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Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (1453–1821)

This is a timeline of the presence of Orthodoxy in Greece. The history of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the Greek people, the areas they ruled historically, as well as the territory now composing the modern state of Greece.

Christianity was first brought to the geographical area corresponding to modern Greece by the Apostle Paul, although the church's apostolicity also rests upon St. Andrew who preached the gospel in Greece and suffered martyrdom in Patras, Titus, Paul's companion who preached the gospel in Crete where he became bishop, Philip who, according to the tradition, visited and preached in Athens, Luke the Evangelist who was martyred in Thebes, Lazarus of Bethany, Bishop of Kition in Cyprus, and John the Theologian who was exiled on the island of Patmos where he received the Revelation recorded in the last book of the New Testament. In addition, the Theotokos is regarded as having visited the Holy Mountain in 49 AD according to tradition.[note 1] Thus Greece became the first European area to accept the gospel of Christ. Towards the end of the 2nd century the early apostolic bishoprics had developed into metropolitan sees in the most important cities. Such were the sees of Thessaloniki, Corinth, Nicopolis, Philippi and Athens.[1]

By the 4th century almost the entire Balkan peninsula constituted the Exarchate of Illyricum which was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. Illyricum was assigned to the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople by the emperor in 732. From then on the Church in Greece remained under Constantinople till the fall of the Byzantine empire to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. As an integral part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the church remained under its jurisdiction until Greek independence.[1] Under Ottoman rule, up to "6,000 Greek clergymen, ca. 100 Bishops, and 11 Patriarchs knew the Ottoman sword".[2][3][note 2]

The Greek War of Independence of 1821–28 created an independent southern Greece, but created anomalies in ecclesiastical relations since the Ecumenical Patriarch remained under Ottoman tutelage, and in 1850 the Endemousa Synod in Constantinople declared the Church of Greece autocephalous.

The cultural roots of both Byzantine and modern Greece cannot be separated from Orthodoxy. Therefore, it was natural that in all Greek Constitutions the Orthodox Church was accorded the status of the prevailing religion.[9][note 3]

In the 20th century, during much of the period of communism, the Church of Greece saw itself as a guardian of Orthodoxy. It cherishes its place as the cradle of the primitive church and the Greek clergy are still present in the historic places of Istanbul and Jerusalem, and Cyprus.[10] The autocephalous Church of Greece is organised into 81 dioceses, however 35 of these – known as the Metropolises of the New Lands – are nominally under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople but are administered as part of the Church of Greece; although the dioceses of Crete, the Dodecanese, and Mount Athos are under the direct jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.[11][note 4]

The Archbishop of Athens and All Greece presides over both a standing synod of twelve metropolitans (six from the new territories and six from southern Greece), who participate in the synod in rotation and on an annual basis, and a synod of the hierarchy (in which all ruling metropolitans participate), which meets once a year.[1]

The government observes several religious holidays as national holidays including Epiphany, Clean Monday (the start of Great Lent), Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday, Holy Spirit Day, the Dormition of the Theotokos and Christmas.[12]

Among the current concerns of the Church of Greece are the Christian response to globalization, to interreligious dialogue, and a common Christian voice within the framework of the European Union.[1]

The population of Greece is 11.4 million (2011),[13][note 5] of which 95%[16][17][note 6] to 98%[18] are Greek Orthodox.

Ottoman rule (1453–1821)Edit

"The fifteenth-century Ottoman Empire reunited the Roman Orthodox as subjects of their patriarch in Constantinople. Yet it was not the Byzantine Empire in disguise. Even though Mehmed the Conqueror resettled Constantinople as the centre of the Roman Orthodox world, he was even more effective in making it the capital of an Islamic empire."[19] The privileges given to the Greek Church by Mehmed, in 1453, were able to save only a part of Byzantine Christendom from Islamization and Turkification, and most of those who remained Christians (and Greeks) accepted the unenviable fate of the rayas.[20] Pressure to convert and the insecurity of Christian life produced widespread Crypto-Christianity in various regions, and there were also forced conversions and neo-martyrs.[21][note 7] In practice, Greeks were forbidden to build or furnish churches, to carry arms or to dress like Moslems.[22] However following the example of Byzantine emperors, the Sultans hastened to ratify the ownership of land by the Church and by monasteries and renewed their privileges.[23] British historian Sir Steven Runciman has written also that although it was Orthodoxy that preserved Hellenism throughout the dark centuries, without the moral force of Hellenism Orthodoxy itself might have withered.[24]
 
St. Maximos the Greek, monk, publicist, writer, scholar, humanist and translator active in Russia.
 
O Epitaphios Threnos ("The Lamentation at the Tomb") by Theophanes the Cretan, 16th century (Stavronikita monastery, Mount Athos).
  • 1556–65 The Patriarchal School of Joasaph II is initially established in Constantinople as a Greek school under the direction of Ioannes Zygomalas, being the forerunner of the later Great School of the Nation.[60]
  • 1559 Death of Icon painter Theophanes the Cretan (Theophanes Strelitzas).[61]
  • 1561 Compilation of the Nomocanon of Manuel Malaxos, a notary of the Metropolitan Diocese of Thebes, having a wide circulation, with a version in classical Greek and another in modern Greek.[62][note 20]
  • 1565 The inhabitants of Epirus and Albania rose and slaughtered the officers charged with carrying out the child levy, but the Sultan sent to the local Sanjak-bey a reinforcement of 500 Janissaries and the revolt was put down.[63]
  • 1569 All the landed property of the monasteries in the Ottoman Empire are confiscated by Sultan Selim II.[45]
  • 1571–1878 Restoration of Church of Cyprus to Orthodox rule, under the Ottomans.[note 21]
 
Venerable David of Euboea, Wonderworker († c. 1589).
 
