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Reactions to the Manchester Arena bombing

Tel Aviv City Hall illuminated with the colours of the Union Flag in solidarity with the UK

The reactions to the Manchester Arena bombing, which occurred on 22 May 2017, include the responses by political and religious leaders, media and the general public, both within the United Kingdom, where the Manchester Arena bombing took place, and from other nations and international organizations. Numerous notable establishments around the world also held memorials.

Ariana Grande, who had been giving a concert at the Manchester Arena shortly before the attack, issued a statement thereafter via Twitter that she was "broken," and offered to help those affected by the bombing. The general public sympathised with Grande's words and showed their overwhelming support as her statement later became the second most liked tweet of all time. In addition to returning to the city to visit and FaceTime hospitalised victims, Grande subsequently organised a benefit concert, One Love Manchester, headlined by herself and a number of other artists and groups. The concert was watched by more than 100 million people worldwide and raised proceeds exceeding £10 million in the twelve hours following its conclusion.

In the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Theresa May chaired an emergency meeting of the COBRA committee in the hours following the 22 May 2017 bombing, and the UK's threat level was raised from "severe" to "critical" for a number of days, the first time it had stood at "critical" since 2007. May also condemned the attack, along with Mayor of Greater Manchester Andy Burnham and other leading politicians and public figures. Religious groups, including the Muslim Council of Britain, also voiced their condemnation. Internationally the attack was universally condemned by world leaders. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant issued a statement in support of the act.

Monuments in locations around the world were lit up in the colours of the Union Jack in solidarity with the UK, and silences were held to remember the victims of the bombing. A number of organisations and individuals offered tributes to the victims, including the broadcaster ITV, whose soap Coronation Street is filmed in Manchester; numerous figures from the music and entertainment industries also expressed their sympathy.

BackgroundEdit

 
The Arena where the attack took place

The attack occurred on 22 May 2017, at around 22:30 BST (UTC+01:00),[1] when a suicide bomber detonated an improvised explosive device in the foyer area of the Manchester Arena. The attack took place after a concert given by the US singer Ariana Grande that was part of her 2017 Dangerous Woman Tour.[2][3] The concert was sold out, and up to 21,000 people were in attendance.[4]

Many of the concertgoers were children and young people, who make up much of Grande's fanbase.[5] Greater Manchester Police subsequently confirmed that 22 people had been killed and 120 injured, 59 of whom received hospital treatment; a number of children were confirmed to be among the fatalities.[6][7] The attacker was also identified as Salman Abedi, a 22-year-old male, and British citizen of Libyan descent.[8]

Domestic responsesEdit

 
A makeshift Memorial at St Ann's Square

On 23 May 2017, Queen Elizabeth II and the British royal family held a minute of silence at a Buckingham Palace garden party in honour of the victims of the bombing.[9] Following a minute of silence in St Anne's Square, a cry of "Rock on, Manchester" elicited applause and a spontaneous rendition of Oasis's "Don't Look Back in Anger" by the crowd.[10]

Prime Minister Theresa May called the incident an "appalling terrorist attack" and chaired a meeting of COBRA the next morning,[11][12] while Queen Elizabeth II expressed her "deepest sympathy" to those affected by this "dreadful event".[13] Visiting the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, the Queen said "It's dreadful, very wicked to target that sort of thing."[14] Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn called it a "terrible incident", stating that his "thoughts are with all those affected and our brilliant emergency services".[15] Campaigning for the general election was suspended by all political parties,[16][17] and largely remained on hold until 26 May.[18][a] The day after the bombing, May announced that the UK's threat level had been raised to 'critical' for the first time in 10 years.[19] As a result, the British Armed Forces would be deployed to support police forces at key locations in the UK.[20] The threat level remained at critical for four days before being reduced back to severe on 27 May.[21]

The Mayor of Greater Manchester, Andy Burnham, called the incident "an evil act". Burnham paid tribute to locals and businesses who had supported the victims.[22] He later announced a vigil to be held in Albert Square the following evening.[23] The morning after the attack, London's mayor Sadiq Khan stated that the capital "stands united with the great city of Manchester today", and later stated that "Londoners will see more police on our streets today".[24]

Prince William visited Manchester on 2 June, where he met police officers, paramedics, and others who assisted in the aftermath of the explosion. He also visited the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital and spoke to children still being treated for injuries sustained in the blast.[25] Grande also visited the hospital later the same day, and spent time with children and members of staff.[26]

Police reported a 505% increase in anti-Muslim hate crimes in the Greater Manchester area in the month following the bombing.[27]

Tommy Robinson, the former leader of the English Defence League organised a rally at Manchester's Piccadilly Gardens on 11 June, which was attended by several hundred people. The demonstration was held under the banner of UK Against Hate and prompted a counter demonstration by anti-fascist protesters, at which attendance was also in the hundreds. Demonstrators clashed with police, while media reported that one man had carried a pig's head. The rally drew criticism from Burnham, who tweeted "These EDL-types who came today need to have a look at themselves [...] @gmpolice deserve better."[28][29]

