United States national rugby union team

The United States men's national rugby union team represents the United States in men's international rugby union. Nicknamed the Eagles, it is controlled by USA Rugby, the national governing body for the sport of rugby union in the United States. USA Rugby is a member of Rugby Americas North, one of six regional governing bodies under World Rugby. Until rugby returned to Olympic competition, with sevens at the 2016 Rio Games, the United States was the reigning Olympic rugby champion, having defeated the one other competitor in 1920 and the two other competitors at the 1924 Summer Olympics.

United States of America
Shirt badge/Association crest
Nickname(s)Eagles
EmblemBald eagle
UnionUSA Rugby
Head coachGary Gold
CaptainAJ MacGinty
Most capsTodd Clever (76)
Top scorerMike Hercus (465)
Top try scorerVaea Anitoni (26)
Home stadiumVarious
First colours
Second colours
World Rugby ranking
Current19 (as of 21 November 2022)
Highest12 (2018, 2019)
Lowest20 (2008, 2022)
First international
 United States 8–12 Australia 
(California, United States.; November 16, 1912)
Biggest win
 United States 91–0 Barbados 
(California, United States; July 1, 2006)
Biggest defeat
 England 106–8 United States 
(London, England, August 21, 1999)
World Cup
Appearances8 (First in 1987)
Best resultPool stage (1987, 1991, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015, 2019)
Medal record
Websiteusa.rugby

As of November 2022, the men's Eagles are ranked 19th in the world by the World Rugby Rankings.[1] Their previous highest ranking was 12th, achieved ahead of the 2019 World Cup. The team's lowest ranking was 20th, first following a winless campaign in the 2008 Churchill Cup and second for a single week in 2022 during the 2023 World Cup qualifying tournament.

The highest profile tournament in which the men's Eagles play is the Rugby World Cup. The men's Eagles have played in all but two Rugby World Cups since the tournament began in 1987. The United States is hosting the 2031 Rugby World cup.[2]

The United States competed in the Pacific Nations Cup every Summer from 2013 to 2015. Previously, the U.S. has competed in the now-defunct Churchill Cup and the Pan American Championship.[3] In April 2015, USA Rugby announced the creation of a new, annual International Championship to be contested among the top-6 ranked rugby nations in the Americas: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Uruguay and the United States. The contest was named the Americas Rugby Championship and began in 2016.[4] The United States won the 2017 Americas Rugby Championship after drawing with Argentina XV. It was the United States' first 15-a-side rugby union title in over 90 years.

HistoryEdit

Early years: 1872–1913Edit

 
The Harvard–McGill game of 1874

Informal football games such as rugby became popular in the United States in the mid-19th century. Rugby union was played as early as 1872 among rugby clubs in the San Francisco Bay Area composed mainly of British expatriates. On December 2, 1882, the first Californian representative rugby team to play an outside opponent, took on a group of rugby-playing ex-Britons, who called themselves the Phoenix Rugby Club of San Francisco. California lost to the Phoenix club 7–4.

 
The USA side that played Australia at California Field during the Wallabies 1912 tour of Canada and the U.S.

The first recorded rugby game in the U.S. was played in May 1874 when local Harvard University hosted Canadian McGill University.[5] The game sparked an interest on college campuses nationwide. In 1876 Yale, Harvard, Princeton, and Columbia formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, which largely used the rugby code.[6] In 1886 Harvard's Oscar Shafter Howard introduced these rules to the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.

American football was fierce, and as injuries mounted, the public became alarmed at its brutalities and President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to outlaw the sport.[7] Beginning in 1906, rugby union became the game of choice at Stanford University, University of California, Berkeley and several other colleges in California.[8] Rugby's popularity, however, was short lived, and the sport had died out by the outbreak of World War I.

 
USA vs All Blacks Test match during the 1913 New Zealand tour of North America

A California student team toured Australia and New Zealand in 1910, and invited their hosts to return the visit.[9] Australia obliged by touring North America in 1912, and the U.S. national team played its first international match on November 16, 1912 against Australia in Berkeley, California. The visitors won 12–8.[10] A year later, the U.S. hosted New Zealand at the same venue on November 15, 1913, but the Kiwis ran away with the contest 51–3 in front of 10,000 spectators.[9]

Olympic Gold: 1920 and 1924Edit

 
The U.S. rugby team for the October 1920 test match vs France

Following the end of World War I, the U.S. participated in the Inter-Allied Games where they defeated Romania, before losing to a France XV side, a match in which no caps were awarded.[11] Rugby union had not been played competitively in most of the U.S. for more than a decade before the 1920 Olympics. The U.S. Olympic committee decided that because "California is the only state playing Rugby in the US, the Committee will give sanction but no financial aid". Harry Maloney, coach at Stanford University and then-president of the California rugby union, assembled a mostly California-based team, with seven players from Stanford and six from the University of California, Berkeley.[12][13][14][15] The Olympic Games Committee of the Amateur Athletic Union paid the expenses to transport the team from California to the games in Antwerp.[16] By the time the US Rugby team arrived in Europe, Czechoslovakia and Romania had withdrawn from the competition. France and the U.S. were the only teams left to compete. The U.S. won a shock 8–0 victory over France to earn the gold medal.

The stunned French suggested that the U.S. team tour France, which they did; winning three out of the four matches they played. Between 1920 and 1924, however, rugby union virtually disappeared once again in the U.S., as American football soared in popularity.

 
France vs U.S. rugby match during the 1924 Summer Olympics

The 1924 Paris Olympics caused France to challenge the U.S. to defend its title. Once again, the U.S. Olympic Committee granted permission but no funds. Nonetheless, seven players of the 1920 team dusted off their boots, raised $20,000, found 15 new players including some American football players who had never played in a rugby union match. The assembled U.S. team was again based heavily from Northern California, with 9 Stanford alumni, 5 from Santa Clara, and 3 from Cal.[15] The team headed for England to play some tuneup matches, where they were beaten four times.

The French Olympic Committee (FOC) had scheduled the rugby event to kick off the 1924 Paris Games at Colombes Stadium in Paris. Romania and the U.S. were expected to provide only token opposition for the European champions. On Sunday, May 11, the U.S. pounded Romania 39 to 0, including nine tries.

 
The U.S. team that won gold in the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris

The final was played at Colombes Stadium on May 18 before an estimated crowd of 30,000–50,000 that had gathered to watch the rugby final and the awarding of the first medal of the 1924 Olympics.[15][17] Bookmakers set the odds at five to one with a 20-point spread.[18] However, the Americans were not intimidated, and the American captain Babe Slater wrote in his diary before the match "we are sure going to let them know they have been in a battle."[15] Despite the odds, the U.S. team started well, led by captain Colby "Babe" Slater, and led 3–0 at the half. Heavy tackling by the Americans, derived from American football, intimidated and exhausted the French, as the U.S. scored four tries in the second half to defeat the French 17–3.[19] Rare vintage film footage of the 1924 gold medal match was released in the documentary, "A Giant Awakens: the Rise of American Rugby".

Shortly after the 1924 Olympics, however, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) removed rugby union as an Olympic sport. Without the Olympic incentive, the sport's growth in America collapsed and the game remained dormant.