Hieromartyr Cyril Loukaris (†1638), Abp. of Constantinople and New Rome.[note 30]
  • 1625 Confession of Faith by Metrophanes Kritopoulos written, while he was a student at the University of Helmstedt in Germany.[96][note 31]
  • 1627 Hieromonk Nicodemos Metaxas (1585–1646) founded the first Greek printing press in Constantinople, becoming involved in printing refutations of Roman Catholic theology, since the Roman Catholic campaign for the conversion of the Greeks was then at a great activity.[97][98][note 32]
  • 1629 Confession of Cyril Lucaris is published under his name in Geneva (Lucarian Confession), being Calvinistic in doctrine, composed by Calvinist theologians who submitted their draft to the Patriarch for his signature in order to promulgate their novel doctrines.[100][101][note 33]
  • 1638 First translation into Modern Greek of the New Testament, by the Greek hieromonk Maximos Rodios of Gallipoli (Kallioupolitis);[102] martyrdom of Patr. Cyril Loukaris, one of the most important personalities of the Turkish period,[note 34] though controversial, martyred by the Ottoman Turks at the instigation of the Roman Catholic Church via the religious and political influence of the Jesuits and Capuchins of Constantinople, and the French and Austrian ambassadors.[104][note 35][note 36][note 37]
 
Patr. Dositheos Notaras who convened the Synod of Jerusalem.
 
Ilias Miniatis, Greek prelate who was among the most important ecclesiastical orators under Ottoman rule († 1714).
 
New Martyr Theocharis of Neapolis, Cappadocia († 1740).
  • 1743 New Hieromartyr Anastasios of Ioannina.[156]
 
Eugenios Voulgaris, eminent 18th-century theologian, scholar, "Teacher of the Nation", and Archbishop of Cherson, Ukraine.
 
Saint Kosmas Aitolos, New Hieromartyr and Equal to the Apostles († 1779).