International responseEdit

International bodiesEdit

  • African Union: Chairperson Moussa Faki of the African Union Commission, "strongly condemned" the "senseless act of violence and loss of life in Manchester" and stated that "Africa stands with the people and government of the United Kingdom in reaffirming our solidarity with them during this difficult time".[30]
  •   Anglican Communion: Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, said "Heroic Manchester, dark evil cannot overcome it. We pray for those in sorrow on the hard journey of loss and pain, and for those who protect us."[31]
  •   Arab League: "Sincere condolences to the families of the victims and solidarity with the British government and people in the face of such a vile act terrorist act. This horrendous episode brings home once again the importance of a strong and effective international response to combat the acute peril of terrorism, which threatens many countries in the world." said the Arab League's Secretary-General Ahmed Aboul Gheit Spokesman Mahmoud Afifi.[32]
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations: Chairman of the ASEAN Rodrigo R. Duterte, sent his deepest sympathies and concern to the families of the dead and wounded in the Manchester incident, as well as appreciation for the excellent handling by security forces.[33]
  •   Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia: The Group leader ‘’Timochenco’’ said "As the leader of a Terrorist entity, and after a whole country forgave me, i think that The truly peace is the one that you found in your own heart and this people hasn’t found it"[citation needed].
  •   Caribbean Community: Secretary General Irwin La Rocque said that the 15-member regional grouping that "CARICOM extends its deepest sympathy to the families who lost loved ones and wishes a full and speedy recovery to the injured. The Community stands in solidarity with the Government and People of the United Kingdom as they confront this latest assault on their nation."[34]
  • Commonwealth of Nations: The Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II had expressed her "deepest sympathy and praised the "humanity and compassion" of citizens in the city who helped after the attack by offering their support to the emergency services.[35]
  •   Council of Europe: Chair of the Committee of Ministers Lubomír Zaorálek said "I express my sincere condolences to the families of the victims and wish a prompt recovery to those injured. I want also to convey my deep sympathy to the British people and assure the UK authorities of my solidarity on behalf of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe." [38]
  •   European Union: European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker expressed "great sadness and profound shock", adding that "once again, terrorism has sought to instil fear where there should be joy".[39] Vice-President of the European Commission Federica Mogherini also sent her expressed her thoughts.[40]
    • President of the European Council, Donald Tusk, sent his condolences. "My heart is in Manchester this night. Our thoughts are with the victims.[41]
    • European Parliament President Antonio Tajani condemned the terrorist attack in Manchester. "I am shocked by the deadly explosion in Manchester. Our thoughts and prayers are with the victims and families of those who have been injured."[42]
  • Economic Community of West African States: Chairman Ellen Johnson Sirleaf expressed her condolences.[43]
  •   Gulf Cooperation Council: The Secretary-General of the Cooperation Council, Abdul Latif bin Rashid Al-Zayani, described the incident as "a heinous terrorist crime that is contrary to moral and humanitarian values and demonstrates the need of the international community to unite efforts to eradicate terrorism wherever it may be".[44]
  • Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe: Secretary General Lamberto Zannier, strongly condemning the attack, expressed his solidarity with the United Kingdom and said "This terrible act underlines that we all have a responsibility to prevent and combat terrorism. We must strengthen legislation essential to combating terrorism, but also strengthen the role of civil society, women, youth and religious leaders in preventing and countering violent extremism and radicalization that can lead to terrorism."[45]
  • Interpol: Secretary General Jürgen Stock said "In a fast moving investigation such as this, the clear flow of information is vital, both for police focusing on their inquiries and for the families and friends trying to establish if their loved ones have been involved, Interpol will provide whatever support is required by the UK both now and as their inquiries progress."[46]
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: In a letter to Theresa May, Secretary-General Angel Gurría wrote "I would like to convey my heartfelt condolences following the devastating attack that took place last night in Manchester, leaving many casualties. Our thoughts and sympathies are especially with the people who lost their lives, as well as their families and all those affected by this horrendous attack. The OECD family stands firmly with you during this moment of national grievance, and is ready to assist in any way we can. We will never be defeated by terror and are united with the international community in categorically condemning this sickening act of hatred."[47]
  •   Organization of Islamic Cooperation: Secretary General Yousef Al-Othaimeen condemned "in the strongest term" and expressed "his anguish over the death of these innocent people and injuring many others."[48]
  • The Elders: Kofi Annan, Chair of The Elders said "This is a sickening attack. The murder of young people at a concert is an assault on humanity itself. Our thoughts and prayers are with the victims and all the people of Manchester and the UK. The Elders stand in solidarity with you, and salute your determination to fight terror, assert the values of love and decency, and defend an open and free way of life."[49]
  •   NATO: Secretary General of NATO Jens Stoltenberg condemned "the barbaric attack" in Manchester "strongly". He expressed that "his thoughts are with the all those affected, their loved ones and the people of Manchester and the UK".[50] At the NATO summit in Brussels in May 2017, leaders listened to a speech by US President Donald Trump on the attack and held a moment of silence for the victims.[51] Trump linked large-scale immigration to the terror attack and stated that NATO should "include a great focus on terrorism and immigration."[52]
  •   United Nations: Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the attack, offered his "profound sympathy" and condolences to the victims and their family, and that he "hopes that those who are responsible for this despicable attack will be swiftly found and bought to justice".[53]
    • United Nations Security Council: In a statement to the press, members of the UNSC also condemned condemning "in the strongest terms the barbaric and cowardly terrorist attack" while expressing condolences to the families of the victims, as well as to the Government of the United Kingdom.[54]
  •   Union of South American Nations: President of the USAN Mauricio Macri had expressed "deeply" condemned the attack on Manchester.[55]

