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United States national rugby union team

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The United States men's national rugby union team, nicknamed the Eagles, is controlled by USA Rugby. USA Rugby is a member of Rugby Americas North, one of six regional governing bodies under World Rugby. Until rugby returned to Olympic competition, with sevens at the 2016 Rio Games, the United States was the reigning Olympic rugby champion, having defeated the one other competitor in 1920 and the two other competitors at the 1924 Summer Olympics.

United States of America
Nickname(s)Eagles
EmblemAmerican bald eagle
UnionUSA Rugby
Head coachGary Gold
CaptainBlaine Scully
Most capsTodd Clever (76)
Top scorerMike Hercus (465)
Top try scorerVaea Anitoni (26)
First colors
Second colors
World Rugby ranking
Current17 (as of October 14, 2019)
Highest13 (2019)
Lowest20 (2008)
First international
United States 8–12 Australia
(Berkeley, California, U.S.; November 16, 1912)
Biggest win
United States 91–0 Barbados
(Stanford, California, U.S.; July 1, 2006)
Biggest defeat
England 106–8 United States
(London, England; August 21, 1999)
World Cup
Appearances8 (First in 1987)
Best resultPool stage, 1987, 1991, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015, and 2019
Websitewww.usarugby.org

As of October 2019, the men's Eagles are ranked 17th in the world by the World Rugby Rankings.[1] Their previous highest ranking, achieved ahead of the 2019 World Cup, was 13th; their lowest ranking was 20th, following a winless campaign in the 2008 Churchill Cup.

The highest profile tournament in which the men's Eagles play is the Rugby World Cup. The men's Eagles have played in all but one Rugby World Cup since the tournament began in 1987. The United States has expressed interest in hosting the 2027 Rugby World Cup.[2]

The United States competed in the Pacific Nations Cup every Summer from 2013 to 2015. Previously, the U.S. has competed in the now-defunct Churchill Cup and the Pan American Championship.[3] In April 2015, USA Rugby announced the creation of a new, annual International Championship to be contested among the top-6 ranked rugby nations in the Americas: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Uruguay and the United States. The contest was named the Americas Rugby Championship and began in 2016.[4] The United States won the 2017 Americas Rugby Championship after drawing with Argentina XV. It was the United States' first 15-a-side rugby union title in over 90 years.

Early historyEdit

Early years: 1872–1912Edit

 
The Harvard–McGill game of 1874

Informal football games such as rugby became popular in the United States in the mid-19th century. Rugby union was played as early as 1872 among rugby clubs in the San Francisco Bay Area composed mainly of British expatriates. On December 2, 1882, the first Californian representative rugby team to play an outside opponent, took on a group of rugby-playing ex-Britons, who called themselves the Phoenix Rugby Club of San Francisco. California lost to the Phoenix club 7–4.

 
The USA side that played Australia at California Field during the Wallabies 1912 tour of Canada and the U.S.

The first recorded rugby game in the U.S. was played in May 1874 when local Harvard University hosted Canadian McGill University.[5] The game sparked an interest on college campuses nationwide. In 1876 Yale, Harvard, Princeton, and Columbia formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, which largely used the rugby code.[6] In 1886 Harvard's Oscar Shafter Howard introduced these rules to the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.

American football was fierce, and as injuries mounted, the public became alarmed at its brutalities and President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to outlaw the sport.[7] Beginning in 1906, rugby union became the game of choice at Stanford University, University of California, Berkeley and several other colleges in California.[8] Rugby's popularity, however, was short lived, and the sport had died out by the outbreak of World War I.

A California student team toured Australia and New Zealand in 1910, and invited their hosts to return the visit.[9] Australia obliged by touring North America in 1912, and the U.S. national team played its first international match on November 16, 1912 against Australia in Berkeley, California. The visitors won 12–8.[10] A year later, the U.S. hosted New Zealand at the same venue on November 15, 1913, but the Kiwis ran away with the contest 51–3.[9]

Olympic Gold: 1920 and 1924Edit

 
The U.S. rugby team for the October 1920 test match vs France

Rugby union had not been played competitively in most of the U.S. for more than a decade before the 1920 Olympics. The U.S. Olympic committee decided that because "California is the only state playing Rugby in the US, the Committee will give sanction but no financial aid". The U.S. assembled mostly a California-based team, with six players from the University of California, Berkeley.[11] The Olympic Games Committee of the Amateur Athletic Union paid the expenses to transport the team from California to the games in Antwerp.[12] By the time the US Rugby team arrived in Europe, Czechoslovakia and Romania had withdrawn from the competition. France and the U.S. were the only teams left to compete. The U.S. won a shock 8–0 victory over France to earn the gold medal.

The stunned French suggested that the U.S. team tour France, which they did; winning three out of the four matches they played. Between 1920 and 1924, however, rugby union virtually disappeared once again in the U.S., as American football soared in popularity.

 
France vs U.S. rugby match during the 1924 Summer Olympics

The 1924 Paris Olympics caused France to challenge the U.S. to defend its title. Once again, the U.S. Olympic Committee granted permission but no funds. Nonetheless, seven players of the 1920 team dusted off their boots, raised $20,000, found 15 new players including some American football players who had never played in a rugby union match. The assembled U.S. team was again based heavily from Northern California, with 9 Stanford alumni, 5 from Santa Clara, and 3 from Cal.[11] The team headed for England to play some tuneup matches, where they were beaten four times.

The French Olympic Committee (FOC) had scheduled the rugby event to kick off the 1924 Paris Games at Colombes Stadium in Paris. Romania and the U.S. were expected to provide only token opposition for the European champions. On Sunday, May 11, the U.S. pounded Romania 39 to 0, including nine tries.

 
The U.S. team that won gold in the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris

The final was played at Colombes Stadium on May 18 before an estimated crowd of 30,000 - 50,000 that had gathered to watch the rugby final and the awarding of the first medal of the 1924 Olympics.[11][13] Bookmakers set the odds at five to one with a 20-point spread.[14] However, the Americans were not intimidated, and the American captain Babe Slater wrote in his diary before the match "we are sure going to let them know they have been in a battle."[11] Despite the odds, the U.S. team started well, led by captain Colby "Babe" Slater, and led 3–0 at the half. Heavy tackling by the Americans, derived from American football, intimidated and exhausted the French, as the U.S. scored four tries in the second half to defeat the French 17–3.[15] Rare vintage film footage of the 1924 gold medal match was released in the documentary, "A Giant Awakens: the Rise of American Rugby".

