Serie B (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsɛːrje ˈbi]), currently named Serie BKT for sponsorship reasons, is the second-highest division in the Italian football league system after the Serie A. It has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season. It had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, when the Lega Serie B was created for the 2010–11 season. Common nicknames for the league are campionato cadetto and cadetteria, as cadetto is the Italian for junior or cadet.
|Number of teams||19|
|Level on pyramid||2|
|Promotion to||Serie A|
|Relegation to||Serie C|
|Domestic cup(s)||Coppa Italia|
|International cup(s)||UEFA Europa League|
(via winning Coppa Italia)
|Current champions||Empoli (2nd title) |
|Most championships||Atalanta, Genoa|
(6 titles each)
|Most appearances||Luigi Cagni (483)|
|Top goalscorer||Giovanni Costanzo (143)|
|2018–19 Serie B|
A junior football championship was created at first in Italy in 1904, after seven editions of the major tournament of FIGC: it was called Second Category, and was composed both by senior squads of town clubs and by youth teams of city clubs. If the first ones won the championship, they would be promoted to First Category, which consequently improved in size: the first team to reach the honour, was Pro Vercelli in 1907, which even won the scudetto in 1908. FIGC attempted many times to introduce relegations on the contrary, but the reform was really adopted only in 1921 by the secessionist CCI in its Northern League, which consisted of a First Division and a Second Division: the first teams to be relegated were AC Vicenza and FC Inter even if, after the reunion with FIGC, the regulations were changed, and Venezia was demoted instead of the Milanese club. Even if part of the same league, differently from First Division, Second Division was based on local group with proximity criteria. Only in 1928, the big reform was conceived by FIGC's President Leandro Arpinati: after a year, a new second division based on the same national format of the major tournament would be born. Serie B began in 1929 with 18 clubs and continued until World War II after whom it was divided again between the northern and the southern part of the country, due to the destructions of the war. The championship became national again in 1948, and for many years in the second half of the 20th century, it was played by 20 clubs. In 2003–04 a single group of 24 teams was formed, the biggest in the history of all levels of the Italian championship. After 2004, a 22-teams format was introduced together with playoffs.
After Serie A split with Serie B to form Lega Serie A, Lega Serie B was formed on 7 July 2010. The league signed a new sponsor bwin for 2010–11 and 2011–12 seasons; changed the league name from Serie B TIM to Serie Bwin. The League changed again its name in Serie B ConTe.it due to sponsorship reasons.
Serie B introduced the "green card" at the beginning of the 2015–16 season. The green card is given to promote fair play and good acts. The green card will not be given during the game, as it would alter sport rules, but awarded after the match to a player or coach who exhibited fair play by the referee. The player or coach with the most green cards at the end of the season will be rewarded.
Format, promotion and relegationEdit
At the end of the season, three teams are promoted to Serie A and four teams are relegated to Serie C. The top two teams are automatically promoted. If the 3rd-placed team is 10 or more points ahead of the 4th-placed team, it is automatically promoted too, otherwise a playoff tournament determines the third team that will be ascending. In the 2013–14 season, anywhere between two and six teams within a "playoff margin" of 14 points from the 3rd-placed team will enter the playoff tournament. Under the new playoff format, up to three rounds may be required. The final two rounds are two-legged ties, while opening round matches (if required) are single legs hosted by the higher-ranked team. If a tie is drawn at the end of regular play (one or two matches, depending on the round), extra time is played. If the two teams are still tied after thirty minutes, the higher classified team advances.
In the relegation zone, the three last-placed teams (20th, 21st and 22nd) are automatically demoted to Serie C. If the 18th-placed team is 5 or more points ahead of the 19th-placed team, then the 19th-placed team becomes the 4th and final team to be demoted, otherwise the conditions for a playoff more commonly called playout exist.
If the playout is necessary, the 18th and 19th-placed teams are paired in a two-legged series with home-field advantage in the 2nd leg going to the 18th-placed team. The team with the higher aggregate score remains in Serie B while the loser becomes the fourth team relegated to Serie C. If an aggregate tie exists at the end of regulation play of the 2nd leg, the 18th-placed team is saved, and the 19th-placed team is demoted.