States or entitiesEdit

Video of the press conference between Donald Trump and Mahmoud Abbas, where Donald Trump condemns the attack using the words "evil losers"[56][57][58] (from 6 min 47 secs)
  •   Afghanistan: While condemning the terror attack, President Ashraf Ghani said that terrorism is confined by no boundary, leaves no human life in peace and targets innocent civilians. The President added, "The people of Afghanistan, who have been victims of terror attacks, can feel the suffering of the affected families in such tragedies more than any other country."[59]
  •   Albania: Crown Prince Leka II of Albania and adviser to President Bujar Nishani said on Twitter, "My sincere condolences to the victims families of the terror attack at the Ariana Grande concert. #Horrificattack."
  •   Andorra: The ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra Emmanuel Macron made his respective statement in response to the attack in his capacity as the President of France.[60]
  •   Algeria: President Abdelaziz Bouteflika has addressed a message of condolences to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Theresa May, in which he "strongly" condemned the attack in which about twenty people lost their lives and dozens others were injured, in the city of Manchester.[61]
  •   Argentina: President Mauricio Macri wrote on Twitter: "My solidarity with the British people, in particular the families of the victims of the attack at Manchester Arena. We condemn profoundly all manner of terrorism and violence."[62]
  •   Armenia: President Serzh Sargsyan said "Armenia strongly condemns such inhumane acts and is determined to continue through the joint efforts fight against violence and terror".[63]
  •   Australia: Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull condemned the attacks in a spoken statement shortly after the attack and expressed solidarity. He expressed disgust and posited that it was "deliberately directed at teenagers"[64] and a "brutal attack on young people everywhere."[65]
  •   Austria: Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz expressed deep shock, condemned the attack in Manchester and offer sincere condolences to the families and friends of the victims. It shocks me every time I hear the news of a terror attack. I firmly condemn in strongest terms this barbaric act targeting youth and children celebrating music," said Kurz.[45]
  •   Azerbaijan: President Ilham Aliyev wrote to PM Theresa May that it is "necessary and important to jointly fight against terrorism in a resolute manner."[66]
  •   Bangladesh: Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina condemned the attacks and offered condolences.[67]
  •   Bahrain: Council of Representatives Speaker Ahmed bin Ibrahim Al-Mullah strongly condemned the terrorist blast and sent two cables of condolences to Norman Lord Fowler, Leader of the House of Lords, and House of Commons Speaker John Bercow, backing all measures undertaken by the British authorities to maintain people's security and safety and denounced the terrorist attack which, he said, "contravenes international conventions and religions and represents an affront to human values and peoples' inalienable rights to live in peace, security and stability"[68]
  •   Belgium: Prime Minister Charles Michel wrote on Twitter: "All my thoughts go out to the victims in Manchester and I express Belgian support for the United Kingdom."[69] He told VRT Nieuws: "We know because of the Brussels bombings last year good how painful and difficult it now is for the families. It is crucial to fight together against terror."[70]
  •   Bolivia: President Evo Morales "in the name of the Bolivian people" sent his condolences to the deceased, adding that his country's "solidarity was with the families and the United Kingdom" on Twitter.[71]
  •   Bosnia and Herzegovina: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis Zvizdić said "I am appalled by this horrific attack which took lives of innocent citizens. Today, more than ever, we must join forces and confront the evil of terror which is shaking the world."[72]
  •   Brazil: President Michel Temer sent a letter to Theresa May condemning the attack, calling it "cowardly".[73] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs released a statement condemning "all kinds of terrorism, regardless of motivation" and offered assistance and support to the families of victims and the British authorities.[74]
  •   Bulgaria: President Rumen Radev said in a letter to the Queen that it was "with deep sorrow, I received the news of the bloody terrorist act during a concert in Manchester Arena that took the lives of innocent people." Meanwhile, Prime Minister Boyko Borissov said in a letter to May that he wished the British authorities success in dealing with this difficult, monstrous act.[72]
  •   Canada: Prime Minister Justin Trudeau offered "deepest condolences" on behalf of all Canadians to the families and friends of those killed and wished a speedy recovery to everyone who was injured. He also vowed to "continue to counter such senseless acts and to fight terrorism in its many forms" and to "assist British authorities in bringing those responsible to justice."[75]
  •   Chile: President Michelle Bachelet of Chile expressed her "solidarity with the British people, especially with the victims in Manchester Arena".[76]
  •   China: President Xi Jinping offered condolences to the Queen, stating, "The Chinese people are firmly standing together with the British people at this difficult time".[77]
    •   Hong Kong: Chief Executive CY Leung expressed sympathy for victims of the terrorist attack in Manchester.[78]
  •   Colombia: President Juan Manuel Santos wrote on Twitter to express his "solidarity with the families of the deceased and the injured" and expressed Colombia's shared pain and suffering with the United Kingdom.[79]
  •   Croatia: Prime Minister Andrej Plenković offered condolences to the victims' families and the British people on Twitter.[80] He sent a letter of condolence to PM Theresa May offering condolences to PM Theresa May, British citizens, victims' families and friends and wished a speedy recovery to those injured.[81]
  •   Cyprus: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs strongly condemned the "heinous terrorist attack" that took place late in Manchester and, in a written statement, it expressed its full support and solidarity with the government and the people of the United Kingdom. "We convey [our] deepest condolences to the victims' families and wishes for a speedy recovery to those injured in the attack" and it further added: "We maintain our strong resolve to stand united with our partners against terrorism and any action which aims at creating fear and mistrust in our societies."[82][better source needed]
  •   Czech Republic: Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka responded in a statement "We have all been following the terrible news from Manchester and on behalf of the Czech government I want to condemn this atrocity in the strongest possible terms. I want to express my condolences to the victims and their families and our solidarity with the government and the people of Great Britain.[83]
  •   Denmark: Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen condemned the attack, calling it tragic and meaningless, and extended his sympathies to the victims, their families and the people of the United Kingdom.[84]
  •   Estonia: Foreign Minister Sven Mikser also condemned the terrorist attack as "brutal act of terrorism." While expressing condolences to families of the victims, the minister also called for joint fight against terrorism. "The fight against terrorism must above all be decisive, effective and based on international cooperation," said the minister.[72]