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Theotokos is the Patron of Mount Athos, which is known as: The Garden of the Mother of God, and The Holy Mountain of Our Lady. The arrival of the Theotokos at the Mountain is mentioned by codices L' 66 and I' 31 of the Library of Great Lavra Monastery.
  2. ^ "According to several accounts, from the Conquest of Constantinople to the last phase of the Greek War of Independence, the Ottoman Turks condemned to death 11 Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople, nearly 100 bishops, and several thousands of priests, deacons and monks (Bompolines, 1952;[4] Paparounis, no date;[5] Perantones, 1972;[6] Pouqueville, 1824;[7] Vaporis, 2000.[8])."[3]
  3. ^ The provisions of the 1844 Constitution, where the Bavarian regency bequeathed the Hellenic State with a kind of caesaropapism, were repeated in articles 1 and 2 of the 1864 Constitution; article 1 and 2 of the 1911 Constitution; article 1 of the 1927 Constitution; articles 1 and 2 of the 1952 Constitution; article 1 of the 1968 constitutional text of the military dictatorship; and article 3 of the 1975 Constitution; (as well as article 9 of the 1925 and 1926 Constitutions, which were never enforced). [9]
  4. ^ "Codified in the 1928 Patriarchal and Synodical Act, the "New Lands" were entrusted to the temporary stewardship of the Church of Greece, provided that the Church respected the terms of the Act. The Act subsequently has been incorporated into several pieces of Greek legislation (Laws 3615/1928, 5438/1932, 599/1977, and Article 3, paragraph 1 of the current Greek Constitution), thereby recognizing the ecclesiastical agreement between the two sides."
  5. ^ The World Bank gives a figure of 11.30 million (2011),[14] while according to the 2011 Greek Census, the total enumerated population was 10,787,690.[15]
  6. ^ According to a December 2011 nationwide survey conducted by Metron Analysis (one of the biggest independent market research and public opinion survey companies in Greece), 95% of those polled reported that they were Orthodox Christians, while 1.5% said that they belong to some other religion, and 2.8% of the population said that they were irreligious or atheist, which is among the lowest figures in Europe.[16]
  7. ^ "Conversions were numerous during and immediately after the Balkan conquests, a phenomenon which especially disturbed Gennadius Scholarius. Conversions continued slowly and systematically thereafter, gaining considerable momentum during periods of Turkish military defeats and during campaigns against Christian powers. In Bulgaria substantial numbers of Christians were converted in the Rhodope regions during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Perhaps the most significant conversions occurred in Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Albania, although they were consequential in Crete and Macedonia as well. This pressure to convert and the insecurity of Christian life produced widespread Crypto-Christianity in the regions of Trebizond, Nicaea, Central Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus, and resulted, too, in the Crypto-Judaism of the dömme' s. Conversion proceeded from a variety of causes: the desire to escape the serious disabilities of dhimmis and to enjoy the status of the favored class, the religious persuasion and syncretism of the missionary Dervishes; finally, there were forced conversions and neo-martyrs, and these seem to have been somewhat more widespread than has hitherto been thought."[21]
  8. ^ "Be Patriarch, and good fortune be with you. Count on our friendship in whatever you will, possessing all those privileges which the Patriarchs enjoyed before you."[25]
  9. ^ "The ruling millet within the empire was made up of the Muslims. Next in importance was the Orthodox Christian millet-i Rūm, or "Greek" millet, as it was known. There was also an Armenian, a Jewish, a Roman Catholic, and even, in the 19th century, a Protestant millet. Although its head, the ecumenical patriarch, was invariably of Greek origin, the term "Greek" millet was something of a misnomer, for it included, besides the Greeks, Romanians, Bulgarians, Serbs, Albanians, Vlachs, and substantial Arab populations."[26] By the recognition of the privileges of the Constantinople Patriarchate there was created within the framework of the Ottoman Empire, a para-state body, the Orthodox Church-State of the Greek nation.[27] Note that although the powers of the ecumenical patriarch were indeed extensive, there is uncertainty as to the precise nature of the privileges granted by Sultan Mehmed II to the man whom he elevated to the highest office in the church.[26]
  10. ^ According to Victor Roudometof, "by making all "Romans" (i.e., formerly Orthodox subjects of the Byzantine Empire) members of the Orthodox Rum millet , the Ottomans officially sanctioned the Church's Orthodox universalism, thus facilitating the legitimization of Grecophone ecclesiastical elites over the Balkan ethnies (ethnic communities). Additionally, after 1453, the Church assumed jurisdiction over the civil affairs of the Orthodox communities. Moreover, by virtue of his residing in the capital of the empire, the ecumenical patriarch was able to usurp in an informal but effective manner considerable power from the Orthodox patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. In the hierarchical structure of the Eastern Church, the ecumenical patriarch ranked first, followed by the other Orthodox patriarchates, the autocephalous archbishoprics of Cyprus, Pec, and Ohrid, and the local metropolitans (Papadopoullos 1990:94; Sarris 1990:2.421-524). In the eyes of the higher clergy, the Orthodox Church was the only legitimate bearer of the Christian tradition. For centuries, the enemy was the Roman Catholic Church, which consistently attempted to infiltrate the Orthodox world (Frazee 1983). Most post-1453 Grecophone publications were religious in nature, their major function being to counteract Catholic propaganda (Koumarianou, Droulia, and Layton 1986:135-157). The conflation of the Greek ethnic identity with Rum millet identity was an indispensable component of the Ottoman social system."[28]
  11. ^ Since the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Patriarchal churches have been:
  12. ^ While the circumstances of its destruction remain murky, it has been argued that the demolition of the church was subsumed into the rhetoric of conflict as Mehmet conquered Venetian territory along the Adriatic, and as Pope Pius II tried to stir enthusiasm for a crusade in 1464.[38]
  13. ^ Through Sophia Palaiologina's influence, along with the members of the great Byzantine families, churchmen and intellectuals who sought refuge in Russia, the ceremonious etiquette of Constantinople along with the imperial Double-headed eagle and all that it implied was adopted by the court of Moscow, and Russia was laid wide open to Greek influence.[41]
