Silchar

Silchar is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. It is 343 kilometres (213 mi) south east of Guwahati.

Silchar
Town and District Headquarter
Aerial view of the Barak river, Silchar
Aerial view of the Barak river, Silchar
Nickname(s): 
The Island of Peace and The City of Love
Silchar is located in Assam
Silchar
Silchar
Location in Assam, India
Silchar is located in India
Silchar
Silchar
Silchar (India)
Coordinates: 24°49′N 92°48′E / 24.82°N 92.8°E / 24.82; 92.8Coordinates: 24°49′N 92°48′E / 24.82°N 92.8°E / 24.82; 92.8
Country India
StateAssam
DistrictCachar
RegionBarak Valley
Government
 • BodySilchar Municipal Board
 • No. of Wards30
Elevation
22 m (72 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total1,72,830
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
788001 to 788032 and 788118
Telephone code+91 (0) 3842
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS
Vehicle registrationAS-11
Official languagesBengali
Most spoken languageBengali
Additional languagesEnglish
Websitewww.cachar.nic.in

It earned it the bon mot of “Island of Peace” from India's then prime minister Indira Gandhi.[1]

EtymologyEdit

During the British rule, ships were docked at the bank of the river Barak. Gradually, a market developed at the bank and became a major place of economic activity. The bank was covered with stones to help dock ships and vessels, and the market was developed at a place that was fully covered with stones. People started to refer to the place as Shiler Chor, meaning "a bank of stones" in Bengali. With the passage of time, Shiler Chor was simplified to Silchar, and ultimately the British officials started to use the name Silchar in their official documents referring to the surrounding area of the market. Thus Silchar became the official name of the place.[2]

HistoryEdit

Cachar district recordsEdit

In the 1850s, British tea planters re-discovered the game polo in Manipur on the Burmese border with India. The first polo club in the world was formed at Silchar.[3][4]

The first competitive modern form of polo was played in Silchar, and the plaque for this feat still stands behind the District Library, Silchar.[3][4]

Language Movement in Barak ValleyEdit

 
Silchar railway station is described as Bhasa Shahid Station.

Silchar saw one of the uprisings in favour of the Bengali language. When the Assam government, under Chief Minister Bimala Prasad Chaliha, passed a circular to make Assamese mandatory, Bengalis of Barak Valley protested. On 19 May 1961, Assam police opened fire on unarmed protesters at Silchar railway station. Eleven people(listed below) were killed.

After the popular revolt, the Assam government had to withdraw the circular and Bengali was ultimately given official status in the three districts of Barak Valley.[5][6] Section 5 of Assam Act XVIII, 1961, safeguards the use of Bengali in the Cachar district. It says, “Without prejudice to the provisions contained in Section 3, the Bengali language shall be used for administrative and other official purposes up to and including district level.”[7]

EarthquakesEdit

Silchar is in Zone V on the Seismic Zonation Map and has witnessed major earthquake events. The earthquake in January 1869 was of magnitude of 7.5 Ms and caused heavy damages. Other significant earthquake examples include events in 1947 (7.7 Ms magnitude), 1957 (7 Ms magnitude), and 1984 (6 MW magnitude).[8]

IndustriesEdit

  • ONGC has its base located at Srikona, near Silchar, which is known as Cachar Forward Base with ongoing operations in Tripura, Mizoram and Barak Valley.[9]
  • Cachar Paper Mill (CPM) is the only major industrial undertaking in south Assam and the adjoining states of Mizoram, Meghalaya and Tripura. Despite lack of infrastructural facilities in a remote location, CPM has a continuous record of steady improvement. During the year 2006–07, the mill recorded the highest annual production of 1,03,155 MT registering over 103% capacity utilization, which was 100% during the previous year.[10]

AdministrationEdit

The first municipal activities in Silchar was in 1833. It had a station committee which had nominated members. The city had its first municipality in 1893.[11] Presently, it is governed by the Silchar Municipal Board.[12]