  •   Fiji: Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama wrote in a letter to PM Theresa May that "Fiji stands shoulder to shoulder with the United Kingdom in our determination to defeat the terrorist threat."[85]
  •   Finland: President Sauli Niinistö said that the "terrorist attack on a concert venue full of young people speaks of ruthless inhumanity. On behalf of all Finns, I am part of the sorrow of the relatives and loved ones of the victims. Finland strongly condemns all forms of terrorism."[86]
  •   France: President Emmanuel Macron visited the British Embassy in Paris to sign a book of condolence and stated "I address my thoughts to the British people, the victims and their loved ones. We are leading the fight against terrorism together."[87]
  •   Germany: Chancellor Angela Merkel expressed her deepest sympathy for all victims and for their families and loved ones in their sorrow and despair saying: "It is incomprehensible that anybody could use a carefree pop concert to kill and maim so many people." She further pointed out: "This suspected terrorist attack will only strengthen our resolve to continue to take joint action with our British friends against those who plan and carry out inhuman acts like this."[88]
  •   Greece: Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras condemned the attacks, following with, "We express our solidarity with the British people".[89] Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece also offered his condolences and said on Twitter, "My heart goes out to the families at Manchester Arena. Our Democracy and freedom of thought will never falter or weaken. God Bless."[90]
  •   Holy See: Pope Francis expressed that he was "deeply saddened" by the "injury and tragic loss of life" and invoked "God's blessings of peace, healing, and strength upon the nation."[91]
    •    Vatican City: Sercretary of State Pietro Parolin wrote to Archbishop of Westminster Vincent Nichols that "His Holiness Pope Francis was deeply saddened to learn of the injury and tragic loss of life caused by the barbaric attack in Manchester and he expresses his heartfelt solidarity with all those affected by this senseless act of violence. He commends the generous efforts of the emergency and security personnel, and offers the assurance of his prayers for the injured, and for all who have died. Mindful in a particular way of those children and young people who have lost their lives, and of their grieving families, Pope Francis invokes God's blessings of peace, healing and strength upon the nation."[92]
  •   Hungary: Prime Minister Viktor Orbán said: "Europe is suffering repeated attacks, which represent a major shock to us all, and accordingly we must do everything possible to restore the security of the continent". He went on to offer support and condolences.[93]
  •   Iceland: Prime Minister Bjarni Benediktsson condemned the attack, stating "Nothing can explain the will to attack innocent people, children, teenagers and their parents, as was so cruelly done in Manchester last night. No words can express the extent of the consequences." The Icelandic President Guðni Th. Jóhannesson sent an official letter of condolence to the Queen.[94]
  •   India: Prime Minister Narendra Modi condemned the attacks and offered condolences.[95]
  •   Indonesia: Spokesman of the Indonesian Foreign Affairs Ministry Armanatha Nasir stated that the Indonesian Government strongly condemned the attack in Manchester and offered condolences to the victims.[96]
  •   Ireland: Taoiseach Enda Kenny condemned the attack and said it was "an attack on innocence and happiness".[97]
  •   Iraq: Spokesperson of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ahmed Jamal said in a starting the "Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemns the terrorist attack in the city of Manchester. The ministry reaffirms Iraq's solidarity with the United Kingdom against all terrorist gangs and organisations that targets the safety and security of its people. The ministry extends its deepest condolences to the families of victims, hoping a speedy recovery of the wounded. It reiterates the need to exert further international efforts in order to eradicate terrorism's sources of support and finance, media outlets that promote their approach, and all ideological hotbeds that adopts terrorism and extremism."[98]
    •   Iraqi Kurdistan: Prime Minister of Kurdistan Nechirvan Barzani issued a statement condemning the bombing and stated: "I strongly condemn the terrorist attack which targeted an art concert in the city of Manchester in Britain last night, in which some civilians were killed and injured. I extend my condolences to the families of the victims, the British nation and government. I stand by you and share your grievances. I wish a quick recovery to the wounded."[99]
  •   Iran: Iran's Foreign Ministry condemned the attack and compared it to an attack on Mirjaveh, which occurred about a month prior,[100] stating: "It is advisable that all the countries that have been victims of the extremist ideology and Takfiri terrorism get united and confront it in a serious, sincere and purposeful manner."[101]
  •   Israel: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu offered condolences and stated, "Terrorism is a global threat and it is incumbent on the enlightened countries to defeat it everywhere."[102]
  •   Italy: Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni said "the attack in Manchester is an attack to all Europe". He continues: "We work at this moment when arrives a strong message to the G7 meeting at Taormina of extraordinaire commitment against terrorism: we have the opportunity to assure together that the cowardice of those who breaks the lives of young people will not conquest our freedom".[103]
  •   Japan: Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, in a letter to PM Theresa May, offered condolences and condemned the attacks, adding, "Peaceful life and young people with great future ahead became the target of the terrorist attack. I cannot help but feel strong resentment. In this difficult time, I wish to express my heartfelt solidarity."[104]
  •   Kenya: President Uhuru Kenyatta condemned the attack, adding that his thoughts and prayers were with the United Kingdom and Prime Minister Theresa May after the incident. He also offered "any help the country could give", adding that, "Kenya knows what it is like to suffer a tragedy such as this" in reference to the country's history of attacks.[105]
  •   Kuwait: Emir Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah sent two cables of condolences to Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister Theresa May, offering sincere condolences to the families of the victims and wishes of swift recovery for the wounded, rejecting such terrorist acts targeting innocents. Two other cables of similar sentiments were sent by the Crown Prince Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and the Prime Minister.[106]
  •   Laos: Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Sengphet Houngbounyuang wrote in a book of condolences "We have learned with profound sadness over the tragic incident occurred in the evening of 22 May 2017 in Manchester, United Kingdom and North Ireland following the bomb explosion which killed 22 people and injured 59 people. On behalf of the government and people of the Lao PDR, we could like to express our deep condolences and sympathy to the governments of the United Kingdom and North Ireland and the people of the United Kingdom as well as the bereaved families of the victims affected by this attack."[107]