Below is a complete record of how many teams played in each season throughout the league's history;
- 18 clubs: 1929–1933
- 26 clubs (in two groups): 1933–1934
- 32 clubs (in two groups): 1934–1935
- 18 clubs: 1935–1936
- 16 clubs: 1936–1937
- 17 clubs: 1937–1938
- 18 clubs: 1938–1943
- 60 clubs (in three groups): 1946–1947
- 54 clubs (in three groups): 1947–1948
- 22 clubs: 1948–1950
- 21 clubs: 1950–1951
- 22 clubs: 1951–1952
- 18 clubs: 1952–1958
- 20 clubs: 1958–1967
- 21 clubs: 1967–1968
- 20 clubs: 1968–2003
- 24 clubs: 2003–2004
- 22 clubs: 2004–2018
- 19 clubs: 2018–2019
- 20 clubs: 2019–
Serie B was composed of 20 teams until the 2002–03 season. It was enlarged to 24 teams for the 2003–04 season due to legal problems relating to Calcio Catania relegation. The league reverted to 22 teams for the 2004–05 season, while Serie A expanded from 18 to 20 teams.
During the regular season, each team plays 42 games – two games against every opponent. In Italian football, a true round-robin format is used. In the first half of the season, called andata, each team plays once against all its opponents, a total of 21 games. In the second half of the season, called ritorno, each team will play the same teams in exactly the same order, the only difference being that a home game played in the first half will be an away game with that same team in the second half, and vice versa.
Since the 2006–07 season, the Serie B champion is awarded the cup Ali della Vittoria (Wings of Victory). The trophy is 63 cm high and weighs 5 kg. Its structure represents the wings of the goddess Nike, the goddess of victory, holding a cup similar to an Olympic flame.
Serie B clubsEdit
Seasons in Serie BEdit
This is the complete list of the clubs that have taken part in the 87 Serie B seasons played from the 1929–30 season until the 2018–19 season.[a] The teams in bold compete in Serie B in the current season.
- 61 seasons: Brescia
- 53 seasons: Verona
- 50 seasons: Modena
- 46 seasons: Bari
- 44 seasons: Palermo
- 38 seasons: Monza, Padova
- 37 seasons: Pescara
- 35 seasons: Catania, Venezia, Vicenza
- 34 seasons: Como, Novara
- 33 seasons: Genoa, Reggiana
- 32 seasons: Cesena, Messina, Pisa
- 31 seasons: Taranto
- 29 seasons: Cagliari
- 28 seasons: Atalanta, Catanzaro, Cremonese, Salernitana
- 27 seasons: Lecce, Parma, Ternana
- 26 seasons: Livorno, Perugia, Spezia
- 25 seasons: Foggia
- 22 seasons: Ancona, Ascoli, Reggina, Triestina
- 21 seasons: Sambenedettese, SPAL, Varese
- 20 seasons: Alessandria, Cosenza, Empoli
- 19 seasons: Avellino, Lucchese, Pistoiese
- 18 seasons: Piacenza, Udinese
- 16 seasons: Arezzo, Treviso
- 14 seasons: Legnano, Mantova
- 13 seasons: Pro Patria, Pro Vercelli, Siena
- 12 seasons: Bologna, Cittadella, Crotone, Fanfulla, Napoli, Torino
- 11 seasons: Lazio, Lecco, Sampdoria, Vigevano
- 10 seasons: Marzotto, Prato
- 9 seasons: AlbinoLeffe, Rimini
- 8 seasons: Chievo, Frosinone
- 7 seasons: Ravenna, Siracusa
- 6 seasons: Brindisi, Fidelis Andria, Grosseto, Seregno, Viareggio
- 5 seasons: Campobasso, Carpi, Fiorentina, Potenza, Sassuolo, Savona
- 4 seasons: Barletta, Casale, Juve Stabia, Latina, Monfalcone, Pavia, Pro Sesto, Trapani, Virtus Entella, Virtus Lanciano
- 3 seasons: Cavese, Derthona, Grion Pola, L'Aquila, Nocerina, Piombino, Sanremese, Savoia
- 2 seasons: Acireale, Benevento, Biellese, Carrarese, Casertana, Castel di Sangro, Crema, Fiumana, Gallaratese, Gubbio, Licata, Liguria, Milan, Pro Gorizia, Rieti, Sampierdarenese, Scafatese, Suzzara, Trani, Vogherese
- 1 season: Alba Trastevere, Alzano Virescit, Arsenale Taranto, Bolzano, Centese, Fermana, Forlì, Gallipoli, Juventus, La Dominante, Maceratese, Magenta, Massese, M.A.T.E.R., Matera, Mestrina, Molinella, Portogruaro, Roma, Sestrese, Sorrento, Vita Nova
The Serie B-C Alta Italia post-war championshipEdit
This championship was organized by geographical criteria with only Northern Italy Serie B and the best Northern Italy Serie C teams taking part. Southern Italy Serie B teams took part to 1945–46 Serie A. For this reason, this championship is not included in the statistics.
