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Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus'

Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus' (Russian: Митрополит Киевский и всея Руси, Ukrainian: Митрополит Київський та всієї Русі, translit. Mytropolyt Kyivskyi ta vsiiei Rusi) was a title of the Eastern Orthodox metropolitan bishops of the Kiev Metropolis under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople that existed in 988–1596 and later between 1620 and 1686.

Initially the metropolis of Kiev was located in Kiev, the capital of Kievan Rus, after the invasion of Mongols, its seat was split between the Grand Duchy of Moscow in Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Vilnius.

With the appointment of Gregory II Bulgarian in 1458, the title was changed to Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and all Rus' (Ukrainian: Митрополит Київський, Галицький, та всієї Русі, translit. Mytropolyt Kyivskyi, Halytskyi, ta vsiiei Rusi) uniting both metropolis of Kiev and Halych (existed in the 14th century). The Grand Duchy of Moscow decided to appoint their own metropolitans without approval of the Ecumenical Patriarch. After 1458 all Muscovite metropolitans were titled as Metropolitans of Moscow and all Rus'.

The last Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and all Rus' Michael Rohoza accepted the Union of Brest in 1596 and became a Major Archbishop of Kiev, Galicia and all Rus' of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.

In 1620 the title and the Orthodox metroplis were restored and granted to Job Boretsky who became the Exarch of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The last Exarch of the Ecumenical throne in Kiev, approved by the Ecumenical Patriarch in 1676, was Metropolitan Antony Vinnitsky. His successor, Gedeon Chetvertinsky ordained by Patriarch Joachim of Moscow in 1685, was the following year transferred into the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow. This resulted in a large Council that convened in Kiev declaring the election invalid and the ordination illicit and a 'cannonical offense' because it occurred without the knowledge of the Ecumenical Patriarch. Patriarch Dositheos of Jerusalem, who acted as a negotiator between Constantinople and Moscow proved critical, declared to his counterpart and Russian Ambassador “to grant...Kiev in trust (ἐπιτροπικῶς) to the Moscovite due to the prevailing tyranny, until the day comes for divine reckoning”.[1]

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