  •   Latvia: President Raimonds Vējonis had tweeted in reaction to the attack "Terrible attack against the innocent in #Manchester. Deepest condolences to the families of the victims, our solidarity with the people of #UK" [108]
  •   Lebanon: Prime Minister Saad Hariri said in a tweet "Expressing solidarity with the British people against the coward terrorist attack in Manchester."[109]
  •   Liberia: President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and the Liberian Government joined many the world over in vehemently condemning such vicious attacks, especially innocent lives. "Our heartfelt prayers are with the victims and the families affected by this atrocious incident."[43]
  •   Lithuania: President Dalia Grybauskaitė extended her condolences to Queen Elizabeth II. She condemned "such brutal and unjustifiable act of violence that did not choose its victims, and offered Lithuania's firm solidarity with the people of the United Kingdom". While Prime Minister Saulius Skvernelis said that the attack showed that internal security needed to be enhanced. "Such attacks can't be predicted. What we can do is strengthen internal security. There's no alternative to that. One thing is clear: terror will never win against free people," he said.[110]
  •   Luxembourg: Grand Duke Henri sent a telegram to Her Majesty saying, "It is with great pain that the Grand Duchess and I have learned of the tragedy that occurred in Manchester last night. We are particularly horrified to learn that so many young people were present and are counted amongst the victims and the wounded and added "The Luxembourg people join us in expressing to Your Majesty our most heartfelt sympathy. Our thoughts and prayers go out to the victims and their families."[111]
  •   Malta: Prime Minister Joseph Muscat called the bombing a "vicious attack" and expressed solidarity with the victims. The Maltese Foreign Office stated it was in contact with a number of Maltese citizens who were at the concert, but none of them were injured in the attack.[112]
  •   Malaysia: Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak condemned the "barbaric and cowardly attack" and offered condolences. He stated, "At this time of heartbreak, Malaysia stands united with Britain. We must be firm, determined and ready to confront terror swiftly and decisively wherever and whenever it manifests itself."[113]
  •   Mexico: President Enrique Peña Nieto wrote on Twitter that Mexico's "solidarity" was with "the society and government of the United Kingdom".[114]
  •   Monaco: Prince Albert said, "It is with deep emotion that I learnt of the unspeakable tragedy in Manchester. Our thoughts and prayers are with the grieving families of the innocent victims of this new act of violence. On behalf of the people of Monaco, my family and myself, allow us to express our feelings of deep pain and sorrow. Let me assure Your Majesty of our solidarity for the victims and their families."[115]
  •   Morocco: The Foreign Ministry said in a statement, "Morocco deemed the attack as "abject crime, contrary to all moral and universal values," expressing its full solidarity with the British government.[116]
  •   Montenegro: Prime Minister Duško Marković expressed condolences to Theresa May. The Montenegrin government said it was, "appalled by the heinous crime," in Manchester.[117]
  •     Nepal: Minister for Foreign Affairs Prakash Sharan Mahat, in a letter to his Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Boris Johnson, stated that Nepal stands in solidarity with UK government and expressed condolences. He added that he "hoped that those responsible for the terrorist attack would be brought to book".[118]
  •   New Zealand: Prime Minister Bill English said his thoughts were with the people of Manchester following the bombing, describing it as an "awful tragedy".[119]
  •   North Korea: Premier Pak Pong-Ju sent a message of sympathy to British Prime Minister Theresa May, the official Korean Central News Agency reported. "Noting the Korean people are sharing the pain of loss with the British people, the message hoped that the British government and people would eradicate the aftermath of the terrorist incident as early as possible," Foreign Minister Ri Yong-Ho also sent a similar message to his British counterpart Boris Johnson.[120]
  •   Norway: A day after the attack, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Norway Børge Brende, stated that "Norway condemns the terrorist attack in Manchester in the strongest possible terms. Our deepest sympathies go to those who have been affected and their families" and stressed "that Norway stands together with the UK in the fight against terrorism in Europe and globally".[121]
  •   Pakistan: Shortly after the incident, the Foreign Office condemned the attacks. Hours later, Pakistan's PM Nawaz Sharif stated in a tweet that, "elimination of terrorism requires concerted efforts" and "such acts targeted towards innocent people is highly condemnable".[122]
  •   Palestine: President Mahmoud Abbas condemned the attack and the loss of life, expressing condolences to Prime Minister Theresa May, the families of the affected, and the British people.[123]
    •   Gaza: A senior Hamas official has said while in Qatar, Izzat al-Rishq, "We condemn the bloody onslaught against the innocent in Manchester, express solidarity with the families of the victims and the wounded in the wake of their tragedy," according to Yediot Aharonot.[124]
  •   Papua New Guinea: Prime Minister Peter O'Neill said: "The people of Papua New Guinea offer our prayers, and our hopes of survival for those injured."[125]
  •   Paraguay: President Horacio Cartes wrote on Twitter that Paraguay's "condolences and solidarity" was with "the British people" and condemned the "irrational act" that took place [126]
  •   Philippines: President Rodrigo Duterte offered his "deepest sympathies and concern to the families of the dead and wounded in the Manchester incident; as well as appreciation for the excellent handling by police/security forces. We are in solidarity with the United Kingdom in addressing and combating violent extremism."[127]
  •   Poland: Prime Minister Beata Szydlo wrote in a tweet "We share the pain. Terrorism has once again struck the innocent. It was a bestial act of violence."[128]
  •   Portugal: President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa sent a message to the Queen expressing solidarity "on behalf of the Portuguese people, in particular to the families of the victims" and underscoring the importance of a "united Europe in the fight against terrorism and the constant and permanent defense of the values of democracy, the promotion of peace and respect for human rights".[129] Prime Minister António Costa wrote on Twitter: "Our deepest sympathies and solidarity to the British people, the victims and families of the #Manchester attack."[130] and later sent a tweet in Portuguese, offering his condolences to the victims.[131]
  •   Romania: President Klaus Iohannis stated on Twitter which he answered: "Outraged and saddened by the terrible news from Manchester. Our thoughts go to the victims and their loved ones. Solidarity with UK."[132]
  •   Russia: President Vladimir Putin condemned the attack, calling it a "cynical and inhuman crime", and offered his condolences to the British Prime Minister Theresa May.[133][134]
  •   Qatar: The Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani sent private condolences to the Queen and Prime Minister and wished all those injured a quick recovery. The Deputy Emir Abdullah bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani also sent his condolences.[115] While the Foreign Minister issued a short statement on Twitter expressing "My sincere condolences and thoughts to victims of #Manchester attack and their families. #Qatar stand by #UK gov & people."[135]