  14. ^ "Orthodox dioceses were divided between Roman Catholic Venetian rulers and the Ottoman sultanate. Whereas under the latter they enjoyed relative freedom of religious expression, this was not the case in the Venetian-ruled areas. There all Orthodox bishops and metropolitans were replaced by Latin representatives of the pope. The whole of the next century was marked by attempts at proselytization by the Roman Catholics, which were intensified after the eruption of the Protestant movement.[42]
  15. ^ "There was no official interference with Greek religion. In many cases the Greeks preferred the tolerance of Turkish rule to the proselytising Catholicism of the Venetians. Greece was spared the religious conflicts that racked much of Europe: the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of Huguenots in France, the Inquisition in Spain."[47]
  16. ^ The Pax Ottomanica was also characterized by the Timar system of land management, a non-hereditary form of land management where the ownership of the land was held by the Ottoman state, but was granted temporarily as a fief to Timar holders who served the state. Therefore the Timar holders were given the authority to control arable lands, vacant land, or land possessed by peasants, as well as wastelands, fruit trees, forests or waters within their Timar territory. This system thus guaranteed an appreciable amount of local self-determination, as long as the taxes were paid.
    However by the end of the sixteenth century the Timar system of land tenure had begun its unrecoverable decline. And by the early decades of the seventeenth century Timars would not be reassigned, but were brought under imperial domain. With no new land to be divided up, the more powerful military commanders began to turn on the Ottoman Empire and its head of state, the Sultan, and they carved up the Empire into private land holdings called Chifliks, which became hereditary. The chiflik system marked the period when the Empire began to collapse, with a commensurate growing intolerance of Orthodox Christians. Some chiflik rulers like Ali Pasha of Ioannina ruled autonomous kingdoms inside the Empire.
  17. ^ "Already from the seventies of the fifteenth century, men of note had begun to arrive in the Kingdom of Naples as refugees from Greece, especially from the Peloponnese. Owing to their origin and to the political ties between Greece and the country in which they had found hospitality, these exiles in Naples were particularly active in helping the various movements of revolt against Ottoman rule. The Greek church in Naples was founded in 1518."[52]
  18. ^ When he was told that this was impracticable, he demanded that at least all of their churches should be surrendered. The vizier warned the patriarch, Theoleptus I, who engaged the services of a clever lawyer called Xenakis. Theoleptus admitted that he had no firman protecting the churches. It had been burnt in a fire at the Patriarchate, he said. But Xenakis was able to produce three aged Janissaries who had been present when the conquering Sultan entered Constantinople. They swore on the Koran that they had seen a number of notables from the city come to the Sultan as he was waiting to make his entrance and offer him the keys of their respective districts. In return he promised them that they could retain their churches. Sultan Selim accepted this evidence and even allowed the Christians to reopen some of their churches which his officials had closed. All the same, several more churches were annexed during his reign.[53]
  19. ^ "The Ottoman Empire was also going through a deep transformation of its own after the conquest of Egypt (1517) by Selim I (the Grim) and the relocation to the capital of a considerable number of theologians and administrators from the stronghold of Islamic traditionalism. As a result, their presence increased tension between Sunnis and Shiites, and led to consideration of the forced Islamization of the Christian population. The same was attempted in 1537 by Selim’s successor Suleiman; both requests were rejected by the administration and the Grand Mufti of Constantinople as being against the teachings of the Qur’an about the 'people of the book' .[42]
  20. ^ In its administration of justice the Church based itself on canon and Byzantine law, including the Hexabiblos of Harmenopoulos (1345), and the Nomocanon of Manuel Malaxos (1561). See: British Library – Digitised Manuscripts. Harley MS 5554 – Nomocanon of Manuel Malaxos in 291 chapters. Date: 14 Dec 1675).
  21. ^ "The conquest of the island by the Ottomans in 1571 resulted in radical changes in the legal position of the different churches existing in Cyprus. The period of Ottoman rule lasted for more than 300 years, until 1878, and marked the first appearance of adherents of the Islamic faith in Cyprus. The Sheri (Sharia) Law, namely the interpretation of the Qurani Law, was not only the personal law of the Moslems of Cyprus, but also the state law, thus replacing the law of the Assizes, which had been the state law during the period of Frankish and Venetian rule. The Sheri Law was applied by the Sheri courts, which were the competent courts for the legal affairs of all people living in the island, irrespective of their religion."[64]
  22. ^ "Though most of the students came from Catholic families in the Aegean Islands, the Jesuits at Constantinople were able to persuade some Orthodox parents there to send their sons to it. Not all of them were converted to Catholicism in the course of their studies; but almost all of them returned with a kindlier feeling towards Rome and a readiness to work for some sort of union."[72]
  23. ^ He was elected as the Metropolitan of Philadelphia in July 1577, however he never went to his see, but went to Venice instead to oversee the Greek community there.[73]
  24. ^ "To this day, the local Arab Orthodox Christians commemorate this event with a tumultuous procession, proclaiming the victory of their religion over those who would have stolen the Holy Fire from its rightful custodians."[76]
  25. ^ "As Catholic and Protestant theology increasingly came to exert an influence in the East, the Orthodox response, more often than not, was to reject these "foreign" beliefs and those Christians who erroneously accepted them as orthodox. In 1583, only two years after his last exchange with the Tübingen theologians, Patriarch Jeremiah issued a Sigillion (signed also by Sylvester of Alexandria and Sophronius of Jerusalem) formally repudiating "the newly invested Paschalion and Menologion of the Pope's atheist astronomers" (i.e., the Gregorian calendar), condemning any as "rotten members" who accepted the various teachings and practices of the Roman Church."[77]
  26. ^ "This dramatic action was echoed in the provinces, where Ottoman governors sought to imitate the example of Istanbul and apply it to Christian churches located within their respective jurisdictions. Worried about the grave implications that this kind of action would have for Muslim-Christian relations in the Ottoman empire as a whole, the Ottoman Sultan, in a firman of 4 October 1587, warned his representatives in the provinces to refrain from fulfilling their aims."[78]