Shortly after the 1924 Olympics, however, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) removed rugby union as an Olympic sport. Without the Olympic incentive, the sport's growth in America collapsed and the game remained dormant.

Modern historyEdit

The 1960s and 1970sEdit

The sport then enjoyed a renaissance, beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s. This created the need for a national governing body to represent the United States in the international rugby community. The United States of America Rugby Football Union (now known as USA Rugby) was formed in 1975 by four territorial organizations (Pacific Coast, West, Midwest, and East).[16] The first Eagles match was played in Anaheim in 1976 against Australia, the Wallabies won 24–12.[16]

The U.S. also performed well against France in Chicago, losing the game 33–14. The next season the Eagles played two internationals, one against England (XV-not capped) at Twickenham on their 1977 United States rugby union tour of England, which they lost 37–11, and the other against Canada, which they also lost, 17–6. The U.S. played the Canadians again in 1978, and defeated them 12–7 in Baltimore. They then travelled to Canada in 1979 and lost 19–12 in Toronto.

The 1980sEdit

The U.S. national team came to further prominence during the 1980s, and from the start of the decade, were playing a notably larger number of games every season. They did however lose all three of their games in 1980, all at home. They could not muster up a win in 1981 either, losing 3–6 to Canada, and 7–38 to South Africa. In 1982, the U.S. drew Canada 3–3. They travelled to Australia in 1983 to play the Wallabies, and lost 49–3 in Sydney. The U.S. played its first-ever match against Japan in 1985, winning 16–15 at the Prince Chichibu Memorial Stadium.[17]

The U.S. participated in 1987 in the first ever Rugby World Cup in New Zealand and Australia. The U.S. were in Pool 1, alongside co-hosts Australia, England and Japan. The U.S. won their first ever World Cup game, defeating Japan 21–18 at Ballymore Stadium in Brisbane, with fullback Ray Nelson scoring 13 points.[18] The U.S. lost both subsequent matches; 47–12 against the Wallabies and 34–6 against England. The U.S. finished third in the pool, out of contention for the quarterfinals.

The Eagles first met Wales at Cardiff in November 1987 as the final match of their 1987 tour, where Wales, who had just finished third in the inaugural Rugby World Cup, enjoyed a 46–0 win. In 1988, the Eagles had mixed success in their tour of Europe, defeating Romania but losing to the Soviet Union.[19]

The 1990sEdit

The U.S. notched three consecutive wins from September 1990 to May 1991 — all against Japan — for the first three-match win streak in U.S. team history.[20]

The U.S. made their way through a qualifying tournament to reach the 1991 Rugby World Cup in the United Kingdom, pooled with defending champions New Zealand, hosts England, and Italy in a tough group. In their first match of the tournament, Italy defeated them 30–9. Next, New Zealand defeated them 46–6. Hosts England won 37–9 at Twickenham. The U.S. finished fourth in the pool.

In round one of the Americas qualifying tournament for the 1995 Rugby World Cup the U.S. defeated Bermuda 60–3 to advance to round two. Argentina defeated the Eagles twice in close games in the series to qualify, leaving the U.S. missing out on the 1995 Rugby World Cup in South Africa.

The Eagles went close to beating a major rugby nation in a match against Australia at Riverside in 1993 when the U.S. lost 22–26.

The Eagles had a successful tour of Europe in 1998, beating Spain and Portugal.[19] Also in 1998, the U.S. played Fiji for the first time, losing 9–18 in Suva.[21]

The Eagles set out to qualify for the 1999 Rugby World Cup in Wales. In round four of the Americas qualifying tournament in Buenos Aires, the United States lost 52–24 to Argentina and 31–14 to Canada, but defeated Uruguay 21–16 in their last game to qualify for the 1999 tournament. The U.S. played in the 1999 Pacific Rim Championship, notching its first-ever victories over Fiji (25–14) and Tonga (30–10).[21]

The Eagles entered the 1999 Rugby World Cup in pool E alongside Australia, Ireland and Romania. In their first game, the United States went down 53–8 to Ireland. They then lost to Romania 27–25. Australia defeated the Eagles 55–19 in their final game of the tournament, seeing the Eagles finish fourth in the pool. The Eagles, however, had the honor of being the only side to score a try against the eventual champions, Australia, during the entire tournament.[22]

The 2000sEdit

In qualifying matches for the 2003 Rugby World Cup the U.S. finished third in the Americas. The U.S. won the repechage and qualified for the 2003 tournament by beating Spain 62–13 and 58–13. The Super Powers Cup was first contested in 2003 between Japan, Russia and the United States.[23] The U.S. then followed up with victories over Japan and Canada. This was the first time the Eagles had won four consecutive tests since making their international debut in 1976.[20]

At the 2003 Rugby World Cup the Eagles finished fourth of five in their pool. In the first match against Fiji, the Americans led 13–3 early in the second half, but Fiji regained the lead and secured a 19–18 win, with the Eagles suffering their ninth consecutive World Cup loss. The U.S. then lost to Scotland. The Americans defeated Japan 39–26, behind 17 points by Mike Hercus, for their first win in a Rugby World Cup since 1987 (also against Japan).[24] The U.S. closed the tournament with a loss to France, concluding the tournament with a 1–3 record.

The 2004 Super Powers Cup saw the addition of Canada. The U.S. beat Russia in the third-place play-off. The U.S. toured Europe in November 2004, losing 55–6 to Ireland and 43–25 to Italy. The 2005 Super Cup took part between the U.S., Canada, Japan and Romania. The U.S. lost 30–26 to Canada but beat a Romanian team stripped of their France-based players 23–16 in the third place play-off.

 
The U.S. Eagle mascot during 2010 Churchill Cup.