  •   San Marino: Foreign Affairs Minister Nicola Renzi, on behalf of the Government and on his own behalf, has expressed "... dismay, anger and deep sadness for the victims of this last attack that, hitting Manchester, has hurt every country involved, with increasing determination, in the fight against the aberrant phenomena of a terrorism which knows no borders."[136]
  •   Saudi Arabia: The Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed "strong condemnation" of the attack. It also "reaffirmed the Kingdom's solidarity with the United Kingdom, underscoring the importance of joining international efforts to eradicate the scourge of terrorism and extremism."[137]
  •   Serbia: Prime Minister and President-elect, Aleksandar Vučić sent a telegram to Theresa May offering his condolences. "The innocent victims of this inhuman act warn us that hatred and violence can happen anywhere and anytime. Therefore we must unite to defend civilised values from the forces of darkness, to achieve a noble cause – a future without fear of terrorism."[117]
  •   Singapore: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the attack, and expressed condolences. It added that "the ministry and the Singapore High Commission in London will work closely with the Manchester Police to monitor the situation."[138]
  •   Slovakia: President Andrej Kiska sent a telegram to Queen Elizabeth saying: "The tragic piece of news of the Manchester bombing...has evoked deep outrage and sadness in me. The attack against young people and children is an immensely cowardly and shameful deed." Meanwhile, Slovak Parliamentary Chairman Andrej Danko had been visiting Manchester only a few hours said "I'm experiencing this horrible act even more, as I was there with my sons only a few hours before. The act that has happened, and is constantly happening around us, is totally incomprehensible and sad."[72]
  •   Slovenia: Prime Minister Miro Cerar said on Twitter: "I most strongly condemn the Manchester attack. We stand with our UK friends and our thoughts are with families and friends of the victims."[72]
  •   Somalia: President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed said "We condemn evil of terror against innocent people in Manchester and Our thoughts and prayers with all victims of Manchester attack".[139]
  •   South Africa: The Department of International Relations and Cooperation said in a statement "On behalf of the government and the people of South Africa, President Jacob Zuma extends his heartfelt condolences to the people of the United Kingdom, in particular, the families and loved ones of the deceased and wish the injured speedy recoveries. Acts of violence and extremism have no place in society and constitute a threat to peace, security and development." and further added that "The South African government condemns in the strongest terms terrorist attacks in any form and from whichever quarter and in particular, against innocent children and youth."[140]
  •   South Korea: The Foreign Ministry issued a statement extending "its deepest condolences and sympathies to their bereaved families and the people of the UK" and stating "that terrorism is a crime against civilization and humanity that cannot be justified under any circumstances and must be eradicated at any cost."[141]
  •   Spain: Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy expressed his condolences to his counterpart and condemned the attack, describing it as "atrocious and cowardly."[142]
  •   Sri Lanka: President Maithripala Sirisena also condemned the attack.[143] Additionally Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Mahishini Colonne wrote on Twitter: "Saddened by the attack in #Manchester. #SriLanka condemns this heinous act. Our thoughts [and] prayers are [with] all those affected."[better source needed][144][145]
  •    Switzerland: President Doris Leuthard tweeted: "The fact that the target should once again be people wanting to enjoy a night out at a concert is appalling.[146]
  •   Sudan : The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has expressed in a communique its condolences to the families of the victims and its sympathy with those injured and with the friendly people and government of UK and has renewed its rejection and condemnation of all acts of terrorism and all actions of bloodletting of innocent people and of terrorizing civilians, a matter that is rejected by all divine religions, international charters and laws and expressed full solidarity and full backing and support by the Sudan for the UK government and also renewed its call to the international community to intensify its efforts and cooperation in face of all forms of terrorist and criminal activities.[147]
  •   Sweden: King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden released a statement saying, "It's sad as the Queen and I received the message of the horrific deed in Manchester, UK. This deed is another attack against the open and tolerant society that we all want to live in. It is important that we stand united together against this unimaginable evil. My and the Royal Family's thoughts go to the victims, their families and to the whole British people.[148] Prime Minister Stefan Löfven also said that the attack was a "brutal and senseless act that breaks the heart of everyone with any human empathy."[149]
  •   Turkey: The Turkish Foreign Ministry condemned the attack the following morning, while Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu wrote: "I condemn the terrorist attack in Manchester. Sincere condolences to the British Government and people."[150]
  •   Ukraine: President Petro Poroshenko stated that he was "deeply shocked" to hear about the news of the bombing. Poroshenko offered his condolences to the victims of the attack and stated that Ukraine is "praying for the swift recovery of those wounded."[151]
  •   United States: President Donald Trump condemned the attack and wrote on Twitter: "We stand in absolute solidarity with the people of the United Kingdom." Trump also commented on the events whilst on a visit to Israel, calling the perpetrator(s) "evil losers."[152]
  •   Venezuela: The Ministry for Foreign Affairs condemned the attack and issued a statement which reads that "Venezuela strongly condemns and rejects terrorism in all its forms, and reiterates its call to the international community to address and prevent the causes of these very serious hate crimes that affect all of humanity. The vile terrorist attack against young victims in Manchester attacks the future and the hope of the people."[153]
  •   Vietnam: Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc has sent a message of condolence to his counterpart.[154]
  •   Zambia: President Edgar Chagwa Lungu said in a letter addressed to Prime Minister Theresa May, "On behalf of my Government, the people of Zambia and indeed on my own behalf, I wish to convey to Your Excellency, Mrs Theresa May, MP, the bereaved families and the people of Britain, our heartfelt sympathies and condolences on this tragic loss. Please accept, Your Excellency, the assurances of my highest consideration and esteem," the President further added "We in Zambia join progressive humanity to condemn in strongest terms acts of senseless violence such as this and pledge full support to Your Excellency and the people of the United Kingdom as they confront the ugly face of terrorism. Through various international arrangements, Zambia wishes to renew its commitment to global efforts to fight terrorism."[155]