Modern historyEdit

The 1960s and 1970sEdit

The sport then enjoyed a renaissance, beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s. This created the need for a national governing body to represent the United States in the international rugby community. The United States of America Rugby Football Union (now known as USA Rugby) was formed in 1975 by four territorial organizations (Pacific Coast, West, Midwest, and East).[20] The first Eagles match was played against Australia in 1976, before a crowd of 7,000 at Glover Stadium in Anaheim.[20][21][22] The Wallabies won 24–12.[20][21]

The U.S. also performed well against France in Chicago, losing the game 14–33, in front of 8,000 fans.[23] The next season the Eagles played two internationals, one against England (XV-not capped) at Twickenham on their 1977 United States rugby union tour of England, which they lost 37–11, and the other against Canada, which they also lost, 17–6. The U.S. played the Canadians again in 1978, and defeated them 12–7 in Baltimore.[24] They then travelled to Canada in 1979 and lost 19–12 in Toronto.

The 1980sEdit

The U.S. national team came to further prominence during the 1980s, and from the start of the decade, were playing a notably larger number of games every season. They did however lose all three of their games in 1980, all at home. They could not muster up a win in 1981 either, losing 3–6 to Canada, and 7–38 to South Africa, in what was considered to be the lowest attended international rugby match, with only 30 spectators present at a private polo ground in Glenville, New York.[25][26] In 1982, the U.S. drew Canada 3–3. They travelled to Australia in 1983 to play the Wallabies, and lost 49–3 in Sydney. The U.S. played its first-ever match against Japan in 1985, winning 16–15 at the Prince Chichibu Memorial Stadium.[27]

The U.S. participated in 1987 in the first ever Rugby World Cup in New Zealand and Australia. The U.S. were in Pool 1, alongside co-hosts Australia, England and Japan. The U.S. won their first ever World Cup game, defeating Japan 21–18 at Ballymore Stadium in Brisbane, with fullback Ray Nelson scoring 13 points.[28] The U.S. lost both subsequent matches; 47–12 against the Wallabies and 34–6 against England. The U.S. finished third in the pool, out of contention for the quarterfinals.

The Eagles first met Wales at Cardiff in November 1987 as the final match of their 1987 tour, where Wales, who had just finished third in the inaugural Rugby World Cup, enjoyed a 46–0 win. In 1988, the Eagles had mixed success in their tour of Europe, defeating Romania but losing to the Soviet Union.[29]

The 1990sEdit

The U.S. notched three consecutive wins from September 1990 to May 1991 — all against Japan — for the first three-match win streak in U.S. team history.[30]

The U.S. made their way through a qualifying tournament to reach the 1991 Rugby World Cup in the United Kingdom, pooled with defending champions New Zealand, hosts England, and Italy in a tough group. In their first match of the tournament, Italy defeated them 30–9. Next, New Zealand defeated them 46–6. Hosts England won 37–9 at Twickenham. The U.S. finished fourth in the pool.

The Eagles came close to beating an Australian XV side, at Riverside in 1993, losing 22–26.[31]

In round one of the Americas qualifying tournament for the 1995 Rugby World Cup the U.S. defeated Bermuda 60–3 to advance to round two. Argentina defeated the Eagles twice in close games in the series to qualify, leaving the U.S. missing out on the 1995 Rugby World Cup in South Africa.

The Eagles had a successful tour of Europe in 1998, beating Spain and Portugal.[29] Also in 1998, the U.S. played Fiji for the first time, losing 9–18 in Suva.[32]

The Eagles set out to qualify for the 1999 Rugby World Cup in Wales. In round four of the Americas qualifying tournament in Buenos Aires, the United States lost 52–24 to Argentina and 31–14 to Canada, but defeated Uruguay 21–16 in their last game to qualify for the 1999 tournament. The U.S. played in the 1999 Pacific Rim Championship, notching its first-ever victories over Fiji (25–14) and Tonga (30–10).[32]

However, the Eagles subsequently suffered their heaviest defeat ever, losing 106–8 to England in a warmup match before the 1999 Rugby World Cup.[33][34]

The Eagles entered the 1999 Rugby World Cup in pool E alongside Australia, Ireland and Romania. In their first game, the United States went down 53–8 to Ireland. They then lost to Romania 27–25. Australia defeated the Eagles 55–19 in their final game of the tournament, seeing the Eagles finish fourth in the pool. The Eagles, however, had the honor of being the only side to score a try against the eventual champions, Australia, during the entire tournament.[35]

The 2000sEdit

In qualifying matches for the 2003 Rugby World Cup the U.S. finished third in the Americas. The U.S. won the repechage and qualified for the 2003 tournament by beating Spain 62–13 and 58–13. The Super Powers Cup was first contested in 2003 between Japan, Russia and the United States.[36] The U.S. then followed up with victories over Japan and Canada. This was the first time the Eagles had won four consecutive tests since making their international debut in 1976.[30]

At the 2003 Rugby World Cup the Eagles finished fourth of five in their pool. In the first match against Fiji, the Americans led 13–3 early in the second half, but Fiji regained the lead and secured a 19–18 win, with the Eagles suffering their ninth consecutive World Cup loss. The U.S. then lost to Scotland. The Americans defeated Japan 39–26, behind 17 points by Mike Hercus, for their first win in a Rugby World Cup since 1987 (also against Japan).[37] The U.S. closed the tournament with a loss to France, concluding the tournament with a 1–3 record.

The 2004 Super Powers Cup saw the addition of Canada. The U.S. beat Russia in the third-place play-off. The U.S. toured Europe in November 2004, losing 55–6 to Ireland and 43–25 to Italy. The 2005 Super Cup took part between the U.S., Canada, Japan and Romania. The U.S. lost 30–26 to Canada but beat a Romanian team stripped of their France-based players 23–16 in the third place play-off.

 
The U.S. Eagle mascot during 2010 Churchill Cup.

The U.S. campaign to qualify for the 2007 Rugby World Cup began in 2006. The U.S. lost 56–7 to Canada, resulting in a home/away play-off against Uruguay. The U.S. defeated Uruguay 42–13 in the first match and 26–7 in the second to send them through to the Rugby World Cup.[38]

In the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the U.S. joined England, Samoa, South Africa and Tonga in Pool A. The Eagles, ranked 13th in the world standings, lost all 4 games in Pool A, scoring 1 bonus point in the game against Samoa. Coached by New Zealander Peter Thorburn, the Eagles started off with tough match against the defending world champions England, losing 28–10. The U.S. was then beaten by Tonga 25–15, lost to Samoa 25–21, and lost their final match to highly favored South Africa 64–15. The Eagles, however, had a major highlight in the South Africa match. After a Todd Clever interception and a pair of passes, Takudzwa Ngwenya sped down the sideline and outran the speedster Bryan Habana to score a try that received Try of the Year honors at the 2007 IRB Awards.[39]

Following the resignation of Scott Johnson, on March 5, 2009 Eddie O'Sullivan was named the new national coach.[40]

The Eagles finished a solid 2009 campaign at a mark of 4–5, with a 4–3 record in full internationals. In the 2009 Churchill Cup, the Eagles lost to Ireland and Wales, but defeated Georgia to take home the Bowl.[41]

The 2011 Rugby World Cup cycleEdit

The Eagles split a World Cup qualifying series with Canada, but lost on aggregate points. The Eagles then faced Uruguay in a two-game playoff. In November 2009, the United States booked their place at the 2011 Rugby World Cup with two wins against Uruguay, winning the home leg 27–6 in Florida.[42]

The Eagles played 7 matches in 2010: 3 home matches in June at the Churchill Cup, finishing with a 1–2 record, and 4 matches in Europe in the Fall, finishing 1–3. In the June 2010 Churchill Cup, the US beat Russia 39–22, before losing to the England Saxons 32–9 and France A 24–10. For the November 2010 tests, the Eagles traveled to Europe. The Eagles defeated Portugal 22–17,[43] but lost to Scotland A 25–0,[44] and lost to Georgia 19–17.[45] The Eagles finished 2010 ranked 16th in the world,[46] and with a record in test matches of 2 wins (Russia, Portugal) and 1 loss (Georgia).