The U.S. campaign to qualify for the 2007 Rugby World Cup began in 2006. The U.S. lost 56–7 to Canada, resulting in a home/away play-off against Uruguay. The U.S. defeated Uruguay 42–13 in the first match and 26–7 in the second to send them through to the Rugby World Cup.[25]

In the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the U.S. joined England, Samoa, South Africa and Tonga in Pool A. The Eagles, ranked 13th in the world standings, lost all 4 games in Pool A, scoring 1 bonus point in the game against Samoa. Coached by New Zealander Peter Thorburn, the Eagles started off with tough match against the defending world champions England, losing 28–10. The U.S. was then beaten by Tonga 25–15, lost to Samoa 25–21, and lost their final match to highly favored South Africa 64–15. The Eagles, however, had a major highlight in the South Africa match. After a Todd Clever interception and a pair of passes, Takudzwa Ngwenya sped down the sideline and outran the speedster Bryan Habana to score a try that received Try of the Year honors at the 2007 IRB Awards.[26]

Following the resignation of Scott Johnson, on March 5, 2009 Eddie O'Sullivan was named the new national coach.[27]

The Eagles finished a solid 2009 campaign at a mark of 4–5, with a 4–3 record in full internationals. In the 2009 Churchill Cup, the Eagles lost to Ireland and Wales, but defeated Georgia to take home the Bowl.[28]

The 2011 Rugby World Cup cycleEdit

The Eagles split a World Cup qualifying series with Canada, but lost on aggregate points. The Eagles then faced Uruguay in a two-game playoff. In November 2009, the United States booked their place at the 2011 Rugby World Cup with two wins against Uruguay, winning the home leg 27–6 in Florida.[29]

The Eagles played 7 matches in 2010: 3 home matches in June at the Churchill Cup, finishing with a 1-2 record, and 4 matches in Europe in the Fall, finishing 1–3. In the June 2010 Churchill Cup, the US beat Russia 39–22, before losing to the England Saxons 32–9 and France A 24–10. For the November 2010 tests, the Eagles traveled to Europe. The Eagles defeated Portugal 22–17,[30] but lost to Scotland A 25–0,[31] and lost to Georgia 19–17.[32] The Eagles finished 2010 ranked 16th in the world,[33] and with a record in test matches of 2 wins (Russia, Portugal) and 1 loss (Georgia).

The buildup to the 2011 Rugby World Cup started in June with three matches in the Churchill Cup. The Eagles dropped their first matches to the England Saxons 87–8[34] and to Tonga 44–13,[35] before defeating Russia 32–25.[36] 2011 was the final Churchill Cup.[37] The Eagles finalized their 2011 Rugby World Cup preparations with three test matches in August.[38] The Eagles lost to Canada 28–22,[39] lost their second match against Canada 27–7.[40] and lost to Japan 20–14. The Eagles had a 1–5 record in test matches for the year in their preparations for the 2011 Rugby World Cup.[41]

 
Australia scrum against the U.S. at the 2011 RWC.

In their 2011 Rugby World Cup opening match against Ireland the Eagles defense initially held, before conceding their first try at the 39' mark. The final tally was 22–10.[42] The Eagles came into the World Cup with their measuring mark for success as being a win over Russia. The Americans took a 10–3 lead into the half, and held on to win 13–6.[43] For their third match, Australia dominated, leading to the final result of 67–5, the worst defeat a U.S. team has ever suffered to Australia.[44] The final match saw the Eagles playing Italy for a third-place finish in Pool C. The Italians finished with a 27–10 victory.[45] The defeat marked the end of the 2011 Rugby World Cup for the U.S.

The Eagles finished 2011 with a record of 2–7 in full tests. The performances in the Rugby World Cup showed improvement, and the win over Russia left the team with a 1–3 RWC record and feeling as a modest success. The World Cup also saw prop Mike MacDonald become both the most capped Eagle in World Cup play (11 caps) and the most capped Eagle of all time at 65 caps. Also notable was the performance of lock John van der Giessen, who achieved the most lineout steals of all players in the 2011 Rugby World Cup, despite appearing in only three matches.[46]

The 2015 Rugby World Cup cycleEdit

The Eagles played three matches in North America during the 2012 June international window. This was a regular series of international tests for the United States against Tier 1 (Italy) and Tier 2 (Canada, Georgia) opponents, as the Churchill Cup is no longer held. The highlights of the June tests were a win over higher-ranked Georgia, and a match against Italy at BBVA Compass Stadium in Houston that drew a record crowd of 17,214.[47] The Eagles also played three matches in Europe during the November 2012 tests. The Eagles finished their European tour with 2 wins (Romania, Russia) and 1 loss (Tonga) — the first time since 1998 that the Eagles had concluded a European tour with a winning record — and improved in ranking from 17th to 16th.[19]

 
The U.S. v. the Māori All Blacks at PPL Park in 2013.

The U.S. played five matches during the June 2013 international test window, with one test match against Ireland and four matches as part of the 2013 IRB Pacific Nations Cup. The U.S. started with competitive matches against Canada (9–16), Ireland (12–15), and Tonga (9–18), but finished with double-digit losses against Fiji (10–35) and Japan (20–38), and sliding to #18 in the rankings. In August 2013, the U.S. played a home-and-away series against Canada as part of qualifying for the 2015 Rugby World Cup. The U.S. lost both matches by an aggregate score of 20–40, meaning the U.S. must play Uruguay in 2014 as part of 2015 RWC qualifying. In November 2013, the U.S. lost 19-29 to the Māori All Blacks at PPL Park in Philadelphia before a sold-out crowd of 18,500.[48]

Throughout late 2013 and early 2014, a number of U.S. players signed contracts to play professionally overseas. Of the players called into the U.S. national team in March 2014 for two home-and-away 2015 Rugby World Cup qualifying matches against Uruguay, 14 of the 26 were playing professionally overseas, with 10 playing professionally in England.[49] The Eagles defeated Uruguay 59–40 on aggregate over two tests during 2014 to qualify for the 2015 Rugby World Cup. During the June 2014 test window, the U.S. played competitive matches against higher ranked Scotland and Japan, and the test window culminated with a 38–35 victory over Canada. Subsequently, in November 2014 the Eagles were defeated 74–6 by New Zealand in a match played in front of a crowd of more than 61,000 spectators at Soldier Field, Chicago.[50]