  27. ^ "Greek Orthodox Christianity remained virtually untouched by the forces unleashed by the Reformation, despite the fact that Lutherans and Calvinists as well as Roman Catholics occasionally made overtures to its religious and political leaders. Of much greater significance to Eastern European Christianity than the Reformation was the establishment of the independence of the Russian Church by the creation of the patriarchy of Moscow in 1589 and the subsequent shifting of the center of gravity of Greek Orthodoxy from Constantinople to Moscow."[79]
  28. ^ The document shows that membership in the Church of God was seen as essentially conditioned by communion with the Pope of Rome. Those who do not belong to the Roman-Catholic Church cannot be saved because they are not members of the Church of God as such. Membership in the Roman Catholic Church was thus thought of as the only possible way of attaining salvation.[85]
  29. ^ According to K. Th. Dimaras:
    "For nearly two hundred years Korydallism was the basis of modern Hellenism's philosophical education. His works were considered a great improvement on the Byzantine handbooks which had preceded them. He was universally praised; his works filled every Greek library. Important scholars summarized them, commented on them, and translated them. But as Moisiodax observed, they are in the strictest scholastic tradition and ultimately hindered the development of learning in Greece."[90] A secular Hellenic rational spirit had been cultivated for some time by some eminent Greeks, among whom Theophilos Korydalleus (1563–1646) is considered as a precursor of free thought in modern Greece. But the most prominent amongst them, by common acknowledgement, was Adamantios Korais (1743–1833).[91]
  30. ^ Hieromartyr Cyril Lucaris (†1638) was honoured as a Saint and Martyr shortly after his martyric death, and the Venerable Saint Eugenios of Aitolia (†1682, August 5) compiled an Akolouthia (service) to celebrate his memory. The official glorification of Hieromartyr Cyril Loukaris took place by decision of the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate of Alexandria on October 6, 2009, and his memory is commemorated on June 27.[94][95]
  31. ^ Kritopoulos' Confession is more of a theological treatise than a brief credal statement. He discusses at some length the points on which Catholics and Protestants differed – in theology as well as practice – from the tradition of the undivided Church. Often referring to the Church Fathers and Ecumenical Councils, he nevertheless accepts certain Protestant teachings such as the acknowledgement of three sacraments, the remaining four becoming "sacramental rites". Certainly Kritopoulos' is the most Orthodox of the four 17th-century Confessions (i.e. Metrophanes Kritopoulos (1625); Cyril Loukaris (1629); Peter Mogila (1645); and Dositheos of Jerusalem (1672)).[90]
  32. ^ "In 1627 a wealthy monk and patriot called Nikodemos Metaxas (1585–1646) carried his printing press on a British merchant vessel from London to Kyrillos Loukaris, in Constantinople. Under a surety provided by the British Ambassador to the Turkish authorities, Nikodemos reprinted an essay by Patriarch Loukaris against Jewish dogma. One of the first books printed by a Greek in Greece, it included sermons by Maximos Margounios. The second book from his printery contained a series of anti-Papist tracts, which gave rise to a Jesuit plot that nearly cost his life."[99]
  33. ^ According to Greek theologian Professor John N. Karmiris, "the Confession was composed in Geneva by Calvinist theologians working under Diodat and then adapted and reshaped in a more Orthodox manner in Constantinople by the Calvinist theologian Anthony Leger and the Patriarch Cyril Loukaris himself. The patriarch claimed authorship under Protestant pressure in view of the many dangers surrounding him. The Calvinists submitted their draft of the Confession to the patriarch and demanded his signature in recompense for the great services they had rendered him."[101]
  34. ^ "In the bold policy of this Patriarch...we find mixed and mingled many of the conflicting trends which distracted the Greek community of the seventeenth century with a multitude of warring influences — conservatism against reform; Orthodox mysticism against the materialistic rationalism of the West; traditional Byzantinism against the emerging spirit of the new Greece. Buffeted between the Ottoman authorities on the one side and the Western powers on the other, battling against the infiltration of Roman Catholicism, Cyril Loukaris gave his own original reply to the problem of relations between Orthodoxy and Western Christianity. In doing so he "crystallized and translated into action the confused aspirations of a Greece which was just beginning to collect its thoughts with a view to making contact with Western civilization." His attempted reform of the clergy, his introduction of a calendar dated from the Nativity of Christ in place of the old Byzantine chronology dated from the Creation, the establishment by Nicodemus Metaxas, at Constantinople, of the first Greek press in the East (1627), the translation of the New Testament into popular Greek (Geneva, 1638) "are works of mark, witnessing to the breadth of view and the bold initiative of this great reformer"."[103]
  35. ^ "The Catholic Church used all its religious and political influence to destroy this "son of darkness": the Jesuits and Capuchins of Constantinople, the French and Austrian ambassadors, the newly constituted Propaganda Fidei, Pope Urban VIII himself and even Louis XIII and the powerful Cardinal Richelieu. Almost any means of attacking Loukaris were regarded as legitimate because the motive was "sacred": these included threats and violence, bribing Turkish officials and pro-Catholic clerics in the circle of his successor Cyril Kontares, forging texts incriminating Loukaris, and claiming that the patriarch was inciting foreign powers against the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian Embassy planned Loukaris' assassination or his abduction to Italy and delivered to the Holy Inquisition. Eventually the Austrian ambassador and Kontares persuaded the Sublime Porte to eliminate the patriarch and he was strangled on June 27, 1638."[105]
  36. ^ "Despite Western references to Patriarch Kyrillos’ wide contacts with the Reformers, he is in fact most famous in the Orthodox world for his anti-Papist stand against the Uniate menace and for his opposition to Jesuit missions in Eastern Europe. His contacts in Eastern Europe, where he studied, served, and traveled, were extensive. His opposition to Uniate Catholicism after the Brzeesc-Litewski Treaty of 1596 was so strong and widespread, that his so-called "Confession," whatever its true source, is a mere footnote to his struggle against Papism. It was THIS anti-Latin Loukaris who supported Protestant opposition to Papism, who perhaps allowed his views to be restated and published by his Calvinist contacts in Geneva, and who earned the enduring hatred of the Papacy, which has played an essential role — if one reads the intellectual history surrounding this issue — in perpetuating the idea that the "Confessio" was the direct work of Kyrillos and that he was a Protestant in his thinking.[106]