GeographyEdit

Silchar is located in the southernmost part of Assam.[13][14] It is located between longitudes 92º24’ E and 93º15’ E and latitudes 24º22’N and 25º8’N East and is 35 meters above mean sea level. The city is located in an alluvial flat plain with swamps, streams, and isolated small hills (locally known as tilla) marking its landscape. Apart from Barak river, the other major river is Ghagra river.[11] It falls under Zone V on the Seismic Zonation Map.[15]

DemographicsEdit

According to 2011 India census, Silchar municipal area has a population of 1,72,830.[16] The sex ratio of Silchar is 989 females per 1,000 males, which is above the national ratio of 940 females per 1,000 males.[17] Silchar municipal area has an average literacy rate of 82.33%, higher than the national average of 74.04%, with male literacy at 84.15% and female literacy at 80.49%.[18][19]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Silchar (2011)

  Hinduism (86.31%)
  Islam (12.17%)
  Jainism (0.79%)
  Christianity (0.59%)
  Sikhism (0.04%)
  Buddhism (0.02%)
  Not stated (0.08%)

Hinduism is the majority religion in Silchar city with around 1,54,381 followers. Islam is the second most popular religion in Silchar with approximately 21,759 followers. Jainism is followed by 1,408 peoples, Christianity by 1,052 peoples, Sikhism by 77 peoples and Buddhism by 39 peoples of Silchar city. Around 145 peoples didn't stated their religion.[20]

ClimateEdit

Silchar has a borderline tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am) slightly too hot in the “winter” or “cool” season to qualify as a humid subtropical climate (Cwa). During this “cool” season the weather is generally warm and dry with cool to mild mornings; however, the “wet” season begins early as the monsoon moves into the region during April, with the result that for seven months of the year Silchar has very hot and humid weather with heavy thunderstorms almost every afternoon until the middle of October, when there is usually a brief period of hot and relatively dry weather before the “cool” season sets in during November.

Climate data for Silchar (1981–2010, extremes 1901–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.0
(87.8)
35.0
(95.0)
37.8
(100.0)
39.4
(102.9)
39.1
(102.4)
37.9
(100.2)
39.4
(102.9)
39.0
(102.2)
38.3
(100.9)
36.7
(98.1)
35.0
(95.0)
31.7
(89.1)
39.4
(102.9)
Average high °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
27.6
(81.7)
30.4
(86.7)
31.0
(87.8)
31.6
(88.9)
32.1
(89.8)
32.2
(90.0)
32.7
(90.9)
32.3
(90.1)
31.6
(88.9)
29.6
(85.3)
26.7
(80.1)
30.3
(86.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
20.8
(69.4)
24.6
(76.3)
26.7
(80.1)
27.7
(81.9)
28.5
(83.3)
28.9
(84.0)
29.2
(84.6)
29.0
(84.2)
27.5
(81.5)
24.4
(75.9)
20.6
(69.1)
25.6
(78.1)
Average low °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
14.2
(57.6)
17.9
(64.2)
21.1
(70.0)
23.1
(73.6)
24.9
(76.8)
25.3
(77.5)
25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77.0)
23.0
(73.4)
18.6
(65.5)
13.9
(57.0)
20.4
(68.7)
Record low °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
5.0
(41.0)
8.3
(46.9)
13.2
(55.8)
15.6
(60.1)
19.3
(66.7)
19.0
(66.2)
19.4
(66.9)
16.8
(62.2)
15.6
(60.1)
10.6
(51.1)
6.1
(43.0)
5.0
(41.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 10.8
(0.43)
54.7
(2.15)
195.5
(7.70)
331.3
(13.04)
407.2
(16.03)
530.9
(20.90)
509.2
(20.05)
433.4
(17.06)
401.1
(15.79)
183.7
(7.23)
34.0
(1.34)
14.3
(0.56)
3,106.2
(122.29)
Average rainy days 1.0 3.0 8.2 13.5 16.0 20.5 22.1 18.8 16.4 7.5 2.0 0.9 129.8
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 66 60 60 71 75 82 82 80 80 79 74 71 73
Source 1: India Meteorological Department[21][22][23]
Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)[24]