The Eagles began a lengthy assembly in build up to the 2015 Rugby World Cup with the 2015 Pacific Nations Cup. On July 18, the U.S. dropped the opening PNC match 21–16 to Samoa.[51] The team bounced back to upset Japan 23–18. The Eagles, however, fell to Tonga in the final preliminary match for the PNC 33–19. In the resulting fifth-place match, the Eagles edged rival Canada 15–13. The victory was the second consecutive over team Canada. Three weeks later, Canada and the U.S. met again in a World Cup warmup match. For the first time, the U.S. laid claim to a three-match win streak over team Canada after defeating the Canadians 41-23.[52] Continuing on the road to the World Cup, the U.S. faced off against English Premiership side Harlequins, where the Americans fell to the visitors 24–19.[53] The Eagles returned to Soldier Field to compete against the #2 ranked Australia Wallabies. The Americans trailed 14–10 at the half. In the second half, the Wallabies capitalized on American errors and pushed the match out of reach: Australia 47, the U.S. 10.[54]

Professional era (2016–present)Edit

The Professional Rugby Organization (PRO Rugby) began a professional rugby competition in 2016.[55] Five teams played a 10-match schedule from April to July. Each PRO Rugby team had a quota for overseas players and U.S. Eagles internationals.[56][57] The U.S. national team included 14 professionals in the starting lineup for the June 2015 test against Italy — six U.S.-based professionals and eight overseas professionals.[58] PRO Rugby did not last long, however, with the competition folding after only one season.

Professional rugby returned in 2018 with the advent of Major League Rugby, a seven-team competition that runs from April to early July. U.S. head coach Gary Gold called up an all-professional squad for the June 2018 tests, drawing from a mix of Major League Rugby players and overseas professionals. During the June 2018 tests, the U.S. defeated Scotland 30–29 to give the U.S. its first win over a Tier 1 nation since beating France at the 1924 Olympics.[citation needed] In the November tests, the U.S added wins against Canada (42–17), Samoa (30–29), and Romania (31–5) to ensure their longest full international test win streak in team history with 10. The streak ended with a defeat to Ireland in Dublin. In their first match of the 2019 Rugby World Cup, they were defeated (45-7) against England.[59]

Recent resultsEdit

The following table shows the results of the U.S. national team during the previous 24 months, as well as upcoming fixtures.

Date Opponent Opp Rank Result Venue Attendance Event Top U.S. Scorer
2019-10-13   Tonga 13 L, 19-31   Hanazono Rugby Stadium 22,012 World Cup Te'o (10)
2019-10-09   Argentina 10 L, 17-47   Kumagaya Rugby Ground 24,337 World Cup Scully (10)
2019-10-02   France 7 L, 9-33   Fukuoka Hakatanomori Stadium 17,660 World Cup MacGinty (9)
2019-09-26   England 3 L, 7-45   Kobe Misaki Stadium 27,194 World Cup Campbell (5)
2019-09-07   Canada 21 W, 20-15   BC Place RWC warm-up[60] Dolan / Fawsitt / Iosefo / Magie (5)
2019-08-10   Japan 11 L, 20–34   ANZ National Stadium PNC[61] Hooley (10)
2019-08-03   Samoa 16 W, 13–10   ANZ National Stadium PNC[61] MacGinty (13)
2019-07-27   Canada 21 W, 47–19   Infinity Park 5,000 PNC[61] MacGinty (12)
2019-03-08   Canada 21 W, 30–25   Starfire Sports ARC Taufete'e (10)
2019-03-02   Uruguay 17 L, 25–32   Starfire Sports ARC Taufete'e (15)
2019-02-23   Brazil 26 W, 33–28   Dell Diamond ARC Magie (13)
2019-02-09   Argentina XV N/A L, 14–45   Marabunta Rugby Club ARC Fawsitt (5)
2019-02-02   Chile 29 W, 71–8   Estadio Santiago Bueras ARC MacGinty (25)
2018-11-24   Ireland 2 L, 14–57   Aviva Stadium 51,000[62] end-of-year tests Taufete'e (5)
2018-11-17   Romania 16 W, 31–5   Ghencea Stadium end-of-year tests Campbell (10)
2018-11-10   Samoa 16 W, 30–29   Estadio Anoeta 10,000[63] end-of-year tests Dolan / Hooley (10)
2018-11-03   Māori All Blacks N/A L, 22–59   Soldier Field 30,051[64] end-of-year tests Matyas / Maupin / Dolan (5)
2018-06-23   Canada 22 W, 42–17   Wanderers Grounds 6,300 mid-year tests Dolan (15)
2018-06-16   Scotland 6 W, 30–29   BBVA Compass Stadium 11,300 mid-year tests MacGinty (15)
2018-06-09   Russia 19 W, 62–13   Dick's Sporting Goods Park mid-year tests MacGinty (11)
2018-03-03   Uruguay 17 W, 61–19   Estadio Charrúa ARC Magie (12)
2018-02-24   Brazil 25 W, 45–16   Estádio Martins Pereira ARC Germishuys (10)
2018-02-17   Chile 26 W, 45–13   Titan Stadium 2,000 ARC Audsley (10)
2018-02-10   Canada 21 W, 29–10   Papa Murphy's Park 2,500 ARC Matyas (10)
2018-02-03   Argentina XV N/A W, 17–10   StubHub Center 6,500 ARC Magie / Hooley (6)
2017-11-25   Georgia 12 L, 20–21   Mikheil Meskhi Stadium 20,000 end-of-year tests Taufete'e (10)
2017-11-18   Germany 22 W, 46–17   BRITA-Arena 3,150 end-of-year tests MacGinty (21)

Notes:

  • Opponent rank is listed as of the date of the match.
  • Green shading indicates a win or tie against a higher ranked opponent. Red shading indicates a loss or tie against a lower ranked opponent.
  • Bolded attendance figures indicate the match is one of the top five highest attended home matches in U.S. national team history.