  37. ^ "Στις 27 Ιουνίου του 1638 Λατίνοι και εβραίοι εξαγόρασαν με 4.000 τάλληρα τον Μέγα Βεζύρη Βαϊράμ Πασά και με διαταγή του συνελήφθη και εξετελέσθη ο Κύριλλος Λούκαρις με την κατηγορία ότι προπαρασκεύαζε εθνική επανάσταση των Ελλήνων με την βοήθεια των Ορθοδόξων Κοζάκων."[107]
  38. ^ "But against these instances of infidelity in high places the Greek Church could set many martyrs from the humbler ranks of society, known in the calendar as Neo-Martyrs, among them men who had voluntarily or involuntarily accepted Islam , often in childhood, but who subsequently recanted at the cost of their lives and deliberately sought death by public confession." [108]
  39. ^ "During and after the Cretan War, voluntary conversion to Islam resulted in the formation of an important Muslim community on the island, which nonetheless continued to be dominated by the Orthodox Christian majority."[115]
  40. ^ (in Greek) Ενδιαφέρθηκε πολύ για του Αγίους Τόπους και από τη θέση του μεγάλου διερμηνέα πέτυχε την έκδοση ενός χάτι-σερίφ (φιρμάνι γραμμένο από τον ίδιο τον σουλτάνο) με το οποίο επιδικάζονταν τα ιερά προσκυνήματα στους ορθοδόξους.
    See: (in Greek): Παναγιώτης Νικούσιος. Βικιπαίδεια. (Greek Wikipedia).
  41. ^ The firman was accompanied by a formal legal opinion (fatwa) that questioned the authenticity and sanctity of the Nativity site and denounced those Muslims who adored it in vain.[121]
  42. ^ In 1680 a large number of women and young girls entered into the fortress of Ali (later called "Kızkalesi" - "Maiden's castle"), in order to escape being taken and enslaved. After being besieged for 48 days, some of them lost their senses, others died of hunger and thirst, and others escaped secretly and surrendered to the forces of the derebey, since they could no longer withstand the hardships. However one group of 30-40 young girls, unwilling to be captured, climbed to the highest summit of the fortress, from where they fell and committed suicide. After these events took place in the region of Pafra, an uprising of a number of courageous Greeks took place who climbed the surrounding mountains and armed themselves, making reprisals on the forces of the derebey, undertaking an unequal but virtuous struggle against the Turkish oppressors. A Greek dance that was danced in Pafra in order to commemorate the 30-40 young girls from the village of Hazar is variously known as the:
    • 'Thanati Laggeman' (Θανατί Λάγγεμαν) – "Death Jump"; or
    • 'Kizlar Choplamasi' (Κιζλάρ Χοπλαμασί) – which in Turkish means "The Girls' Jump"; or
    • 'Kizlar Kaïtesi' (Κιζλάρ Καϊτεσί) - "the musical purpose of the girls";
    The dance portrays the movements of the girls as they jumped into the void to meet death on the steep and sharp rocks. The musical instruments that were used were the flute (ζουρνάς) with the Davul (νταούλι), and the Lyre (λύρα) to a lesser extent.[124]
  43. ^ "In 1685–1687, aided by her Papal and Habsburg allies in the "Holy League" against the Ottoman Empire, Venice conquered all of the Peloponnese except for the rock-fortress of Monemvasia, whose garrison held out until 1690. The Venetians called their vast acquisition the Regno della Morea, i.e., the Kingdom of the Morea. Through it they hoped to revive their once far-flung Levantine empire. The peninsula was expected to replace in strategic and economic importance the great island of Crete, where the Turks had only recently ended the long Venetian dominion (1205–1669)."[132]
  44. ^ The penultimate Principal of Gloucester Hall, Benjamin Woodruffe, established a 'Greek College' for Greek Orthodox students to come to Oxford, part of a scheme to make ecumenical links with the Church of England.[135] This was active from 1699 to 1705, although only 15 Greeks are recorded as members.
  45. ^ But this appears to have been the last attempt of the Ottomans to hold the child levy in Greece.[137]
  46. ^ The date of his death is also given as 1735.[139]
  47. ^ (in Greek) Αρχικά ξεκίνησε ως ένα μικρό σχολείο με το όνομα "Σχολείο του Χριστού" το 1717 όταν διευθυντής του ήταν ο Ιθακήσιος Ιερόθεος Δενδρινός.
  48. ^ In 1923 his relics were translated to Thessaloniki and were placed in the Church of Saint Catherine, Thessaloniki.[152]
  49. ^ This system of Elders (Gerontismos) had been introduced in the administration of the Greek Church, by a firman, in the year 1741. Indeed, the Ottoman authority approved the Synodal reform, which led to this system of Gerontismos under which the Church was governed down to the second half of the 19th century.[154] The system of gerontism was abolished after the adoption of the so-called "General" or "National Regulations" by the National Assembly that convened in Constantinople in 1858–1860. This was a result of the proclamation of the Hatt-ı Hümayun (1856), the imperial decree that among others provided for the reorganization of the millet, the ethnic-religious communities of the Ottoman Empire."[155]
    (See also: State organisation of the Ottoman Empire – Elders, local representation).
  50. ^ Emerging liberalism was strongly connected with the proliferation of freemasonry, leading the Ecumenical Patriarchate to repeatedly condemn the freemasons. In the Ionian islands, Freemasonry was instituted in 1740, while foreign Freemasons existed as early as 1743 in the principalities, and the first Romanian lodge was founded in Jassy in 1772 (Gedeon 1976:104; Georgescu 1971:32 n.3). The fact that both Greek Orthodox and Western merchants were enrolled accelerated the process of acquainting the new Greek Orthodox aristocracy with Western liberalism.[157]
  51. ^ Ieronymos Agathangelos flourished in 1279 AD. He was a priest-monk and confessor, born in Rhodes. He lived in a cenobitic monastery for 51 years. In his 79th year of age he was, as he says, at Messina of Sicily, and at dawn on the Sunday of Orthodoxy he experienced a majestic vision by which several prophecies were foretold him. These were copied by an Italian monk in Messina in 1555, then translated into Latin by Theoklitos Polyidis, who distributed them around northern Europe, and then translated into Modern Greek in 1751 and printed in various editions in Venice.
  52. ^ Vikentios Damodos was conscious of the Western-style transformation of Orthodox theology, and sought to differentiate himself from Westerners in his Dogmatics by denouncing their errors, mentioning "false scholastic reasoning" and "the most erroneous and impious doctrines of the Lutherans and Calvanists"; being the only modern Greek theological writer who unequivocally attributes heresies to Augustine. Yet, he remained trapped in the Western theological assumptions which dominated his age. His Dogmatics was based on the Dogmatica Theologica of the French Jesuit, Denys Petau (1583–1652). Certain of his theses were severely critical of Petau, but Damodos retained his themes and analytical method. Even the title Dogmatic Theology, now established in Orthodox theological writing, comes from Petau. Damodos' Dogmatics became the model for all later Orthodox handbooks, such as Eugenios Voulgaris' Theologikon, Athanasios Parios' Epitome (1806), A. Moschopoulos' Epitome of Dogmatic and Moral Theology (1857), and the modern dogmatic works of Zikos Rosis (1903), Christos Androutsos (1907), and Panayiotis Trembelas (1959–1963).[160]
