Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus'
Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus' (Ukrainian: Митрополит Київський та всієї Русі, romanized: Mytropolyt Kyivskyi ta vsiiei Rusi, Russian: Митрополит Киевский и всея Руси) was a title of the Eastern Orthodox metropolitan bishops of the Kyiv Metropolis under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople that existed in 988–1596 and later between 1620 and 1686.
Initially the metropolis of Kyiv was located in Kyiv, the capital of Kievan Rus, after the invasion of Mongols, its seat was split between the Grand Duchy of Moscow in Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Vilnius.
In 1299, Maximus, Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus', "moved his official seat from Kyiv to Vladimir, demonstrating the shift of the centre of Rus from the south-west to the north-east. The title though remained Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus and the metropolitan was supposed to be responsible for all Orthodox Christians in Rus, including those in Galicia, which became a kingdom in 1253, and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which had gained control of the former Polotsk Principality after the Mongol Invasion."
With the appointment of Gregory II the Bulgarian in 1458, the title was changed to Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and all Rus' (Ukrainian: Митрополит Київський, Галицький, та всієї Русі, romanized: Mytropolyt Kyivskyi, Halytskyi, ta vsiiei Rusi) uniting both metropolis of Kyiv and Halych (existed in the 14th century). The Grand Duchy of Moscow decided to appoint their own metropolitans without approval of the Ecumenical Patriarch. After 1458 all Muscovite metropolitans were titled as Metropolitans of Moscow and all Rus'.
The last Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and all Rus' Michael Rohoza accepted the Union of Brest in 1596, which created the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (which at the time was called "Ruthenian" rather than "Ukrainian") and changed Rohova's title to "Major Archbishop of Kyiv, Galicia and all Rus'".
In 1620, at least partially to accommodate Christians who had refused the Unon of Brest, the Eastern Orthodox title and metropolis were recreated and granted to Job Boretsky, who became the Exarch of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The last Exarch of the Ecumenical throne in Kiev, approved by the Ecumenical Patriarch in 1676, was Metropolitan Antony (Vinnitsky). His successor, Gedeon Chetvertinsky, was ordained by Patriarch Joachim of Moscow in 1685, and transferred into the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow by the Ecumenical Patriarch, Dionysius IV, in 1686. This resulted in a large Council that convened in Kyiv declaring the election invalid and the ordination illicit and a 'canonical offense' because it occurred without the knowledge of the Ecumenical Patriarch. Patriarch Dositheos of Jerusalem, whose role as a negotiator between Constantinople and Moscow proved critical, declared to the Russian ambassador Nikita Alexeyevich "to grant [...] Kiev in trust (ἐπιτροπικῶς) to the Moscovite due to the prevailing tyranny, until the day comes for divine reckoning".
- "14th Century Russia | Rusmania". rusmania.com. Retrieved 2020-01-12.
- Gleason, Abbott (2009-04-06). A Companion to Russian History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-4443-0842-6.
- Tsygankov, Andrei P. (2014). "Emergence and Development". The Strong State in Russia: Development and Crisis. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-19-933621-0.
- "in 1686, Constantinople 'did not issue any authorization to transfer the territory of Ukraine to anyone'. But the fact is that in the 17th century the transfer of the chirotony right of the Kiev Metropolitan just meant the transition of the whole metropolia from one jurisdiction to another, which was written about by [...] Patriarch Dionysius IV Seroglanis, who together with the council of bishops (number[ing] 21) decided to transfer the Metropolitanate of Kiev in 1686. In addition to the conciliar definition, Patriarch Dionysius wrote two letters: one to Hetman Ivan Samoilovich and the other to all the faithful people of the Kiev Metropolitanate, in which he informed them that he was ceding the Metropolitanate to the Moscow Patriarch."spzh.news[unreliable source?]
- "Patriarchal Letter to the Kings of Russia", THE ECUMENICAL THRONE AND THE CHURCH OF UKRAINE - The Documents Speak (September 2018), pp. 35–39 (English translation based on the text published in: Собрание государственных грамот и договоров, хранящихся в государственной коллегии иностранных дел [Collection of state documents and treaties kept in the Collegium of Foreign Affairs], Part Four, Moscow, 1826, 514–517).