EducationEdit

UniversityEdit

Silchar is home to the main campus of Assam University, a central university, which imparts education in both the general as well as professional streams. The university, which came into existence in 1994, has 17 schools and 35 post-graduate departments under them. The university has 56 affiliated colleges under it.[25][26] The colleges in Silchar are mostly affiliated with the Assam university.

Technical institutionsEdit

 
National Institute of Technology Silchar

CollegesEdit

Medical collegeEdit

Law collegesEdit

Airway transportEdit

Silchar Airport (IXS) is located at Kumbhirgram, about 22 km from Silchar. Silchar has been selected as one of the towns for the construction of 51 low-cost airports across the country recently.[33]

In December 1985, Air India operated the first all-woman crew flight in the world from Kolkata to Silchar which was commanded by Captain Saudamini Deshmukh on a Fokker F-27 Friendship aircraft.[34]

PoliticsEdit

Silchar is part of the Silchar (Lok Sabha constituency). The current member of Parliament from Silchar is Dr. Rajdeep Roy of the BJP.[35]

Notable peopleEdit

Notable Places of WorshipEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "APCC member for nomination of Gaurav Gogoi from Barak Valley". The Sentinel, Assam. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  2. ^ "Silchar (India) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  3. ^ a b "The Sport". guardspoloclub. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Polo of Victorians". Polo of Victorians. avictorian.com. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  5. ^ "No alliance with BJP, says AGP chief". The Telegraph, Calcutta. 27 December 2003. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  6. ^ "Silchar rly station to be renamed soon". The Times of India. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Compulsory use of Bengali Language in Cachar". Silchar News. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  8. ^ "Knowledge Management Portal" (PDF). Assam State Disaster Management Authority. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  9. ^ "ONGC :: ONGC Offices". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  10. ^ http://www.hindpaper.in/mills/cachar.htm
  11. ^ a b "Disaster Management Plan" (PDF). Assam State Disaster Management Authority. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  12. ^ "New website of Silchar Municipal Board launched". The Assam Tribune Online. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  13. ^ "Location of Silchar". Wikimapia Foundation. Wikimapia. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  14. ^ "Silchar, India Page". Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  15. ^ "District Disaster Management Authority, Cachar" (PDF). Cachar District Authority. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Census of India 2011". Govt. of India. Government of India. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  17. ^ "Census of India 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Census of India 2011". Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  19. ^ "Census of India 2011" (PDF). www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  20. ^ Silchar Religion Data census 2011
  21. ^ "Station: Dibrugarh/Mohanbari (A) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 717–718. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  22. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  23. ^ "Silchar Climatological Table 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  24. ^ "Normals Data: Silchar - India Latitude: 24.75°N Longitude: 92.80°E Height: 20 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  25. ^ "Assam University, Homepage". Assam University. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  26. ^ "Statistical Data Fact Sheet of AUS" (PDF). Assam University. Assam University. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  27. ^ "TSSOT". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  28. ^ http://silcharpolytechnic.in/
  29. ^ Super User. "NIAIMT Silchar". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  30. ^ http://www.dheassam.gov.in/circulars-1/meeting%2057.pdf retrieved on 14 January 2015
  31. ^ "Silchar Medical College, Home Page". Silchar Medical College. Silchar Medical College. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  32. ^ "A. K. Chanda Law College". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  33. ^ "51 new low-cost airports to be set up: PMO". Daily News & Analysis. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  34. ^ "Capt V Roopa: Flying high, and back". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  35. ^ "General Elections 2019". Election Commission of India. 1 June 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.

External linksEdit