Promotions by seasonEdit
- Italics denotes teams promoted after playoff or qualification match.
- Parentheses denote teams not promoted.
|Season||Winners||Eventual other promotions|
|1926–27||Novara||Pro Patria, Reggiana, Lazio|
|1927–28||Atalanta||Pistoiese, Bari, Biellese, Venezia, Fiumana, Triestina, Legnano, Prato, Fiorentina|
Performance by clubEdit
Updated as of 2017–18 season
|Atalanta||6||3||1928, 1940, 1959, 1984, 2006, 2011|
|Genoa||6||1||1935, 1953, 1962, 1973, 1976, 1989|
|Palermo||5||2||1932, 1948, 1968, 2004, 2014|
|Bari||4||6||1935, 1942, 1946, 2009|
|Brescia||3||6||1965, 1992, 1997|
|Hellas Verona||3||5||1957, 1982, 1999|
|Como||3||2||1949, 1980, 2002|
|Torino||3||2||1960, 1990, 2001|
|Varese||3||1||1964, 1970, 1974|
|Vicenza||3||1||1955, 1977, 2000|
|Fiorentina||3||–||1931, 1939, 1994|
|Novara||3||3||1927, 1938, 1948|
Titles by regionEdit
Updated at the end of 2017–18 season
|Lombardia||Atalanta (6), Brescia (3), Como (3), Varese (3), Milan (2), Mantova (1), Pro Patria (1)|
|Toscana||Fiorentina (3), Livorno (2), Lucchese (2), Empoli (2), Pisa (1), Siena (1)|
|Veneto||Verona (3), Vicenza (3), Venezia (2), Chievo (1), Padova (1)|
|Liguria||Genoa (6), Liguria (1), Sampdoria (1), Sampierdarenese (1), Spezia (1)|
|Emilia-Romagna||Bologna (2), SPAL (2), Carpi (1), Modena (1), Piacenza (1), Reggiana (1), Sassuolo (1)|
|Piemonte||Torino (3), Novara (3), Alessandria (1), Casale (1), Juventus (1)|
|Sicilia||Palermo (5), Catania (1), Messina (1)|
|Puglia||Bari (4), Foggia (1), Lecce (1)|
|Campania||Salernitana (2), Napoli (2)|
|Friuli-Venezia Giulia||Udinese (2), Triestina (1)|
|Lazio||Lazio (1), Roma (1)|
|Umbria||Perugia (1), Ternana (1)|
Titles by cityEdit
Updated at the end of 2017–18 season
Promotions by regionEdit
Updated at the end of 2017–18 season
- The championship was suspended from 1943 to 1945 due to WWII, and the 1945–46 northern edition is not statistically considered by FIGC, even if its promotion result was official.
- 1945–46 Serie A-B Southern Italy co-champions.
- Due to expansion from 18 teams to 20 teams of Serie A.
- Redazione (22 June 2018). "La B cambia nome: si chiamerà Serie BKT fino al 2021".
- "Dalla nuova Lega Serie B, nasce il campionato Serie bwin". Lega Serie B (in Italian). 7 July 2010. Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- "Ecco il calendario ufficiale della Serie B ConTe.it". legab.it (in Italian). Lega Nazionale Professionisti Serie B. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Italy's Serie B to introduce green cards; rewards given after season". Foxsports.com. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Italy - Serie B All-Time Table 1929–2011". rsssf.com. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Serie B ConTe.it League official website (in Italian)