The buildup to the 2011 Rugby World Cup started in June with three matches in the Churchill Cup. The Eagles dropped their first matches to the England Saxons 87–8[47] and to Tonga 44–13,[48] before defeating Russia 32–25.[49] 2011 was the final Churchill Cup.[50] The Eagles finalized their 2011 Rugby World Cup preparations with three test matches in August.[51] The Eagles lost to Canada 28–22,[52] lost their second match against Canada 27–7.[53] and lost to Japan 20–14. The Eagles had a 1–5 record in test matches for the year in their preparations for the 2011 Rugby World Cup.[54]

 
Australia scrum against the U.S. at the 2011 RWC.

In their 2011 Rugby World Cup opening match against Ireland the Eagles defense initially held, before conceding their first try at the 39' mark. The final tally was 22–10.[55] The Eagles came into the World Cup with their measuring mark for success as being a win over Russia. The Americans took a 10–3 lead into the half, and held on to win 13–6.[56] For their third match, Australia dominated, leading to the final result of 67–5, the worst defeat a U.S. team has ever suffered to Australia.[57] The final match saw the Eagles playing Italy for a third-place finish in Pool C. The Italians finished with a 27–10 victory.[58] The defeat marked the end of the 2011 Rugby World Cup for the U.S.

The Eagles finished 2011 with a record of 2–7 in full tests. The performances in the Rugby World Cup showed improvement, and the win over Russia left the team with a 1–3 RWC record and feeling as a modest success. The World Cup also saw prop Mike MacDonald become both the most capped Eagle in World Cup play (11 caps) and the most capped Eagle of all time at 65 caps. Also notable was the performance of lock John van der Giessen, who achieved the most lineout steals of all players in the 2011 Rugby World Cup, despite appearing in only three matches.[59]

The 2015 Rugby World Cup cycleEdit

The Eagles played three matches in North America during the 2012 June international window. This was a regular series of international tests for the United States against Tier 1 (Italy) and Tier 2 (Canada, Georgia) opponents, as the Churchill Cup is no longer held. The highlights of the June tests were a win over higher-ranked Georgia, and a match against Italy at BBVA Compass Stadium in Houston that drew a record crowd of 17,214.[60] The Eagles also played three matches in Europe during the November 2012 tests. The Eagles finished their European tour with 2 wins (Romania, Russia) and 1 loss (Tonga) — the first time since 1998 that the Eagles had concluded a European tour with a winning record — and improved in ranking from 17th to 16th.[29]

 
The U.S. v. the Māori All Blacks at PPL Park in 2013.

The U.S. played five matches during the June 2013 international test window, with one test match against Ireland and four matches as part of the 2013 IRB Pacific Nations Cup. The U.S. started with competitive matches against Canada (9–16), Ireland (12–15), and Tonga (9–18), but finished with double-digit losses against Fiji (10–35) and Japan (20–38), and sliding to #18 in the rankings. In August 2013, the U.S. played a home-and-away series against Canada as part of qualifying for the 2015 Rugby World Cup. The U.S. lost both matches by an aggregate score of 20–40, meaning the U.S. must play Uruguay in 2014 as part of 2015 RWC qualifying. In November 2013, the U.S. lost 19–29 to the Māori All Blacks at PPL Park in Philadelphia before a sold-out crowd of 18,500.[61]

Throughout late 2013 and early 2014, a number of U.S. players signed contracts to play professionally overseas. Of the players called into the U.S. national team in March 2014 for two home-and-away 2015 Rugby World Cup qualifying matches against Uruguay, 14 of the 26 were playing professionally overseas, with 10 playing professionally in England.[62] The Eagles defeated Uruguay 59–40 on aggregate over two tests during 2014 to qualify for the 2015 Rugby World Cup. During the June 2014 test window, the U.S. played competitive matches against higher ranked Scotland and Japan, and the test window culminated with a 38–35 victory over Canada. Subsequently, in November 2014 the Eagles were defeated 74–6 by New Zealand in a match played in front of a crowd of more than 61,000 spectators at Soldier Field, Chicago.[63]

The Eagles began a lengthy assembly in build up to the 2015 Rugby World Cup with the 2015 Pacific Nations Cup. On July 18, the U.S. dropped the opening PNC match 21–16 to Samoa.[64] The team bounced back to upset Japan 23–18. The Eagles, however, fell to Tonga in the final preliminary match for the PNC 33–19. In the resulting fifth-place match, the Eagles edged rival Canada 15–13. The victory was the second consecutive over team Canada. Three weeks later, Canada and the U.S. met again in a World Cup warmup match. For the first time, the U.S. laid claim to a three-match win streak over team Canada after defeating the Canadians 41–23.[65] Continuing on the road to the World Cup, the U.S. faced off against English Premiership side Harlequins, where the Americans fell to the visitors 24–19.[66] The Eagles returned to Soldier Field to compete against the #2 ranked Australia Wallabies. The Americans trailed 14–10 at the half. In the second half, the Wallabies capitalized on American errors and pushed the match out of reach: Australia 47, the U.S. 10.[67]

Professional era (2016–present)Edit

The Professional Rugby Organization (PRO Rugby) began a professional rugby competition in 2016.[68] Five teams played a 10-match schedule from April to July. Each PRO Rugby team had a quota for overseas players and U.S. Eagles internationals.[69][70] The U.S. national team included 14 professionals in the starting lineup for the June 2015 test against Italy — six U.S.-based professionals and eight overseas professionals.[71] PRO Rugby did not last long, however, with the competition folding after only one season.

Professional rugby returned in 2018 with the advent of Major League Rugby, a seven-team competition that runs from April to early July. U.S. head coach Gary Gold called up an all-professional squad for the June 2018 tests, drawing from a mix of Major League Rugby players and overseas professionals. During the June 2018 tests, the U.S. defeated Scotland 30–29 to give the U.S. its first win over a Tier 1 nation since beating France at the 1924 Olympics.[72] In the November tests, the U.S added wins against Canada (42–17), Samoa (30–29), and Romania (31–5) to ensure their longest full international test win streak in team history with 10. The streak ended with a defeat to Ireland in Dublin. In their first match of the 2019 Rugby World Cup, they were defeated (45–7) against England.[73]

Recent resultsEdit

The following table shows the results of the U.S. national team during the previous 24 months, as well as upcoming fixtures.