CoachesEdit

PlayersEdit

Current squadEdit

On September 8, 2019, the Eagles announced their 31-man squad for the 2019 Rugby World Cup.[65]

  • Caps Updated: 13 October 2019
Player Position Date of birth (age) Caps Club/province
Dylan Fawsitt Hooker (1990-07-24) July 24, 1990 (age 29) 15   Rugby United New York
James Hilterbrand Hooker (1989-05-21) May 21, 1989 (age 30) 20   Manly
Joe Taufete'e Hooker (1992-10-04) October 4, 1992 (age 27) 27   Worcester Warriors
David Ainu'u Prop (1999-11-20) November 20, 1999 (age 20) 9   Toulouse
Eric Fry Prop (1987-09-14) September 14, 1987 (age 32) 48   RC Vannes
Olive Kilifi Prop (1986-09-28) September 28, 1986 (age 33) 31   Seattle Seawolves
Titi Lamositele Prop (1995-02-11) February 11, 1995 (age 24) 32   Saracens
Paul Mullen Prop (1991-11-16) November 16, 1991 (age 28) 18 Unattached
Nick Civetta Lock (1989-11-05) November 5, 1989 (age 30) 26 Unattached
Nate Brakeley Lock (1989-08-31) August 31, 1989 (age 30) 23   Rugby United New York
Ben Landry Lock (1991-03-26) March 26, 1991 (age 28) 25   Ealing Trailfinders
Greg Peterson Lock (1991-03-26) March 26, 1991 (age 28) 30   Newcastle Falcons
Malon Al-Jiboori Back row (1994-08-01) August 1, 1994 (age 25) 6 Unattached
Cam Dolan Back row (1990-03-07) March 7, 1990 (age 29) 51   New Orleans Gold
Hanco Germishuys Back row (1996-08-24) August 24, 1996 (age 23) 21   Glendale Raptors
Tony Lamborn Back row (1994-07-31) July 31, 1994 (age 25) 23   Melbourne Rebels
Ben Pinkelman Back row (1994-06-13) June 13, 1994 (age 25) 5   United States 7s
John Quill Back row (1990-03-10) March 10, 1990 (age 29) 37   Rugby United New York
Nate Augspurger Scrum-half (1990-01-31) January 31, 1990 (age 29) 26   San Diego Legion
Shaun Davies Scrum-half (1989-06-20) June 20, 1989 (age 30) 27   Glendale Raptors
Ruben de Haas Scrum-half (1998-10-09) October 9, 1998 (age 21) 17   Cheetahs
AJ MacGinty Fly-half (1990-02-26) February 26, 1990 (age 29) 27   Sale Sharks
Will Magie Fly-half (1992-02-23) February 23, 1992 (age 27) 27 Unattached
Bryce Campbell Centre (1994-09-21) September 21, 1994 (age 25) 32   London Irish
Paul Lasike Centre (1990-06-18) June 18, 1990 (age 29) 19   Harlequins
Thretton Palamo Centre (1988-09-22) September 22, 1988 (age 31) 19   Houston Sabercats
Marcel Brache Wing (1987-10-15) October 15, 1987 (age 32) 22   Western Force
Martin Iosefo Wing (1990-01-13) January 13, 1990 (age 29) 9   United States 7s
Will Hooley Fullback (1993-10-28) October 28, 1993 (age 26) 15   Bedford Blues
Mike Te'o Fullback (1993-07-23) July 23, 1993 (age 26) 28   San Diego Legion
Blaine Scully Wing (1988-02-29) February 29, 1988 (age 31) 54 Unattached

Stadium & AttendanceEdit

The Eagles do not have an official home stadium. The Eagles used to play several of their home games at Infinity Park in Denver, Colorado, but with the increasing popularity of the U.S. national team, the Eagles have not played there since June 2012. Since 2012, the U.S. national team has often played in larger Major League Soccer stadiums across the country. The Eagles have played a home match against a Tier 1 nation each June since 2012 before large crowds at BBVA Compass Stadium in Houston, Texas.[66] Since 2012, the Eagles have played at other MLS stadiums, such as PPL Park in Philadelphia and the Dignity Health Sports Park in Los Angeles. The Eagles play some of their less high-profile matches at minor league soccer stadiums.

The highest attended matches in the U.S. involving the U.S. national team are:[67]

Rank Attendance Opponent Date Venue Metro area
1 61,500 New Zealand 2014-11-01 Soldier Field (NFL) Chicago, IL
2 30,051 Māori All Blacks 2018-11-03 Soldier Field (NFL) Chicago, IL [64]
3 23,212 Australia 2015-09-05 Soldier Field (NFL) Chicago, IL[68]
4 22,000 Ireland 2017-06-10 Red Bull Arena (MLS) New York, NY[69]
5 20,181 Ireland 2013-06-08 BBVA Compass Stadium (MLS) Houston, TX
6 20,001 Scotland 2014-06-08 BBVA Compass Stadium (MLS) Houston, TX
7 18,700 Māori All Blacks 2016-11-04 Toyota Park (MLS) Chicago, IL[70]
8 18,500 Māori All Blacks 2013-11-09 PPL Park (MLS) Philadelphia, PA[71]
9 17,214 Italy 2012-06-03 BBVA Compass Stadium (MLS) Houston, TX
10 16,000 South Africa 2001-12-01 Robertson Stadium (CFB) Houston, TX[72]
11 14,000 New Zealand XV 1980-10-08 San Diego Stadium (NFL) San Diego, CA
12 13,591 Chile 2016-02-20 Lockhart Stadium (NASL) Fort Lauderdale, FL
13 11,300 Scotland 2018-06-16 BBVA Compass Stadium (MLS) Houston, TX
14 11,000 Japan 2015-07-24 Bonney Field (USL) Sacramento, CA
15 10,241 Argentina XV 2016-02-06 BBVA Compass Stadium (MLS) Houston, TX

Note: The international rugby match in the U.S. with the largest crowd did not involve the United States national team; 62,000 watched Ireland defeat New Zealand 40–29 at Soldier Field on November 5, 2016.[73]

Rivalry with CanadaEdit

The United States' biggest rival in rugby is Canada. The US has played more test matches against Canada than any other country. The two teams first met in 1977, and have played every year since then with the exception of 2010. As of July 2017, the two sides have met 58 times, with 18 wins for the U.S., 38 wins for Canada, and 2 draws.

The U.S. and Canada routinely play each other in qualifying matches for the Rugby World Cup. They have met in the qualification stages for every tournament, except for the 1987 tournament, for which teams were invited rather than going through qualification matches, and the 1995 tournament, for which Canada had automatically qualified by finishing as a quarterfinalist in the 1991 Rugby World Cup. Since 2015, the teams play each other annually at the Americas Rugby Championship.

The U.S. has been undefeated in the last seven matches, with six wins and a draw. The first victory of the current winning streak ended a seven match winning streak by Canada that lasted from 2009 through 2013.

Tournament recordsEdit

HonorsEdit

Rugby World CupEdit

The United States has qualified for every Rugby World Cup except the 1995 tournament. The best result that the U.S. has managed at a Rugby World Cup is to win one game, which it accomplished in 1987, 2003, and again in 2011.