  53. ^ "In 1753 the Greek reformer Eugenius Bulgaris founded the Athonite Academy where students were able to study secular philosophy and science and become exposed to western ideas."[162]
  54. ^ As Bishop Kallistos of Diokleia succinctly points out, throughout the Turkish period the traditions of Hesychasm remained alive, particularly on Mount Athos. Here during the second half of the 18th century there arose an important movement of spiritual renewal, whose effects can still be felt today. Its members, known as the Kollyvades, were alarmed at the way in which all too many of their fellow Greeks were falling under the influence of the Western Enlightenment. The Kollyvades were convinced that a regeneration of the Greek nation would come, not through embracing the secular ideas fashionable in the west, but only through a return to the true roots of Orthodox Christianity – through a rediscovery of Patristic theology and Orthodox liturgical life. In particular, they advocated frequent communion – if possible, daily – although at this time most Orthodox communicated only three or four times a year. For this the Kollyvades were fiercely attacked on the Holy Mountain and elsewhere.[164]
  55. ^ The acts of this council are also later signed by Patriarch Sylvester of Antioch.
  56. ^ "These later conversions were perhaps due, at least in part, to the unfavorable conditions created in the Balkans by the Russo-Turkish wars of the eighteenth century when the danger of Greek disaffection became more serious as foreign propaganda, and consequent hopes of foreign liberation, grew and Turkish policy was therefore more interested in conversion than it had been."[108]
  57. ^ (in Greek) "Ας δουμε και μερικες αλλες αλλαξοπιστιες Αρβανιτων. Ανατολικα της Πρεμετης υπαρχουν 36 χωρια που εχουν την κοινη ονομασια Καραμουραταδες. Τα χωρια αυτα υπαγονταν στην επισκοπη Πωγωνιανης και το 1760,βλεποντας τους συμπατριωτες τους μωαμεθανους να καλοπερνουν ενω αυτοι δυστυχουσαν,μηνυσαν στον Επισκοπο πως θα προσευχονταν και θα νηστευαν πιστα ολη τη Σαρακοστη,ωστε να αλλαξει η μοιρα τους.Σε εναντια περιπτωση θα γινονταν μουσουλμανοι.Ο Επισκοπος τους απειλουσε και τους εξορκιζε να μην ασεβουν προς το Θειον,αλλα αυτοι ειχαν παρει τις αποφασεις τους.Τηρησαν σχολαστικα τις νηστειες και τις προσευχες και οταν ηλθε η μερα της Αναστασης και η μοιρα τους δεν ελεγε ν'αλλαξει,εδιωξαν τους Παπαδες και τον Δεσποτη και αλλαξοπιστησαν σχεδον ολοι. Και τα 36 χωρια! Το πατριαρχειο καταθορυβηθηκε και οι Τουρκοι καταχαρηκαν.Μα οι Καραμουρατιωτες,μολις εγιναν μουσουλμανοι και αποχτησαν δικαιωματα ορμησαν στους Τουρκους των κοντινων περιοχων που τοσα χρονια τους καταπιεζαν,και τους περασαν «δια στοματος μαχαιρας»,ωστε να ισοφαρισουν τα δεινα που τους ειχαν αυτοι προξενησει.(Πουκεβιλλ σελ. 206-208,«Voyage en Grece»)."[170]
  58. ^ In early April 1770, only six weeks after the Russian landing, the Turks and their Albanian mercenaries crushingly defeated the Russians and Greeks at Tripoli in the central Peloponnese. From then on the Russians retreated.[47] The Albanian mercenaries of the Turks were totally ruthless in suppressing the revolt, plundering and killing. It is estimated that c. 20,000 Greeks were seized and sold as slaves, and a further 50,000 Greeks (about one sixth of the pre-Revolt population of the Peloponnese) fled to the Ionian Islands, Italy, other parts of Europe and to Russia (especially Crimea and Odessa). It was not until 1779 that the Ottomans were able to restore order in the Peloponnese.
    From the Russian point of view, Count Orlov's mission was a success, damaging the Turkish Fleet, directing Turkish troops south, and contributing to the victory that led to the signing of the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji.
    From the Greek point of view, the affair was a failure which cost a huge number of lives, both in battle, and in the Turkish reprisals that followed. The Ottoman government (Divani) proposed a general massacre of the Greeks, regardless of sex and age. All agreed except Admiral Hasan Cezayirli, who finally managed to impose his views with the compelling argument: "If we massacre all the Greeks, who will pay the taxes?"[173]
  59. ^ Large parts of the monodic chant sung in several current traditions of Orthodox Chant are transcriptions of his compositions, which he had written down as a teacher of the "New Music School of the Patriarchate".
  60. ^ In 1793, eleven years after the first Greek edition of 1782, the Philokalia was published in Slavonic translation. The initiative came from the famous monk (St.) Paisius Velichkovsky (1722–1794), abbot of Neamț Monastery in Moldavia, who had spent eighteen years as an ascetic on Mount Athos. The Slavonic translation greatly influenced the Optina Elders.
  61. ^ The only remaining link with the Jerusalem Patriarchate is that the abbot, who is elected by an assembly of senior monks, must be ordained a bishop by the Jerusalem Patriarch, who is also commemorated in the monastery’s liturgy.[68]
  62. ^ The ancient Greek city of Odessos (Oδησσός) is believed to be the predecessor of the present day city of Varna in Bulgaria; however Odessa is in fact located in the area between the ancient Greek cities of Tyras (Τύρας) and Olbia (Ὀλβία).
  63. ^ Both Mariupolis and Odessa became important centers for Greek culture and trade, and the Philiki Etairia (the movement that played a major role in the Greek fight for liberation from the Turks) was founded in Odessa.[189]
  64. ^ The Dhidhaskalia Patriki or Paternal Teaching, attributed to the Patriarch Anthimos of Jerusalem, and published in Istanbul in 1798, described the attitude of the Orthodox hierarchy during the late eighteenth century to the influence of Western ideas in the Greek world. The Dhidhaskalia Patriki has in fact achieved a certain notoriety among historians as one of the more extreme examples of ecclesiastical anti-Westernism, and its significance was not lost on contemporaries.
  65. ^ "Deprived of everything and starving, those who survived the catastrophe crossed over to the Ionian Islands. There, new contacts, as well as the growing spirit of nationalism from the French Revolution caused a permutation in their social personality. When the Greek Revolution started in 1821 many of the old chieftains, such as Marco Botsaris, Karaiskakis, Colocotronis, Niketaras, became generals and contributed greatly to important victories of the Greek armies."[203] The Greeks saw the Klephts as heroic avengers of Hellenism, thus romanticizing them. This is evident for example in the 1806 pamphlet Hellenic Nomarchy , written by an anonymous Greek author.
  66. ^ See: (in Greek) Κωνσταντίνος Κούμας. Βικιπαίδεια. (Greek Wikipedia).
  67. ^ "In 1819, Patriarch Gregory V wrote to the monks of the Holy Mountain declaring that Communion should not be received at certain set times, but whenever one felt himself ready for it, following confession and other necessary preparation."[216]