Notes:

  • Opponent rank is listed as of the date of the match.
  • Green shading indicates a win or tie against a higher ranked opponent. Red shading indicates a loss or tie against a lower ranked opponent.
  • Bolded attendance figures indicate the match is one of the top five highest attended home matches in U.S. national team history.
Date Opponent Opp Rank Result Venue Attend­ance Event Top U.S. Scorer
2022-11-18   Portugal T, 16–16   The Sevens Stadium RWC qualifying
2022-11-12   Hong Kong 23 W, 49–7   The Sevens Stadium RWC qualifying
2022-11-06   Kenya 33 W, 68–14   The Sevens Stadium RWC qualifying Fawsitt / Dyer (15)
2022-07-16   Chile 24 L, 29–31   Infinity Park 5,000 RWC qualifying MacGinty (14)
2022-07-09   Chile 23 W, 22–21   Estadio Santa Laura 19,000 RWC qualifying MacGinty (7)
2022-07-01   French Barbarians n/a W, 26–21   Aveva Stadium 3,200 mid-year tests MacGinty (10)
2021-10-23   New Zealand 2 L, 14–104   Fedex Field 39,720 end-of-year tests Augspurger / Matyas (5)
2021-10-09   Uruguay 17 L, 15–34   Estadio Charrúa 14,000 RWC qualifying Dyer / Kruse (5)
2021-10-02   Uruguay 17 W, 19–16   Infinity Park 2,000 RWC qualifying Dolan / Dyer / Kruse (5)
2021-09-11   Canada 21 W, 38–16   Infinity Park 2,000 RWC qualifying Germishuys (15)
2021-09-04   Canada 22 L, 21–34   Swilers Rugby Park 6,500 RWC qualifying Germishuys / Lopeti (5)
2021-07-10   Ireland 4 L, 10–71   Aviva Stadium 6,000 mid-year tests Baska (5)
2021-07-04   England 3 L, 29–43   Twickenham Stadium 10,000 mid-year tests Carty (9)

CoachesEdit

Former head coachesEdit

Correct as of 19 November 2022
Coach Season(s) GP W D L Win % Loss % Championships / notes
1912 1 0 0 1 0% 100% First International test match
1913 1 0 0 1 0% 100%
1919 1 1 0 0 100% 0% 1–1 at the Inter-Allied Games (Match against France XV was uncapped)
  Harry Maloney (trainer/selector)[12]
  Daniel Carroll (player/coach)[74]
1920 2 1 0 1 50% 50% 1920 Olympic Gold Medal
  Charlie Austin[75] 1924 2 2 0 0 100% 0% 1924 Olympic Gold Medal
  Dennis Storer[76] 1976–1977 4 0 0 4 0% 100% First U.S. national team coach in the modern era
  Ray Cornbill[77] 1978–1983 10 1 1 8 10% 80%
  Ron Mayes[78] 1983–1987 8 3 1 4 37.5% 50%
  George Hook[79] 1987 4 1 0 3 25% 75% 1–3 at the 1987 RWC
  Jim Perkins[80] 1987–1991 21 7 0 14 33.33% 66.67% 0–3 at the 1991 RWC
  Clarence Culpeper[81] 1992 2 1 0 1 50% 50%
  Jack Clark[78] 1993–1999 48 16 0 32 33.33% 66.67% Only U.S. coach to fail to qualify for a Rugby World Cup (1995). 0–3 at the 1999 RWC
  Duncan Hall[82] 2000–2001 12 3 0 9 25% 75%
  Tom Billups[83] 2001–2006 33 12 0 21 36.36% 63.64% 1–3 at the 2003 RWC
  Peter Thorburn[84] 2006–2007 14 3 0 11 21.43% 78.57% 0–4 at the 2007 RWC
  Scott Johnson[85] 2008–2009 4 1 0 3 25% 75%
  Eddie O'Sullivan[86] 2009–2011 25 8 0 17 32% 68% 1–3 at the 2011 RWC
  Mike Tolkin[87] 2012–2015 34 11 1 22 32.35% 64.71% 0–4 at the 2015 RWC
  John Mitchell[88] 2016–2017 19 8 3 8 42.11% 42.11%
  Dave Hewett[89] 2017 2 1 0 1 50% 50% Interim
  Gary Gold 2018–present 37 21 1 15 56.76% 40.54% 0–4 at the 2019 RWC
Total 1912–present 284 101 7 176 35.56% 61.97%

PlayersEdit

Current squadEdit

On 28 October, head coach Gary Gold named a 30-man squad for the 2023 RWC Final Qualification Tournament in Dubai.[90]

  • Caps Updated: 31 October 2022
Player Position Date of birth (age) Caps Club/province
Dylan Fawsitt Hooker (1990-07-24) 24 July 1990 (age 32) 20   Rugby New York
Kapeli Pifeleti Hooker (1999-09-01) 1 September 1999 (age 23) 8   Saracens
Mike Sosene-Feagai Hooker (1993-04-17) 17 April 1993 (age 29) 7   Agen
David Ainuʻu Prop (1999-11-20) 20 November 1999 (age 23) 17   Toulouse
Jack Iscaro Prop (1997-08-04) 4 August 1997 (age 25) 0   Old Glory DC
Paul Mullen Prop (1991-11-16) 16 November 1991 (age 31) 27   Utah Warriors
Fakaʻosi Pifeleti Prop (1996-10-19) 19 October 1996 (age 26) 1 Unattached
Nathan Sylvia Prop (1994-03-17) 17 March 1994 (age 28) 0   San Diego Legion
Chance Wenglewski Prop (1997-04-09) 9 April 1997 (age 25) 10   Rugby New York
Cory Daniel Lock (1995-09-11) 11 September 1995 (age 27) 0   Old Glory DC
Viliami Helu Lock (1996-03-20) 20 March 1996 (age 26) 0   Rugby ATL
Siaosi Mahoni Lock (1997-01-29) 29 January 1997 (age 25) 7   Houston SaberCats
Greg Peterson Lock (1991-03-26) 26 March 1991 (age 31) 36   Newcastle Falcons
Benjamín Bonasso Back row (1997-06-01) 1 June 1997 (age 25) 4   Rugby New York
Cam Dolan Back row (1990-03-07) 7 March 1990 (age 32) 60   New Orleans Gold
Jamason Faʻanana-Schultz Back row (1996-06-13) 13 June 1996 (age 26) 6   Old Glory DC
Keni Nasoqeqe Back row (1993-07-27) 27 July 1993 (age 29) 0   Houston SaberCats
Moni Tonga’uiha Back row (1994-05-10) 10 May 1994 (age 28) 3   New Orleans Gold
Nate Augspurger Scrum-half (1990-01-31) 31 January 1990 (age 32) 33   San Diego Legion
Ruben de Haas Scrum-half (1998-10-09) 9 October 1998 (age 24) 25   Saracens
Ryan Rees Scrum-half (1997-08-28) 28 August 1997 (age 25) 0   Rugby ATL
Luke Carty Fly-half (1997-09-24) 24 September 1997 (age 25) 8 Unattached
AJ MacGinty Fly-half (1990-02-26) 26 February 1990 (age 32) 32   Bristol Bears
Bryce Campbell Centre (1994-09-21) 21 September 1994 (age 28) 41 Unattached
Paul Lasike Centre (1990-06-18) 18 June 1990 (age 32) 19   Utah Warriors
Tavite Lopeti Centre (1998-11-20) 20 November 1998 (age 24) 7   Seattle Seawolves
Christian Dyer Wing (1997-12-26) 26 December 1997 (age 24) 8   Houston SaberCats
Mitch Wilson Wing (1996-04-15) 15 April 1996 (age 26) 0   New England Free Jacks
Marcel Brache Fullback (1987-10-15) 15 October 1987 (age 35) 30 Unattached
Chris Mattina Fullback (1993-03-31) 31 March 1993 (age 29) 0 Unattached

Player recordsEdit

Most capsEdit

Previous record holders:

  • Mike Purcell — 1980–1987, 14 caps (U.S. record co-holder at time of retirement), 14 starts, 4 tries. 2 tries at the 1987 Rugby World Cup.
  • Kevin Swords — 1985–1994, 36 caps (U.S. record holder at the time of his retirement), U.S. captain, Barbarians (2).
  • Christopher Lippert — 1989–1998, 38 caps (U.S. record holder at the time of his retirement), U.S. captain (3), Barbarians (3).