Tournament Host U.S. Win/Loss
(Bonus Pts)[o 1]
U.S. Finish U.S. Defeated Leading U.S. scorer
1987   Australia
  New Zealand
1–2 3rd in Pool A Japan (21–18) Ray Nelson (24)
1991   England
  France
  Ireland
  Scotland
  Wales
0–3 4th in Pool A Mark Williams (16)
1995   South Africa Did not qualify
1999   Wales 0–3 4th in Pool 5 Kevin Dalzell (22)
2003   Australia 1–3 (2 BP) 4th in Pool B Japan (39–26) Mike Hercus (51)
2007   France 0–4 (1 BP) 5th in Pool A Mike Hercus (26)
2011   New Zealand 1–3 (0 BP) 4th in Pool C Russia (13–6) Chris Wyles (18)
2015   England 0–4 (0 BP) 5th in Pool B AJ MacGinty (25)
2019   Japan 0–4 (0 BP) 5th in Pool C AJ MacGinty (17)
  1. ^ A bonus point is awarded for scoring 4 tries or for losing by 7 points or less.

Pacific Nations CupEdit

The Pacific Nations Cup has been played every year since 2006, and has been played in its current format since 2013, when the United States and Canada joined Japan, Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.

Tournament U.S. record U.S. finish Leading U.S. scorer U.S. wins
2013 0–4 5th / 5 Chris Wyles (19)
2014 1–1 3rd / 6 Chris Wyles (32) Canada
2015 2–2 5th / 6 AJ MacGinty (44) Japan, Canada
2019 2–1 3rd / 6 AJ MacGinty (28) Canada, Samoa

Americas Rugby ChampionshipEdit

The Americas Rugby Championship pits the six highest ranked rugby nations in North and South America (Argentina XV, Brazil, Canada, Chile, United States, and Uruguay). It was first contested in 2016.

Tournament U.S. record U.S. finish Leading U.S. scorer U.S. wins
2016 2–1-2 2nd James Bird (32) Canada, Chile
2017 4–1-0 1st Ben Cima (36) Uruguay, Brazil, Canada, Chile
2018 5–0-0 1st Will Magie (38) Argentina XV, Uruguay, Brazil, Canada, Chile
2019 3–0-2 3rd Joe Taufete'e (30) Brazil, Canada, Chile

Summer OlympicsEdit

Rugby was included an Olympic sport four times from 1900 to 1924, with the United States winning the last two of those tournaments — 1920 and 1924. After a lengthy absence, rugby returned to the Summer Olympics in 2016, albeit in the rugby sevens format.

Olympics U.S. finish U.S. record Defeated
  1900 Paris (U.S. did not participate)
  1908 London (U.S. did not participate)
  1920 Antwerp Gold 1–0 France
  1924 Paris Gold 2–0 France, Romania

Defunct competitionsEdit

Churchill CupEdit

Year Host nation(s) U.S. record U.S. finish /
# Teams
2003   Canada 1–2 2nd / 3
2004   Canada 0–2 4th / 4
2005   Canada 1–1 3rd / 4
2006     Canada & United States 0–3 6th / 6
2007   England 0–3 6th / 6
2008     Canada & United States 0–3 6th / 6
2009   United States 1–2 5th / 6
2010   United States 1–2 4th / 6
2011   England 1–2 5th / 6

Super CupEdit

Main article: Super Cup
Year Champion Second Third Fourth US Record (W–L)
2003 Russia United States Japan N/A 1–1
2004 Japan Canada United States Russia 1–1
2005 Canada Japan United States Romania 1–1

Player recordsEdit

Most capsEdit

Previous record holders:

  • Mike Purcell — 1980–1987, 14 caps (U.S. record co-holder at time of retirement), 14 starts, 4 tries. 2 tries at the 1987 Rugby World Cup.
  • Kevin Swords — 1985–1994, 36 caps (U.S. record holder at the time of his retirement), U.S. captain, Barbarians (2).
  • Chris Lippert — 1989–1998, 38 caps (U.S. record holder at the time of his retirement), U.S. captain (3), Barbarians (3).

Most triesEdit

Most pointsEdit

Previous head coachesEdit

  1.   Gary Gold (2018–present). 16 wins, 9 losses. 0-4 at the 2019 RWC
  2.   Dave Hewett (Interim) (2017). 1 win, 1 loss.
  3.   John Mitchell (2016–2017). 8 wins, 8 losses, 3 draws.
  4.   Mike Tolkin (2012–2015). 11 wins, 22 losses, 1 draw. 0–4 at the 2015 RWC
  5.   Eddie O'Sullivan (2009–2011). 8 wins, 17 losses. 1–3 at the 2011 RWC
  6.   Scott Johnson (2008–2009). 1 win, 3 losses.
  7.   Peter Thorburn (2006–2007). 3 wins, 11 losses. 0–4 at the 2007 RWC
  8.   Tom Billups (2001–2005). 12 wins, 21 losses. 1–3 at the 2003 RWC
  9.   Duncan Hall (2000–2001). 3 wins, 9 losses
  10.   Jack Clark (1993–1999). 16 wins, 32 losses. Only U.S. coach to fail to qualify for a Rugby World Cup (1995). 0-3 at the 1999 RWC
  11.   Jim Perkins (1987–1991). 7 wins, 14 losses. 0-3 at the 1991 RWC
  12.   George Hook (1987). 1 win, 3 losses. 1-2 at the 1987 RWC
  13.   Bing Dawson (dates unknown)[74]
  14.   Ray Cornbill (1983)
  15.   Dennis Storer (1976–1982).[16] 1 win, 11 losses, 1 draw. first U.S. national team coach in the modern era

Last updated: October 13, 2019.