OtherEdit

  •   Kosovo: President Hashim Thaçi released a statement condemning the attack, adding "The shocking attack in Manchester has been directed against the defenceless, against youth and the future. In these heavy hours, the people and institutions of Kosovo share the pain of the people and the institutions of the friend state, Great Britain... The democratic world has built these values together, we must protect them together from terrorists who do not choose means to overthrow them".[156]
  •   Northern Cyprus: President Mustafa Akıncı expressed his condolences to the British people following the bomb attack on Manchester Arena. "We deeply regret the explosion at the concert in Manchester city in England where 22 people lost their lives and injured 59 people. We wholeheartedly share the great pain of the British people."[157]
  •   Rojava: "We, the Foreign Affairs Commission of Cezire Canton in the Democratic Self-Administration – Syria, are deeply saddened by the news of the cowardly terrorist attack that targeted Manchester Arena on 22/05/2017, killing 19 people and injuring 50 of innocent civilians," the commission said in a statement.[158]
  •   Somaliland: President Ahmed Mohamed Mohamoud said in a statement released by the Presidential Press, Communications and Spokesman's Office that "his government and people of Somaliland are strongly condemning the horrific attack which has left scores of innocent people dead, including children as young as 8 years old. This barbaric attack was outrageous attempt to terrorize innocent civilians; it was an attack on all of humanity and the universal values."[159]
  •   Syria (Opposition): Qadri Jamil who leads the opposition group in Moscow that is part of the Syria Arab Republic said "Yesterday we witnessed an explosion in Manchester," Jamil said. "Terrorism continues marching across the planet. To cope with this threat, there is the need to solve all the existing problems in the region (Middle East) and be done with terrorist organizations."[160]
  •   Taiwan: President of the Republic of China Tsai Ing-wen sent her condolences "On behalf of the people of Taiwan, we send condolences and sympathies to all the victims of (the) horrific attack in Manchester," Tsai wrote in a Twitter message.[161]

ISILEdit

Other actionsEdit

 
A participant on the Great Manchester Run displays an "I Love Manchester" sign on his clothing.

Practical responsesEdit

Manchester Arena, where the incident took place, issued a statement offering condolences to the people that were affected, calling the attack a "senseless tragedy".[165] As a result, scheduled concerts in the venue later in the same week for band Take That were postponed.[166] On 14 June, the arena confirmed that it would remain closed until September, with scheduled concerts either being cancelled, postponed or moved to other venues.[167]

Facebook activated its "Safety Check" feature for the affected area following the incident, allowing users to mark themselves as "safe", to notify family and friends.[168]

Vigils and honoursEdit

Monuments around the world were lit up in the colours of the Union Jack in solidarity with the UK. They included the Burj Khalifa, Tel Aviv City Hall, Jet d'Eau, Library of Birmingham, Amsterdam Central Station, The Orlando Eye, The Toronto sign, Brandenburg Gate, the Adelaide Oval, the Story Bridge in Brisbane, the Petrin Tower in Prague and the HSBC building in Hong Kong.[169] The lights of the Eiffel Tower, The Colosseum, the Trevi Fountain and Empire State Building were turned off as a sign of respect.[170]

There was a vigil in Albert Square, Manchester, where a minute of silence was observed followed by speeches from members of the community along with speeches from Manchester Mayor Andy Burnam, Greater Manchester Police Chief Constable Ian Hopkins and poet Tony Walsh. Also on stage was the Home Secretary Amber Rudd, Opposition Leader Jeremy Corbyn, Speaker of the House of Commons John Bercow and Liberal Democrats leader Tim Farron. Various vigils were held in other places in the UK too, including London, Glasgow, Birmingham, Belfast, Coventry, Liverpool, Sheffield, Derby, Newcastle upon Tyne, Bolton, Swindon, Leeds and Tarleton.[171]

The Cannes film festival held a moment of silence on their red carpet a day after the attack.[172] Formula One announced that teams would observe a minute's silence before the Monaco Grand Prix; promotional events were also suspended on 23 May.[173]

ITV soap Coronation Street paid tribute to the victims in the episode following the attack, with a photograph with the words 'We Stand Together' shown in place of the usual sponsorship bumper at the end of the show.[174] In addition to this, the ITV soap will also dedicate a bench on the set of the show for the victims. The transcription will read: "For Martyn and all those who lost their lives on 22nd May 2017. We Stand Together."[175][176][b]

On 25 May, a national minute's silence was observed to remember the victims.[177] Similar observances were also held at national-level sporting and music events in the days following the attack, including the 2017 FA Cup Final at Wembley Stadium, the 2017 Scottish Cup Final, the 2017 Rugby Union Premiership Final at Twickenham,[178] the 2017 Great Manchester Run,[179] and Radio 1's Big Weekend, a music festival held in Kingston upon Hull.[180] Manchester Victoria railway station, adjacent to Manchester Arena and closed in the aftermath of the bombing, reopened eight days later on 30 May, with a wreath laying ceremony attended by Burnham, Chris Grayling, the Secretary of State for Transport, and other public figures.[181]

As a tribute to the victims, fans of Ariana Grande launched a campaign to get Grande's single, "One Last Time" to the number 1 position of the UK Singles Chart of which both the song and video did on iTunes.[182][183] The song re-entered the UK Singles chart at number 11 for the week of 26 May 2017 – 1 June 2017, and reached number two the following week.[184][185] Similarly, fans encouraged attendees of upcoming Shawn Mendes and Little Mix concerts to sing the song as a tribute before the beginning of their shows.[186]

The attack was remembered on its first anniversary, by a service at Manchester Cathedral on 22 May 2018. Prince William and Prime Minister Theresa May joined victims families and friends at the service.[187]

Ariana GrandeEdit

Ariana Grande, whose concert had ended shortly before the explosion, posted on her official Twitter account: "broken. from the bottom of my heart, i am so so sorry. i don't have words."[188] Her management team added that they "mourn the lives of children and loved ones taken by this cowardly act".[189] The tweet briefly became the most-liked tweet in history.[190]

Grande suspended her international Dangerous Woman Tour and returned to her mother's home in Florida.[191][192] Concerts in London, Antwerp, Łódź, Frankfurt, and Zürich were cancelled.[193]