Most triesEdit

Most pointsEdit

Stadium and attendanceEdit

The Eagles do not have an official home stadium. Boxer Stadium in San Francisco was the unofficial home of the Eagles from 1996 to 2000, hosting 12 of their 17 test matches.[91] The Eagles also played several of their home games at Infinity Park in Denver, Colorado. The Eagles played a home match against a Tier 1 nation every June between 2012 and 2014, in front of large crowds at BBVA Stadium in Houston, Texas.[92] Since 2012, the Eagles have played at other MLS stadiums, such as Talen Energy Stadium in Philadelphia and the Dignity Health Sports Park in Los Angeles. The Eagles play some of their less high-profile matches at smaller soccer venues.

The highest attended matches in the U.S. involving the U.S. national team are:[93]

Rank Attendance Opponent Date Venue Metro area
1 61,500 New Zealand 2014-11-01 Soldier Field (NFL) Chicago, Ill.[94]
2 39,720 New Zealand 2021-10-23 FedEx Field (NFL) Washington D.C.[95]
3 30,051[a] Māori All Blacks 2018-11-03 Soldier Field (NFL) Chicago, Ill. [96]
4 23,212 Australia 2015-09-05 Soldier Field (NFL) Chicago, Ill.[97]
5 22,370 Ireland 2017-06-10 Red Bull Arena (MLS) New York, N.Y.[98]
6 20,181 Ireland 2013-06-08 BBVA Compass Stadium[b] (MLS) Houston, Tex.[99]
7 20,001 Scotland 2014-06-08 BBVA Compass Stadium[b] (MLS) Houston, Tex.[100]
8 18,700 Māori All Blacks 2016-11-04 Toyota Park[c] (MLS) Bridgeview, Ill.[101]
9 18,500 Māori All Blacks 2013-11-09 PPL Park[d] (MLS) Chester, Pa.[102]
10 17,214 Italy 2012-06-03 BBVA Compass Stadium[b] (MLS) Houston, Tex.[103]
11 14,000 New Zealand XV 1980-10-08 San Diego Stadium[e] (NFL) San Diego, Calif.[104]
12 13,591 Chile 2016-02-20 Lockhart Stadium[f] (NASL) Fort Lauderdale, Fla.[105]
13 13,000 South Africa 2001-12-01 Robertson Stadium[g] (FBS) Houston, Tex.[106]
14 11,300 Scotland 2018-06-16 BBVA Compass Stadium[b] (MLS) Houston, Tex.
15 10,241 Argentina XV 2016-02-06 BBVA Compass Stadium[b] (MLS) Houston, Tex.[107][9]
16 10,000 New Zealand 1913-11-15 California Field Berkeley, Cal.[9]
10,000 Australia 1912-11-16 California Field Berkeley, Cal.[108]
10,000 Ireland 2009-05-31 Buck Shaw Stadium Santa Clara, Cal.[109]
19 9,000 England XV 1982-06-19 Dillon Stadium Hartford, Con.[110]
20 8,350 Munster 2015-08-31 Rentschler Field East Hartford, Conn.[111]
Notes
  1. ^ This match was part of a triple header, with the other two matches featuring Ireland vs Italy and the USA women vs New Zealand Black Ferns.
  2. ^ a b c d e Now known as BBVA Stadium.
  3. ^ Now known as SeatGeek Stadium.
  4. ^ Now known as Talen Energy Stadium.
  5. ^ Now known as SDCCU Stadium.
  6. ^ Demolished in 2019 and replaced on-site by Inter Miami CF Stadium.
  7. ^ Demolished in 2012 and replaced on-site by TDECU Stadium.
  • The international rugby match in the U.S. with the largest crowd did not involve the United States national team; 62,000 watched Ireland defeat New Zealand 40–29 at Soldier Field on November 5, 2016.[112]

Rivalry with CanadaEdit

The United States' biggest rival in rugby is Canada. The US has played more test matches against Canada than any other country. The two teams first met in 1977, and have played every year since then with the exceptions of 2010 and 2020. As of the end of 2019, the two sides have met 58 times, with 22 wins for the U.S., 38 wins for Canada, and 2 draws.

The U.S. and Canada routinely play each other in qualifying matches for the Rugby World Cup. They have met in the qualification stages for every tournament, except for the 1987 tournament, for which teams were invited rather than going through qualification matches, and the 1995 tournament, for which Canada had automatically qualified by finishing as a quarterfinalist in the 1991 Rugby World Cup. Since 2015, the teams play each other annually at the Americas Rugby Championship.

The U.S. has been undefeated in the last 12 matches, with 11 wins and a draw. The first victory of the Eagles' current unbeaten streak ended a seven-match winning streak by Canada that lasted from 2009 through 2013.

Tournament recordsEdit

HonorsEdit

Rugby World CupEdit

The United States has qualified for every Rugby World Cup except the 1995 and 2023 tournament. The best result that the U.S. has managed at a Rugby World Cup is to win one game, which it accomplished in 1987, 2003, and again in 2011.

Tournament Host U.S. Win/Loss
(Bonus Pts)[o 1]
U.S. Finish U.S. Defeated Leading U.S. scorer
1987   Australia
  New Zealand
1–2 3rd in Pool A Japan (21–18) Ray Nelson (24)
1991   England
  France
  Ireland
  Scotland
  Wales
0–3 4th in Pool A Mark Williams (16)
1995   South Africa Did not qualify
1999   Wales 0–3 4th in Pool 5 Kevin Dalzell (22)
2003   Australia 1–3 (2 BP) 4th in Pool B Japan (39–26) Mike Hercus (51)
2007   France 0–4 (1 BP) 5th in Pool A Mike Hercus (26)
2011   New Zealand 1–3 (0 BP) 4th in Pool C Russia (13–6) Chris Wyles (18)
2015   England 0–4 (0 BP) 5th in Pool B AJ MacGinty (25)
2019   Japan 0–4 (0 BP) 5th in Pool C AJ MacGinty (17)
2023   France Did not qualify
  1. ^ A bonus point is awarded for scoring 4 tries or for losing by 7 points or less.

Pacific Nations CupEdit

The Pacific Nations Cup has been played every year since 2006, and has been played in its current format since 2013, when the United States and Canada joined Japan, Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.

Tournament U.S. record U.S. finish Leading U.S. scorer U.S. wins
2013 0–4 5th / 5 Chris Wyles (19)
2014 1–1 3rd / 6 Chris Wyles (32) Canada
2015 2–2 5th / 6 AJ MacGinty (44) Japan, Canada
2019 2–1 3rd / 6 AJ MacGinty (28) Canada, Samoa

Americas Rugby ChampionshipEdit

The Americas Rugby Championship pits the six highest ranked rugby nations in North and South America (Argentina XV, Brazil, Canada, Chile, United States, and Uruguay). It was first contested in 2016.