Overall record and rankingsEdit

Top 30 rankings as of 25 November 2019[75]
Rank Change* Team Points
1     South Africa 094.19
2     New Zealand 092.11
3     England 088.82
4     Wales 085.02
5     Ireland 084.45
6     Australia 081.90
7     France 080.88
8     Japan 079.28
9     Scotland 079.23
10     Argentina 078.31
11     Fiji 076.21
12     Italy 072.04
13     Tonga 071.44
14     Georgia 071.26
15     Samoa 070.72
16     Spain 068.15
17     United States 068.10
18     Uruguay 067.41
19     Romania 066.69
20     Russia 063.09
21     Hong Kong 061.25
22     Canada 061.12
23     Namibia 061.01
24     Portugal 061.01
25     Netherlands 060.08
26     Brazil 058.89
27     Belgium 055.74
28     Germany 054.64
29     Chile 053.83
30     Korea 053.11
*Change from the previous week
United States's historical rankings
 
Source: World Rugby - Graph updated to 18 November 2019[75]

Below is table of the representative rugby matches played by a United States national XV at test level up until 8 September 2019.[76]

Opponent Played Won Lost Drawn Win % For Aga Diff
  Argentina 8 0 8 0 0% 119 247 -128
  Argentina Jaguars 1 0 1 0 0% 30 34 -4
  Australia 8 0 8 0 0% 78 368 -290
  Australia XV 1 0 1 0 0% 22 26 -4
  Barbados 1 1 0 0 100% 91 0 +91
  Bermuda 1 1 0 0 100% 60 3 +57
  Brazil 4 3 1 0 75.00% 150 71 +79
  Canada 63 23 38 2 36.51% 1139 1448 -309
  Chile 6 5 1 0 83.33% 285 73 +212
  England 5 0 5 0 0% 52 253 -201
  England XV 2 0 2 0 0% 11 96 -107
  England Saxons 4 0 4 0 0% 29 194 -165
  Fiji 6 1 5 0 16.67% 97 143 -46
  France 7 1 6 0 14.29% 93 181 -88
  France XV 1 1 0 0 100% 8 0 +8
  Georgia 6 3 3 0 50% 146 117 +29
  Germany 1 1 0 0 100% 46 17 +29
  Hong Kong 7 3 4 0 42.86% 152 191 -39
  Ireland 10 0 10 0 0% 115 425 -310
  Ireland XV 1 0 1 0 0% 7 32 -25
  Ireland Wolfhounds 2 0 2 0 0% 22 74 -52
  Italy 5 0 5 0 0% 74 154 -80
  Japan 24 13 10 1 56.25% 675 560 +115
  New Zealand 3 0 3 0 0% 15 171 -156
  New Zealand XV 1 0 1 0 0% 6 53 -47
  Māori 1 0 1 0 0% 6 74 -68
  Portugal 2 2 0 0 100% 83 22 +61
  Romania 9 7 2 0 77.78% 230 104 +126
  Russia 8 8 0 0 100% 280 110 +170
  Samoa 7 2 5 0 28.57% 128 156 -28
  Scotland 6 1 5 0 16.67% 96 249 -153
  Scotland XV 1 0 1 0 0% 12 41 -29
  Scotland A 1 0 1 0 0% 9 13 -4
  South Africa 4 0 4 0 0% 42 209 -167
  Soviet Union 1 0 1 0 0% 16 31 -15
  Spain 3 3 0 0 100% 169 29 +140
  Tonga 9 1 8 0 11.11% 134 241 -107
  Tunisia 1 1 0 0 100% 47 13 +34
  Uruguay 18 14 3 1 77.78% 578 314 +264
  Wales 7 0 7 0 0% 86 315 -229
  Wales XV 1 0 1 0 0% 18 24 -6
Total 257 95 158 4 36.96% 5436 6859 -1403

Wins against Tier 1 nationsEdit

The following is a list of USA's wins against Tier 1 countries:

Record against Tier 1 teamsEdit

The following table shows the top ten best U.S. results against Tier 1 opponents.[79][80]

Pts Diff Result Opponent Date
+14 W (17–3)   France 1924-05-18
+8 W (8–0)   France 1920-09-05
+1 W (30-29)   Scotland 2018-06-16
–3 L (26–29)   Argentina 1996-09-14
–3 L (12–15)   Ireland 2013-06-08
–4 L (8–12)   Australia 1912-11-16
–4 L (20–24)   Italy 2016-06-18
–5 L (11-16)   Argentina 1994-06-20
–5 L (23-28)   Wales 1997-07-12
–6 L (22-28)   Argentina 1994-05-28

Other U.S. national teamsEdit

USA SelectsEdit

Americas Rugby Championship
Year Champion U.S. result
2009 Argentina Jaguars 4th
2010 Argentina Jaguars 3rd
2011 Not held due to the 2011 Rugby World Cup
2012 Argentina Jaguars 4th
2013 Argentina Jaguars 2nd
2014 Argentina Jaguars 2nd
2015 Not held due to the 2015 Rugby World Cup

The USA Selects is a second national rugby team for the United States. The USA Selects is a developmental team, usually fielding younger players looking to break into the U.S. national team, and sometimes including amateur domestic U.S. national team players who need more high-level matches.

The USA Selects participates in the Americas Rugby Championship, a tournament featuring the "A" sides for Argentina, Canada, the United States, and Uruguay. The ARC is an annual tournament that has been played every year since 2009 (except for Rugby World Cup years), and replaces the North America 4 competition. The USA Selects best result in the ARC was in 2013, when the USA Selects beat Canada A to take second place.[81]

Women's national teamEdit

The U.S. women's national team, officially formed in 1987, has been an international powerhouse since its inception, although more recently have fallen behind other powerhouses such as England and New Zealand on the world rankings. The Eagles won the first official World Cup in 1991, and finished second in the two following World Cups (1994, 1998). The Eagles have set a high standard for international competition, leading an ensuing wave of women's rugby growth and game development worldwide. The US finished 7th in the 2002 tournament. The women's national team traveled to the United Kingdom in January 2006 to play Scotland, Ireland and England, winning all three games. The 2006 Women's Rugby World Cup was held in Edmonton, Canada.

