate without harassment or arrest. When the Democratic Progressive Party was established on 28 September 1986, President Chiang decided against dissolving the group or persecuting its leaders, but its candidates officially ran in elections as independents in the Tangwai movement.[citation needed]

Death and legacyEdit

 
Chiang Ching-kuo lies in state.

Chiang Ching-kuo died in Taipei in 1988, aged 77, from heart failure and hemorrhage. He was interred temporarily in Daxi Township, Taoyuan County (now Daxi District, Taoyuan City), but in a separate mausoleum in Touliao, a mile down the road from his father's burial place. The hope was to have both buried at their birthplace in Fenghua once mainland China was recovered. Chinese music composer Hwang Yau-tai or Huang Youdi, Huang Yu-ti (黃友棣) wrote the Chiang Ching-kuo Memorial Song in 1988.

In January 2004, Chiang Fang-liang asked that both father and son be buried at Wuchih Mountain Military Cemetery in Hsichih, Taipei County (now New Taipei City). The state funeral ceremony was initially planned for Spring 2005, but was eventually delayed to winter 2005. It may be further delayed due to the recent death of Chiang Ching-kuo's oldest daughter-in-law, who had served as the de facto head of the household since Chiang Fang-liang's death in 2004. Chiang Fang-liang and Soong Mei-ling had agreed in 1997 that the former leaders be first buried, but still be moved to mainland China.[citation needed]


MemorialsEdit

 
Statue of Chiang Ching-kuo in Dongyin Township, Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands)
 
Ching-kuo Memorial Hall in Nangan Township, Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands)

Road namesEdit

The Republic of China Air ForceEdit

The AIDC, the ROC's air defense company, has nicknamed its AIDC F-CK Indigenous Defense Fighter the Ching Kuo in his memory.[citation needed]

CoinEdit

  • 27 April 2010. 蔣經國先生百年誕辰紀念流通硬幣」 [Coin commemorating the 100th anniversary of Chiang Ching-kuo's birth]

SongEdit

FamilyEdit

 
Family of Chiang Ching-kuo. From left to right: Front – Alex, Faina, Chiang Ching-kuo, Eddie; Rear – Alan, Chiang Hsiao-chang.

Family treeEdit

Family of Chiang Ching-kuo
Soong May‑ling
宋美齡
Mao Fumei
毛福梅
Chiang Kai‑shek
蔣介石
Yao Yecheng
姚冶誠
Chen Jieru
陳潔如
Faina Chiang Fang‑liang
蔣方良
Chiang Ching‑kuo
蔣經國
Chang Ya‑juo
章亞若
(mistress)
Shih Chin‑i
石靜宜
Chiang Wei‑kuo
蔣緯國
(adopted)
Chiu Ju‑hsüeh
丘如雪
Chen Yao‑kuang
陈瑶光
(adopted)
Alan Chiang Hsiao‑wen
蔣孝文
Amy Chiang Hsiao‑chang
蔣孝章
Alex Chiang Hsiao‑wu
蔣孝武
Eddie Chiang Hsiao‑yung
蔣孝勇
Winston Chang Hsiao‑tzu
章孝慈
John Chiang Hsiao‑yen
蔣孝嚴
Chiang Hsiao‑kang
蔣孝剛
Nancy Xu Nai‑jin
徐乃錦
Yu Yang‑ho
俞揚和
Wang Zhang‑shi
汪長詩
Michelle Tsai Hui‑mei
蔡惠媚
Elizabeth Fang Chi‑yi
方智怡
Chao Chung‑te
趙申德
Helen Huang Mei‑lun
黃美倫
Wang Yi‑hui
王倚惠
Theodore Yu Tsu‑sheng
俞祖聲
Chang Ching‑sung
章勁松
Chang Yo‑chu
章友菊
Vivian Chiang Hui‑lan
蔣惠蘭
Chiang Hui‑yün
蔣惠筠
Chiang Wan‑an
蔣萬安
Chiang Yo‑mei
蔣友梅
Alexandra Chiang Yo‑lan
蔣友蘭
Johnathan Chiang Yo‑sung
蔣友松
Demos Chiang Yo‑bo
蒋友柏
Edward Chiang Yo‑chang
蒋友常
Andrew Chiang Yo‑ching
蒋友青
Chiang Yo‑chüan
蒋友娟
Chiang Yo‑chieh
蒋友捷
  • Dashed lines represent marriages.
  • Dotted lines represent adoptions and extra-marital relationships.
  • Solid lines represent descendants.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Many sources, even Taiwanese official ones, give 18 March 1910 as his birthday, but this actually refers to the traditional Chinese lunar calendar