Tournament U.S. record U.S. finish Leading U.S. scorer U.S. wins
2016 2–1–2 2nd James Bird (32) Canada, Chile
2017 4–1–0 1st Ben Cima (36) Uruguay, Brazil, Canada, Chile
2018 5–0–0 1st Will Magie (38) Argentina XV, Uruguay, Brazil, Canada, Chile
2019 3–0–2 3rd Joe Taufete'e (30) Brazil, Canada, Chile

Summer OlympicsEdit

Rugby was included an Olympic sport four times from 1900 to 1924, with the United States winning the last two of those tournaments — 1920 and 1924. After a lengthy absence, rugby returned to the Summer Olympics in 2016, albeit in the rugby sevens format.

Olympics U.S. finish U.S. record Defeated
  1900 Paris (U.S. did not participate)
  1908 London (U.S. did not participate)
  1920 Antwerp Gold 1–0 France
  1924 Paris Gold 2–0 France, Romania

Defunct competitionsEdit

Pacific Rim Rugby ChampionshipEdit

Year Winner Runner-up Third place Refs
1996   Canada   Hong Kong   United States [113]
1997   Canada   Hong Kong   Japan [114]
1998   Canada   Hong Kong   United States [115]
1999   Japan   Western Samoa   United States [116]
2000   Fiji   Western Samoa   Tonga [117]
2001   Fiji   Western Samoa   Japan [118]

Churchill CupEdit

Year Host nation(s) U.S. record U.S. finish /
# Teams
2003   Canada 1–2 2nd / 3
2004   Canada 0–2 4th / 4
2005   Canada 1–1 3rd / 4
2006     Canada & United States 0–3 6th / 6
2007   England 0–3 6th / 6
2008     Canada & United States 0–3 6th / 6
2009   United States 1–2 5th / 6
2010   United States 1–2 4th / 6
2011   England 1–2 5th / 6

Super CupEdit

Year Champion Second Third Fourth US Record (W–L)
2003 Russia United States Japan N/A 1–1
2004 Japan Canada United States Russia 1–1
2005 Canada Japan United States Romania 1–1

Overall record and rankingsEdit

Top 20 as of 28 November 2022[119]
Rank Change* Team Points
1     Ireland 090.63
2     France 090.01
3     New Zealand 088.98
4     South Africa 088.97
5     England 083.66
6  3   Australia 081.80
7  1   Scotland 081.55
8     Argentina 080.72
9  2   Wales 078.09
10     Japan 077.39
11  1   Samoa 076.03
12  1   Italy 075.95
13  1   Georgia 075.19
14  1   Fiji 074.84
15     Tonga 071.21
16  1   Spain 067.17
17  1   Uruguay 066.24
18     Portugal 065.97
19     United States 065.92
20     Romania 064.79
21  2   Namibia 061.60
22     Chile 060.89
23  2   Canada 060.46
24     Hong Kong 059.66
25     Russia 058.06
26     Belgium 055.97
27     Brazil 055.23
28     Switzerland 053.80
29     Netherlands 053.12
30     Poland 053.03
* Change from the previous week
United States's historical rankings
See or edit source data.
Source: World Rugby[119]
Graph updated to 28 November 2022

Below is table of the representative rugby matches played by a United States national XV at test level up until November 19, 2022.[120]

Opponent Played Won Lost Drawn Win % For Aga Diff
  Argentina 9 0 9 0 0% 136 294 −158
  Argentina Jaguars 1 0 1 0 0% 30 34 −4
  Australia 8 0 8 0 0% 78 368 −290
  Australia XV 1 0 1 0 0% 22 26 −4
  Barbados 1 1 0 0 100% 91 0 +91
  Bermuda 1 1 0 0 100% 60 3 +57
  Brazil 4 3 1 0 75.00% 150 71 +79
  Canada 65 24 39 2 36.92% 1198 1498 −300
  Chile 8 6 2 0 75% 336 125 +211
  England 6 0 6 0 0% 59 298 −239
  England XV 2 0 2 0 0% 11 96 −85
  England Saxons 5 0 5 0 0% 58 237 −179
  Fiji 6 1 5 0 16.67% 97 143 −46
  France 8 1 7 0 12.50% 102 214 −112
  France XV 1 1 0 0 100% 8 0 +8
  Georgia 6 3 3 0 50% 146 117 +29
  Germany 1 1 0 0 100% 46 17 +29
  Hong Kong 8 4 4 0 50.00% 201 198 +3
  Ireland 11 0 11 0 0% 125 489 −364
  Ireland XV 1 0 1 0 0% 7 32 −25
  Ireland Wolfhounds 2 0 2 0 0% 22 74 −52
  Italy 5 0 5 0 0% 74 154 −80
  Japan 24 13 10 1 56.25% 675 560 +115
  Kenya 1 1 0 0 100% 68 14 +54
  New Zealand 5 0 5 0 0% 43 379 −336
  New Zealand XV 1 0 1 0 0% 6 53 −47
  Māori 1 0 1 0 0% 6 74 −68
  Portugal 3 2 0 1 66.67% 99 38 +61
  Romania 9 7 2 0 77.78% 230 104 +126
  Russia 8 8 0 0 100% 280 110 +170
  Samoa 7 2 5 0 28.57% 128 156 −28
  Scotland 6 1 5 0 16.67% 96 249 −153
  Scotland XV 1 0 1 0 0% 12 41 −29
  Scotland A 1 0 1 0 0% 9 13 −4
  South Africa 4 0 4 0 0% 42 209 −167
  Soviet Union 1 0 1 0 0% 16 31 −15
  Spain 3 3 0 0 100% 169 29 +140
  Tonga 10 1 9 0 10.00% 153 272 −119
  Tunisia 1 1 0 0 100% 47 13 +34
  Uruguay 20 15 4 1 75% 612 361 +251
  Wales 7 0 7 0 0% 86 315 −229
  Wales XV 1 0 1 0 0% 18 24 −6
Total 274 100 169 5 36.5% 5852 7533 −1681

Wins against Tier 1 nationsEdit

The following is a list of U.S.'s wins against Tier 1 countries, including XV sides:

September 5, 1920 United States   8–0   France XV   Olympisch Stadion, Antwerp  
Try: Joseph Hunter
Con: Dink Templeton
Pen: Dink Templeton
Report Attendance: 55,000
May 18, 1924 France   3–17   United States   Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir, Colombes  
Try: Henri Galau
Report Try: Jack Patrick
Lefty Rogers
Linn Farrish (2)
Caesar Mannelli
Con: Charlie Doe
Attendance: 20,000
February 3, 2018 United States   17–10   Argentina XV   StubHub Center, Carson, California  
17:00 PST Try: Tony Lamborn 57'm
Pen: Will Magie (2/4) 16', 42'
Will Hooley (2/2) 70', 77'
Report Try: Santiago Montagner 38'c
Con: Juan Cruz González (1/1) 39'
Pen: Juan Cruz González (1/2) 23'
Attendance: 6,500
Referee: Chris Assmus (Canada)
June 16, 2018 United States   30–29   Scotland   BBVA Compass Stadium, Houston  
Try: Joe Taufete'e (2) 37' c, 42' c
Hanco Germishuys 58' c
Con: AJ MacGinty (3/3) 38', 43', 60'
Pen: AJ MacGinty (3/3) 16', 28', 47'
Report Try: Blair Kinghorn 1' c
Penalty try 24'
George Turnere 33' c
Dougie Fife 80' m
Con: Blair Kinghorn (2/3) 2', 35'
Pen: Blair Kinghorn (1/2) 40'
Attendance: 11,300
Referee: Wayne Barnes (England)