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ "World Rugby". Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  2. ^ "United States ready to launch bid to host 2023 Rugby World Cup", The Guardian, December 1, 2011.
  3. ^ "Canada and USA to join Pacific Nations Cup", Stuff.co.nz, January 23, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  4. ^ "Americas' top Six Rugby Nations Planning for Bright Future", Nick Sero, April 24, 2015.
  5. ^ Rugby in USA, Rugby Football History. Accessed September 26, 2015.
  6. ^ Gridiron football, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  7. ^ "The president who saved football", CNN, February 5, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  8. ^ "Can American rugby move beyond the college campus?", The Guardian, September 25, 2015.
  9. ^ a b "The tour that killed American rugby", ESPN Scrum, Huw Richards, October 29, 2013.
  10. ^ The Rugby History Society. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d "1924 Rugby: A Wild Olympic Rematch", California Golden Blogs, June 20, 2012.
  12. ^ "A.A.U. to Pay Expenses of Rugby Team to Olympics". The New York Times. Stanford University, Calif. June 4, 1920. Retrieved October 8, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  13. ^ U.S. Team is Hissed by French When it Wins Olympic Title, N.Y. Times, May 19, 1924
  14. ^ Rugby at the 1924 Olympics. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  15. ^ "Olympic Rugby: Rugby and the Olympics", ESPN Scrum, July 26, 2012.
  16. ^ a b c SCRFU History Archived October 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Southern California RFU. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  17. ^ IRB Match Preview: Japan v USA Archived June 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, June 2013.
  18. ^ "USA play a different ball game", BBC Sport, September 26, 2003.
  19. ^ a b c "Notes on USA v Romania", Rugby Mag, November 23, 2012.
  20. ^ a b Test matches - Team records - USA, ESPN Scrum. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  21. ^ a b IRB Match Preview: Fiji v USA, June 2013.
  22. ^ "Retro Friday: Juan Grobler scores for USA v Australia in 1999", Rugby World Cup - Argentina 2023, May 22, 2015.
  23. ^ "USA hammers Japan", ESPN Scrum, May 18, 2003.
  24. ^ "Wallabies send All Blacks home", ESPN Scrum. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  25. ^ "USA secures place at RWC'07", ESPN Scrum, October 8, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  26. ^ "Rugby World Cup 2011: USA’s story", Rugby World, August 1, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
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  28. ^ "Churchill Cup returns to America", Rugby 365, February 22, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
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  30. ^ UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TOUR. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
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  39. ^ "Canada Comes Back to Beat USA". Rugbymag.com. August 6, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
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  41. ^ "Japan Edges USA in Rain". Rugbymag.com. August 22, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  42. ^ "Irish in Battle with Eagles, but Win". Rugbymag.com. September 11, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  43. ^ "USA Edges Russia in World Cup". Rugbymag.com. September 15, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  44. ^ "Wallabies Much Too Much for Eagles". Rugbymag.com. September 23, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  45. ^ "USA Brave in 27–10 Loss to Italy". Rugbymag.com. September 27, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  46. ^ Rugby World, Dec. 2011, page 40.
  47. ^ "For Houston rugby fans, home turf is gaining ground", Houston Chronicle, June 6, 2014.
  48. ^ Shannon, Kris (November 10, 2013). "NZ Maori escape against Eagles". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
  49. ^ "Eagles Selected For First Uruguay Match", This Is American Rugby, March 15, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
  50. ^ "Wallaby greats say US 'sleeping giant' of rugby and hail All Blacks' Chicago Test". theguardian.com. November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  51. ^ "USA Comeback Falls Short", Goff Rugby Report, July 18, 2015.
  52. ^ "USA down Canada 41-23 in World Cup tune-up", ESPN UK, August 22, 2015.
  53. ^ "Eagles Fall Short to Harlequins", Rugby Today, August 30, 2015.
  54. ^ "Eagles Fall to Wallabies in Last RWC Tune-Up", Rugby Today, September 5, 2015.
  55. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Retrieved November 14, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  56. ^ Pengelly, Martin (November 9, 2015). "US professional rugby union competition to begin play in April" – via www.theguardian.com.
  57. ^ "Second PRO Rugby Team Confirmed for California". November 21, 2015.
  58. ^ "LINEUPS NAMED FOR USA VS. ITALY", Rugby Today, Pat Clifton, June 16, 2016.
  59. ^ Stadium, Robert Kitson at Kobe Misaki (September 26, 2019). "Cokanasiga helps England crush USA as Quill sees World Cup's first red card". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  60. ^ Tabani, Aalina (May 16, 2019). "U.S. Men's National Team 15s to face rival-Canada in Vancouver as final test match before Rugby World Cup Japan 2019". USA Rugby. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  61. ^ a b c World Rugby (April 25, 2019). "World Rugby Pacific Nations Cup Kick-off Times Confirmed". USA Rugby. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  62. ^ "United States of America Tour - Lansdowne Road, 24 November 2018, 18:30 local, 18:30 GMT". espn.co.uk. ESPN. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  63. ^ "29-30: EE.UU. supera a Samoa en Anoeta en el último minuto". Mundo Deportivo. November 10, 2018.
  64. ^ a b Clifton, Pat (November 5, 2018). "Eagles Deserve Better Than The Rugby Weekend". www.rugbytoday.com.
  65. ^ http://www.usa.rugby/2019/09/usa-mens-national-team-announce-31-player-squad-for-rugby-world-cup-japan-2019/
  66. ^ "It's Official: USA Eagles vs Italy", Texas Rugby Union.
  67. ^ Highest Attendance – United States of America, ESPN Scrum.
  68. ^ "Wallabies comfortable winners after improved performance in second half at Soldier Field", ESPN Scrum.
  69. ^ "Keith Earls leads Ireland past USA but fly-half Carbery is injury worry", Guardian, June 10, 2017
  70. ^ "Maori All Blacks score eight to beat valiant U.S. Eagles", ESPN, November 5, 2016.
  71. ^ United States of America v New Zealand Maori at Philadelphia, ESPN scrum, November 9, 2013.
  72. ^ "Not a New Dawn, But Nice Anyway", ERugbyNews, June 1, 2009.
  73. ^ "Inspired Ireland record first ever win over All Blacks at Chicago’s Soldier Field", News.com.au, November 6, 2016.
  74. ^ "History". Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  75. ^ a b "Men's World Rankings". World Rugby. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
  76. ^ "Rugby Union - ESPN Scrum - Statsguru - Test matches - Team records". ESPN scrum. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  77. ^ Cite error: The named reference Scotland was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  78. ^ Cite error: The named reference USA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  79. ^ United States test matches. ESPNscrum. Accessed July 29, 2018.
  80. ^ United States rugby stats. RugbyData.com. Accessed July 29, 2018.
  81. ^ "Eagles Select XVs defeat Canada 30-10 at Americas Rugby Championship", USA Rugby, October 15, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2014.

External linksEdit