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BibliographyEdit

  • Apostolos E. Vacalopoulos. The Greek Nation, 1453–1669: The Cultural and Economic Background of Modern Greek Society. Transl. from Greek. Rutgers University Press, 1975.
(One of the few scholarly studies in English of this period)
(Focuses on the intellectual revival preceding the War of Independence in 1821)
(Very comprehensive, masterpiece of scholarship)
  • Steven Runciman. The Great Church in Captivity: A Study of the Patriarchate of Constantinople from the Eve of the Turkish Conquest to the Greek War of Independence. Cambridge University Press,1986.
  • Theodore H. Papadopoulos. Studies and Documents Relating to the History of the Greek Church and People Under Turkish Domination. 2nd ed. Variorum, Hampshire, Great Britain, 1990.
(Scholarly, includes source texts in Greek)
Articles
  • Elizabeth A. Zachariadou. The Great Church in captivity 1453–1586. Eastern Christianity. Ed. Michael Angold. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Cambridge Histories Online.
  • Elizabeth A. Zachariadou. Mount Athos and the Ottomans c. 1350–1550. Eastern Christianity. Ed. Michael Angold. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Cambridge Histories Online.
  • I. K. Hassiotis. From the 'Refledging' to the 'Illumination of the Nation': Aspects of Political Ideology in the Greek Church Under Ottoman Domination. Balkan Studies 1999 40(1): 41–55.
  • Socrates D. Petmezas. Christian Communities in Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century Ottoman Greece: Their Fiscal Functions. Princeton Papers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 2005 12: 71–127.