Record against Tier 1 teamsEdit

The following table shows the top ten best U.S. results in test matches against Tier 1 opponents.[121][122]

Pts Diff Result Opponent Date
+14 W (17–3)   France 1924-05-18
+1 W (30–29)   Scotland 2018-06-16
–3 L (26–29)   Argentina 1996-09-14
–3 L (12–15)   Ireland 2013-06-08
–4 L (8–12)   Australia 1912-11-16
–4 L (20–24)   Italy 2016-06-18
–5 L (11–16)   Argentina 1994-06-20
–5 L (23–28)   Wales 1997-07-12
–6 L (22–28)   Argentina 1994-05-28

Other U.S. national teamsEdit

USA FalconsEdit

Americas Rugby Championship
Year Champion U.S. result
2009 Argentina Jaguars 4th
2010 Argentina Jaguars 3rd
2011 Not held due to the 2011 Rugby World Cup
2012 Argentina Jaguars 4th
2013 Argentina Jaguars 2nd
2014 Argentina Jaguars 2nd
2015 Not held due to the 2015 Rugby World Cup

The USA Falcons, formerly the USA Selects is the second national rugby team for the United States. The USA Falcons is a developmental team, usually fielding younger players looking to break into the U.S. national team, and sometimes including amateur domestic U.S. national team players who need more high-level matches.

The USA Selects formerly participated in the Americas Rugby Championship, when the tournament only featured "A" sides for Argentina, Canada, the United States, and Uruguay. The USA Selects best results in the ARC were their second-place finishes in 2013 and 2014[123][124] Since 2016, the ARC only features an A team from Argentina along with the national sides of Brazil, Canada, Chile, Uruguay, and the United States. The USA Falcons now play in a separate tournament known as the Americas Pacific Challenge.[125][126]

Women's national teamEdit

The U.S. women's national team, officially formed in 1987, has been an international powerhouse since its inception, although more recently have fallen behind other powerhouses such as England and New Zealand on the world rankings. The Eagles won the first official World Cup in 1991, and finished second in the two following World Cups (1994, 1998). The Eagles have set a high standard for international competition, leading an ensuing wave of women's rugby growth and game development worldwide. The US finished 7th in the 2002 tournament. The women's national team traveled to the United Kingdom in January 2006 to play Scotland, Ireland and England, winning all three games. The 2006 Women's Rugby World Cup was held in Edmonton, Canada.

