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Silchar (/ˈsɪlˌʧə/ or /ˈʃɪlˌʧə/) is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. It is 343 kilometres (213 mi) south east of Guwahati. It is the third important city in the state of Assam after Guwahati, Jorhat in terms of development.
Aerial view of the Barak river, Silchar
|Nickname(s): The Island of Peace and The City of Love|
|• Body||Silchar Municipal Corporation|
|• No. of Wards||30|
|• Total||257.5 km2 (99.4 sq mi)|
|Area rank||3 (in Assam)|
|Elevation||22 m (72 ft)|
|Population (2011)|
|• Rank||3 (in Assam)|
|• Density||930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|PIN||788001 to 788032 and 788118|
|Telephone code||+91 (0) 3842|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-AS|
During the British rule, ships were docked at the bank of the river Barak. Gradually, a market developed at the bank and became a major place of economic activity. The bank was covered with stones to help dock ships and vessels, and the market was developed at a place that was fully covered with stones. People started to refer to the place as Shiler Chor, meaning "a bank of stones". With the passage of time, Shiler Chor was simplified to Silchar, and ultimately the British officials started to use the name Silchar in their official documents referring to the surrounding area of the market. Thus Silchar became the official name of the place.
Cachar district recordsEdit
Language Movement in Barak ValleyEdit
Silchar saw one of the uprisings in favour of the Bengali language. When the Assam government, under Chief Minister Bimala Prasad Chaliha, passed a circular to make Assamese mandatory, Bengalis of Barak Valley protested. On 19 May 1961, Assam police opened fire on unarmed protesters at Silchar railway station. Eleven martyrs had laid down their lives at Silchar Railway Station for the sake of their mother tongue Bengali.
- Kanailal Niyogi
- Chandicharan Sutradhar
- Hitesh Biswas
- Satyendra Deb
- Kumud Ranjan Das
- Sunil Sarkar
- Tarani Debnath
- Sachindra Chandra Pal
- Birendra Sutradhar
- Sukamal Purakayastha
- Kamala Bhattacharya
After the popular revolt, the Assam government had to withdraw the circular and Bengali was ultimately given official status in the three districts of Barak Valley. Section 5 of Assam Act XVIII, 1961, safeguards the use of Bengali in the Cachar district. It says, “Without prejudice to the provisions contained in Section 3, the Bengali language shall be used for administrative and other official purposes up to and including district level.”
- Silchar is surrounded by approximately 100 tea estates. The quality of soil and climate around Silchar is conducive for production of high quality Assam tea, during the British occupation tea plantation was introduced in the area. Popular tea companies based in Silchar are Dewan, Doloo, Koomber and Chandighat. These tea gardens also double as tourist attractions and scenic spots given the picturesque view. The office of the Surma Valley Branch Indian Tea Association (SVBITA) is located at Silchar.
- ONGC has its base located at Srikona, near Silchar, which is known as Cachar Forward Base with ongoing operations in Tripura, Mizoram and Barak Valley.
- Cachar Paper Mill (CPM) is the only major industrial undertaking in south Assam and the adjoining states of Mizoram, Meghalaya and Tripura. Despite lack of infrastructural facilities in a remote location, CPM has a continuous record of steady improvement. During the year 2006-07, the mill recorded the highest annual production of 1,03,155 MT registering over 103% capacity utilization, which was 100% during the previous year.
The area of Silchar metro is 257.5 km2. It has an average elevation of 25 meters (82 feet).
As of 2011[update] India census, Silchar had a population of 6,87,324. The sex ratio of Silchar was 988 females per 1000 males, which is above the national ratio of 940 females per 1000 males. Silchar metropolitan region has an average literacy rate of 90.26%,higher than the national average of 84% (2017), with male literacy of 92.90% and female literacy at 87.59%. Hinduism is majority religion in Silchar city with 86.31% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Silchar with approximately 12.17% following it. Jainism is followed by 0.79%, Christianity by 0.59%, Sikhism by 0.04% and Buddhism by 0.04% of the population in the Silchar city. Around 0.00% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.08% stated 'No Particular Religion'.
Silchar has a borderline tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am) slightly too hot in the “winter” or “cool” season to qualify as a humid subtropical climate (Cwa). During this “cool” season the weather is generally warm and dry with cool to mild mornings; however, the “wet” season begins early as the monsoon moves into the region during April, with the result that for seven months of the year Silchar has very hot and humid weather with heavy thunderstorms almost every afternoon until the middle of October, when there is usually a brief period of hot and relatively dry weather before the “cool” season sets in during November.
|Climate data for Silchar (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.0
|Average high °C (°F)||24.5
|Average low °C (°F)||12.1
|Record low °C (°F)||3.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.1
|Average rainy days||1.0||3.9||8.5||12.6||16.2||21.5||22.5||19.3||15.5||7.7||2.4||0.6||131.6|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
Silchar is home to the main campus of Assam University, a central university, which imparts education in both the general as well as professional streams. The university, which came into existence in 1994, has 16 schools and 35 post-graduate departments under them. The university has 56 affiliated colleges under it. The colleges in Silchar are mostly affiliated with the Assam university.
- Triguna Sen School of Technology, Assam University, Silchar
- Silchar Polytechnic
- Srikona Industrial Training Center (ITI)
- ARIIT (Assam Rifles Institute of Information Technology)
- NIELIT (National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology)
- Ramanuj Gupta Junior College
- East Silchar Junior College
- Guru Charan College
- Cachar College
- Women's College
- Radhamadhab College
- Silchar College of Arts and commerce
- Vivekananda junior college
- West silchar college
- Aryan junior college
- Lalit jain commerce college
- Silchar Medical College and Hospital, established in 1968, serves the southern region of Assam. There is an Institute of Pharmacy attached to it.
- A.K. ChandaLaw College at Tarapur.
Silchar Airport (IXS) is located at Kumbhirgram, about 22 km from Silchar and there are regular daily flights connecting Silchar with Kolkata, Jorhat￼￼, Guwahati, New Delhi, Bengaluru & ￼￼Dibrugarh￼￼. New flights to and from Jorhat to Silchar and Silchar to Jorhat has been included to connect two major cities of upper Assam and Barak valley. Silchar has been selected as one of the towns for the construction of 51 low cost airports across the country recently.
There are four railway stations within Silchar city. Three of them are functional, while the Srikona railway station is abandoned. Silchar railway station is the major railway station in Silchar.The station is connected with almost all important cities in India except the western part. The Arunachal (Silchar) junction is a cantonment station located in Masimpur area of Silchar. The New Silchar railway station is a passenger railway station located near Mazumdar Bazar area of Silchar.
Silchar is part of the Silchar (Lok Sabha constituency). The current member of Parliament from Silchar is Sushmita Dev who is the youngest daughter of the veteran politician Santosh Mohan Dev of the Indian National Congress.
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