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ letter of 4 August 1922
  2. ^ Wang Shun-ch'i, unpublished article, 1995. The letter is in the Nanking archive
  3. ^ Cline, Chiang Ching-kuo remembered, p. 148
  4. ^ Aleksander Pantsov, "From Students to dissidents. The Chinese Troskyites in Soviet Russia (Part 1)", in issues & Studies, 30/3 (March 1994), Institute of international relations, Taipei, pp. 113–14
  5. ^ Ch'en Li-fu, interview, Taipei, 29 May 1996.
  6. ^ "蔣經國和鄧小平同班感情好為何最終卻分道揚鑣?". 中時電子報. 7 May 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  7. ^ 俄國檔案中的留蘇學生蔣經國. Jiang Jingguo's Student Years in the Soviet Union as Reflected in the Russian Archives. 余敏玲(Miin-Ling Yu). 近代史研究所集刊; 29期 1998 p.121
  8. ^ Hannah Pakula (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-shek and the birth of modern China. Simon & Schuster. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-4391-4893-8. Retrieved 28 June 2010. It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son.
  9. ^ a b Taylor 2000: 59.
  10. ^ a b Fenby 2005: 205.
  11. ^ a b Taylor 2000: p. 74.
  12. ^ Wu, Pei-shih (18 May 2003). "Forgotten first lady served as model traditional wife". Taipei Times. Taipei, Taiwan. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  13. ^ a b c Wang, Jaifeng; Hughes, Christopher (January 1998). "Cover Story – Love to Fang-Liang – the Chiang Family Album". Taiwan Panorama. Taipei, Taiwan. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  14. ^ Taylor 2000.
  15. ^ Laura Tyson Li (2007). Madame Chiang Kai-Shek: China's Eternal First Lady (reprint, illustrated ed.). Grove Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-8021-4322-8. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  16. ^ Demick, Barbara (20 June 2003). "A Scion's Story Full of Twists". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  17. ^ Bradsher, Keith (11 January 2003). "Taiwan Lawmaker's Skill May Be Hereditary". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  18. ^ 上海档案信息网 – 档案博览 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Archives. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  19. ^ a b "A swan's little book of ire". The Sydney Morning Herald. 8 October 2005. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
  20. ^ Hannah Pakula (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon & Schuster. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-4391-4893-8. Retrieved 28 June 2010. It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son.
  21. ^ Fenby 2005 : p. 485. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  22. ^ Fenby 2005, p. 486. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  23. ^ a b Peter R. Moody (1977). Opposition and dissent in contemporary China. Hoover Press. p. 302. ISBN 0-8179-6771-0. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
  24. ^ Taylor 2000 : 195.
  25. ^ Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (1983). Patterns in the dust: Chinese-American relations and the recognition controversy, 1949–1950. Columbia University Press. p. 181. ISBN 0-231-05362-2. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  26. ^ John W. Garver (1997). The Sino-American alliance: Nationalist China and American Cold War strategy in Asia. M.E. Sharpe. p. 243. ISBN 0-7656-0025-0. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  27. ^ Chuang, Jimmy (19 May 2012). "Would-be Chiang Ching-kuo assassin honored by Taipei University". Want China Times. Taipei. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  28. ^ Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: a political history. Cornell University Press. pp. 179–180. ISBN 0-8014-8805-2.
  29. ^ Staff (26 December 1985). "Taiwan chief rules out chance family member will succeed him". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  30. ^ Chiang Ching-kuo (25 December 1985). Constitution to Determine His Successor (Speech). Constitution Day. Taipei, Taiwan. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  31. ^ Jacobs, J. Bruce (2012). "Three: The Lee Teng-Hui presidency to early 1996". Democratizing Taiwan. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. p. 72. ISBN 978-90-04-22154-3. Retrieved 19 May 2016. On February 13, 1990 a group of National Assembly members proposed Lin Yang-kang for president and the following day Chiang Wego denied that his brother Chiang Ching-kuo had said, ″Members of the Chiang family cannot and will not run for president.″ Footnote 19: [...] Chiang Ching-kuo made this statement on 25 December 1985.

Cited sourcesEdit

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Government offices
Preceded by
Yu Dawei
Minister of National Defence of the Republic of China
1965–1969
Succeeded by
Huang Chieh
Preceded by
Yen Chia-kan
Premier of the Republic of China
1972–1978
Succeeded by
Sun Yun-suan
Political offices
Preceded by
Yen Chia-kan
Acting Vice President of the Republic of China
1975–1978
Succeeded by
Hsieh Tung-ming
Preceded by
Yen Chia-kan
President of the Republic of China
1978–1988
Succeeded by
Lee Teng-hui
Party political offices
Preceded by
Chiang Kai-shek
Director-General of the Kuomintang
Chairman of the Kuomintang
1975–1988
Succeeded by
Lee Teng-hui