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ "World Rugby". Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  2. ^ [https://www.npr.org/2022/05/12/1098533209/rugby-world-cup-host-usa?t=1652825876146, NPR, May 12, 2022.
  3. ^ "Canada and USA to join Pacific Nations Cup", Stuff.co.nz, January 23, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  4. ^ "Americas' top Six Rugby Nations Planning for Bright Future", Nick Sero, April 24, 2015.
  5. ^ Rugby in USA, Rugby Football History. Accessed September 26, 2015.
  6. ^ Gridiron football, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  7. ^ "The president who saved football", CNN, February 5, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  8. ^ "Can American rugby move beyond the college campus?", The Guardian, September 25, 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d "The tour that killed American rugby", ESPN Scrum, Huw Richards, October 29, 2013.
  10. ^ The Rugby History Society. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  11. ^ "INTER-ALLIED GAMES - Colombes". espnscrum. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  12. ^ a b "Great Moments in Stanford Olympic History: Rugby Mania". Go Stanford. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  13. ^ "1920 Rugby: Cal's First Olympic Gold Medalists". California Golden Blogs. June 18, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  14. ^ "Harry Maloney". Stanford Static. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  15. ^ a b c d "1924 Rugby: A Wild Olympic Rematch", California Golden Blogs, June 20, 2012.
  16. ^ "A.A.U. to Pay Expenses of Rugby Team to Olympics". The New York Times. Stanford University, Calif. June 4, 1920. Retrieved October 8, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  17. ^ U.S. Team is Hissed by French When it Wins Olympic Title, The New York Times, May 19, 1924
  18. ^ Rugby at the 1924 Olympics. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  19. ^ "Olympic Rugby: Rugby and the Olympics", ESPN Scrum, July 26, 2012.
  20. ^ a b c SCRFU History Archived October 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Southern California RFU. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  21. ^ a b "January 31, 1976: Australia 24 United States (halftime: Australia 13-6)". Gainline. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  22. ^ "Australia tour in England/Ireland/Scotland/United States of America/Wales 1975/76 1976". espnscrum. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  23. ^ "France tour in United States of America 1976 1976". espnscrum. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  24. ^ "CANADA TOUR - Baltimore, 28 May 1978". espnscrum. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  25. ^ "South Africa tour in United States of America 1981 1981". espnscrum. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  26. ^ "A Test of the Times". Houston Press. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  27. ^ IRB Match Preview: Japan v USA Archived June 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, June 2013.
  28. ^ "USA play a different ball game", BBC Sport, September 26, 2003.
  29. ^ a b c "Notes on USA v Romania", Rugby Mag, November 23, 2012.
  30. ^ a b Test matches - Team records - USA, ESPN Scrum. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  31. ^ "AUSTRALIA XV TOUR - Riverside, 2 October 1993". espnscrum. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  32. ^ a b IRB Match Preview: Fiji v USA, June 2013.
  33. ^ "BBC News | Rugby Union | Ton-up England rout US".
  34. ^ "Rugby Union: England century fires a warning: England 106 USA 8". Independent.co.uk. October 23, 2011.
  35. ^ "Retro Friday: Juan Grobler scores for USA v Australia in 1999", Rugby World Cup - Argentina 2023, May 22, 2015.
  36. ^ "USA hammers Japan", ESPN Scrum, May 18, 2003.
  37. ^ "Wallabies send All Blacks home", ESPN Scrum. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  38. ^ "USA secures place at RWC'07", ESPN Scrum, October 8, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  39. ^ "Rugby World Cup 2011: USA's story", Rugby World, August 1, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  40. ^ "O'Sullivan lands Eagles job". ESPN. March 5, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  41. ^ "Churchill Cup returns to America", Rugby 365, February 22, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  42. ^ "Eagles claim 2011 World Cup berth". BBC Sport. November 22, 2009. Retrieved November 22, 2009.
  43. ^ UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TOUR. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  44. ^ "Loading..." Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  45. ^ "Loading..." Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  46. ^ "International Rugby Board – World Rankings: Archive – Detail". Irb.com. December 27, 2010. Archived from the original on March 20, 2014. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  47. ^ "Rugby Union – ESPN Scrum – England Saxons v United States of America at Northampton, Jun 4, 2011". ESPN Scrum. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  48. ^ "USA Poor in Loss to Tonga". Rugbymag.com. June 8, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  49. ^ "USA Wins Bowl at Churchill Cup". Rugbymag.com. June 18, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  50. ^ "Churchill Cup 2011 News : Final bow for Churchill Cup | Live Rugby News". ESPN Scrum. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  51. ^ "50-Player Pool for World Cup". Rugbymag.com. June 21, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  52. ^ "Canada Comes Back to Beat USA". Rugbymag.com. August 6, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  53. ^ "Eagles Squander Opportunity Against Canada". Rugbymag.com. August 13, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  54. ^ "Japan Edges USA in Rain". Rugbymag.com. August 22, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  55. ^ "Irish in Battle with Eagles, but Win". Rugbymag.com. September 11, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  56. ^ "USA Edges Russia in World Cup". Rugbymag.com. September 15, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  57. ^ "Wallabies Much Too Much for Eagles". Rugbymag.com. September 23, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  58. ^ "USA Brave in 27–10 Loss to Italy". Rugbymag.com. September 27, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  59. ^ Rugby World, Dec. 2011, page 40.
  60. ^ "For Houston rugby fans, home turf is gaining ground", Houston Chronicle, June 6, 2014.
  61. ^ Shannon, Kris (November 10, 2013). "NZ Maori escape against Eagles". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
  62. ^ "Eagles Selected For First Uruguay Match", This Is American Rugby, March 15, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
  63. ^ "Wallaby greats say US 'sleeping giant' of rugby and hail All Blacks' Chicago Test". The Guardian. November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  64. ^ "USA Comeback Falls Short", Goff Rugby Report, July 18, 2015.
  65. ^ "USA down Canada 41-23 in World Cup tune-up", ESPN UK, August 22, 2015.
  66. ^ "Eagles Fall Short to Harlequins", Rugby Today, August 30, 2015.
  67. ^ "Eagles Fall to Wallabies in Last RWC Tune-Up", Rugby Today, September 5, 2015.
  68. ^ "Pro Rugby 2016 Inaugural Season". Archived from the original on November 13, 2015. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
  69. ^ Pengelly, Martin (November 9, 2015). "US professional rugby union competition to begin play in April". The Guardian.
  70. ^ "Second PRO Rugby Team Confirmed for California". November 21, 2015.
  71. ^ "LINEUPS NAMED FOR USA VS. ITALY", Rugby Today, Pat Clifton, June 16, 2016.
  72. ^ "USA UPSETS NO. 6 WORLD RANKED SCOTLAND". USA Rugby. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  73. ^ Stadium, Robert Kitson at Kobe Misaki (September 26, 2019). "Cokanasiga helps England crush USA as Quill sees World Cup's first red card". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  74. ^ "Daniel Brendon Caroll". The Rugby History Society. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  75. ^ "Americans took long, strange trip to rugby gold in 1924 Olympics". espnscrum. August 9, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  76. ^ "Dennis Storer (d. 2007)". Gainline. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  77. ^ "Cornbill named USA assistant coach". espnscrum. April 5, 2000. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  78. ^ a b "USRF Announces U.S. Rugby Hall of Fame Class Of 2014". US Rugby Foundation. January 30, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  79. ^ "George Hook nets €900k". Irish Examiner. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  80. ^ "James G. Perkins, PhD". Procopio. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  81. ^ "Commonwealth of Virginia Rugby Hall of Fame Clarence Culpepper". www.richmondrugby.net. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  82. ^ "Full Match – Canada vs USA 2001". americas rugby news. March 31, 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  83. ^ "Tom Billups Enters U.S. Rugby Hall of Fame". Cal Bears. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  84. ^ "Eagles stick with Thorburn through to RWC'07". espnscrum. December 10, 2006. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  85. ^ "Ospreys confirm Johnson appointment". espnscrum. January 29, 2009. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  86. ^ "Eddie O'Sullivan stands down as US Eagles coach". BBC Sport. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  87. ^ "Ex-USA coach Mike Tolkin rules out immediate coaching return". espnscrum. January 7, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  88. ^ "Mitchell To Leave Eagles After July". Flo rugby. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  89. ^ "'Realist' Dave Hewett swears there is only one way for Southland rugby to go - 'up'". Stuff NZ. February 9, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  90. ^ Traveling squad set for Men's Eagles as Rugby World Cup Final Qualification Tournament gets underway
  91. ^ "EAGLES VENUES: 2001-2014". USA Rugby. June 20, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  92. ^ "It's Official: USA Eagles vs Italy", Texas Rugby Union.
  93. ^ Highest Attendance – United States of America, ESPN Scrum.
  94. ^ "New Zealand tour 2014 2014". espnscrum. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  95. ^ "All Blacks give U.S. rugby fans a thrill — and U.S. rugby a boost — in 1874 Cup". Washington Post. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  96. ^ "Friendly 2018". espnscrum. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  97. ^ "Wallabies comfortable winners after improved performance in second half at Soldier Field", ESPN Scrum.
  98. ^ "Keith Earls leads Ireland past USA but fly-half Carbery is injury worry", The Guardian, June 10, 2017
  99. ^ "Ireland tour 2013 2013". espnscrum. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  100. ^ "Scotland tour 2014 2014". espnscrum. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  101. ^ "Maori All Blacks score eight to beat valiant U.S. Eagles", ESPN, November 5, 2016.
  102. ^ United States of America v New Zealand Maori at Philadelphia, ESPN scrum, November 9, 2013.
  103. ^ "Record Crowd a Good Thing". Rugbymag. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  104. ^ "New Zealand XV tour in Canada/Fiji/United States of America 1980 1980". espnscrum. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  105. ^ "Americas Rugby Championship 2016". espnscrum. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  106. ^ "South Africa tour in England/France/Italy/United States of America 2001 2001". espnscrum. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  107. ^ "United States of America (16) 35 - 35 (21) Argentina (FT)". espnscrum. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  108. ^ "United States of America (0) 8 - 12 (5) Australia (FT)". espnscrum. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  109. ^ "USA 10-27 Ireland". RTE. May 31, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  110. ^ "England XV tour in Canada/United States of America 1982 1982". espnscrum. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  111. ^ "Munster Retain The Setanta Cup". Munster Rugby. August 31, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  112. ^ "Inspired Ireland record first ever win over All Blacks at Chicago's Soldier Field", News.com.au, November 6, 2016.
  113. ^ Pacific Rim Championship. ESPN Scrum. 1996.
  114. ^ Pacific Rim Championship. ESPN Scrum. 1997.
  115. ^ Pacific Rim Championship. ESPN Scrum. 1998.
  116. ^ Pacific Rim Championship. ESPN Scrum. 1999.
  117. ^ Pacific Rim Championship. ESPN Scrum. 2000.
  118. ^ Pacific Rim Championship. ESPN Scrum. 2001.
  119. ^ a b "Men's World Rankings". World Rugby. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  120. ^ "Rugby Union - ESPN Scrum - Statsguru - Test matches - Team records". ESPN scrum. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  121. ^ United States test matches. ESPNscrum. Accessed July 29, 2018.
  122. ^ United States rugby stats. RugbyData.com. Accessed July 29, 2018.
  123. ^ "Eagles Select XVs defeat Canada 30-10 at Americas Rugby Championship", USA Rugby, October 15, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  124. ^ "Eagles End On A High". rays rugby. October 22, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  125. ^ "Americas Pacific Challenge set for October kick-off in Uruguay". World Rugby. July 9, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  126. ^ "2016 Americas Pacific Challenge". Americas Rugby News. Retrieved October 11, 2018.

External linksEdit