In a statement released on 26 May, Grande said that she would return to the 'brave' city of Manchester to host a benefit concert to raise funds for the victims, and that she would "extend my hand and heart and everything I possibly can give to you and yours, should you want or need my help in any way".[194] The One Love Manchester concert was subsequently announced for 4 June at Old Trafford Cricket Ground, with Grande being joined by artists including Coldplay, Katy Perry, Justin Bieber, Take That, Miley Cyrus and Pharrell Williams.[195] Proceeds aided the We Love Manchester Emergency Fund, established after the attack by Manchester City Council and the British Red Cross.[196] Tickets for the event sold out within twenty minutes of going on sale. In addition, some tickets were reserved for people who had been at the Manchester Arena Concert.[197] Following an attack in London a day before the show, Greater Manchester Police announced that security would be tighter than planned.[198] The concert was televised, and watched by more than 100 million people worldwide. It raised proceeds exceeding £10 million ($13 million) in the twelve hours following its conclusion.[199]

Following the concert Grande re-released her 2014 single "One Last Time", with proceeds going to the We Love Manchester appeal. The song reached number 2 in the UK Singles Chart on 9 June.[200] In April 2018, "No Tears Left to Cry", Grande's first new release since the bombing, reached number 2 in the UK Singles Chart. BBC News reported that the track's lyrics allude to the Manchester Arena bombing and the One Love Manchester concert.[201] "Get Well Soon", the final song from Grande's 2018 album Sweetener, is 5 min 22 s long with 40 s of silence at the end; fans believe the song to be a tribute to the victims of the attack.[202]

As part of a new scheme to recognise people who have made an outstanding contribution to Manchester, on 13 June, Manchester City Council announced plans to honour Grande with honorary citizenship of the city.[203] On 12 July, members of the City Council voted unanimously to give her honorary citizenship.[204]

On 22 May 2018, Grande tweeted her thoughts and love to her fans in remembrance of the attack.[187]

Public figuresEdit

Columnist Katie Hopkins suggested the need for a "final solution", which was interpreted by some[205] as calling for ethnic cleansing of the UK's Muslim population.[206][207] However she then deleted her tweet and replaced the words "final solution" with "true solution".[208] LBC, a London-based talk radio station on which Hopkins had hosted a Sunday morning programme since April 2016, subsequently announced that she would be leaving their presenting lineup immediately.[209]

Comedian Rufus Hound wrote several tweets accusing the Conservative Party of committing the attack for electoral gains, comparing it to the Reichstag fire of 1933.[210] He subsequently retracted the conspiracy theory following criticism from other Twitter users.[211]

James Corden made a statement on his talk show, The Late Late Show with James Corden, expressing that people will "go to bed holding our little ones tighter" after the attacks.[212] Fellow talk show host Ellen DeGeneres wrote on Twitter: "This story is so sad and so scary. Sending all my love to Manchester."[213]

Former Presidents of the United States Barack Obama and Bill Clinton wrote: "Americans will always stand shoulder to shoulder with the people of the UK" and "senseless & vicious acts of terror never drive us apart," respectively.[214]

Various celebrities expressed their condolences for the bombing, including Chris Evans, Anna Kendrick, Kim Kardashian, Nicole Kidman, Kendall Jenner, Harry Styles Kylie Jenner, Zac Efron, Gary Lineker, David Beckham, Paris Hilton, Dwayne Johnson, Gigi Hadid, Ryan Seacrest and Jason Manford.[215][216][194][217]

The cast of Victorious, the Nickelodeon sitcom in which Grande had a role, also offered their condolences.[218]

Music industryEdit

Many within the music industry showed their support for Grande and the victims of the attack. Vevo posted a five-second ad on YouTube, stating their sympathies with those affected in Manchester. American singer-songwriter Katy Perry condemned the bombing, stating she was "broken hearted" for everyone involved, and for "the state of this world". Canadian hip-hop artist Drake offered condolences to the victims of the bombing, adding that it was a "real fear" that he had while on his recent concert tour. American rapper Nicki Minaj, who has previously collaborated with Grande, said that her "heart hurts" after hearing about the attack. Further messages of condolence came from Christina Aguilera, All Saints, alt-J, Iggy Azalea, Bananarama, Justin Bieber, Mariah Carey, Alessia Cara, Camila Cabello, Sabrina Carpenter, Cher, Cheryl, Coldplay, Miley Cyrus, Lana Del Rey, DNCE, Fifth Harmony, Becky G, Liam Gallagher, Martin Garrix, Selena Gomez, Green Day, Ella Henderson, Niall Horan, Nick Jonas, Lali, Kendrick Lamar, John Legend, Lights, Little Mix, Jennifer Lopez, Lorde, Demi Lovato, Madonna, Johnny Marr, Bruno Mars, John Mayer, Paul McCartney, Shawn Mendes, Kylie Minogue, Queen, OneRepublic, Liam Payne, Rihanna, Shakira, Ed Sheeran, Troye Sivan, Britney Spears, Linkin Park, Guns N' Roses, Harry Styles, Taylor Swift, Nathan Sykes, Take That, Justin Timberlake, Robbie Williams, You Me at Six, Halsey and many others.[219][220][221]

Eminem and Justin Timberlake helped raise over $2 million for the victims.[222] Liam Gallagher announced a solo gig at Manchester's O2 Ritz, the proceeds of which would be donated to a fund established by the families of the victims.[223]

Some artists, such as Blondie, Kiss, and Take That, cancelled upcoming gigs to show respect for the victims.[224][225] Other artists chose to go ahead with planned concerts as a sign of defiance against terrorism. On 27 May, Manchester indie group The Courteeners played a gig at Old Trafford cricket ground that was attended by a crowd of 50,000, and included supporting sets from The Charlatans, Blossoms and Cabbage, all of them Manchester groups. The venue was guarded by armed police.[226]

Organisers of the 2017 Glastonbury Festival warned people attending the event they would face tighter security checks.[227] Noel Gallagher donated proceeds from the sale of "Don't Look Back in Anger" to the We Love Manchester appeal after the song became an unofficial anthem of support for Manchester in the aftermath of the attacks.[228]

On 9 July 2017, a performance to benefit the Manchester bombing victims was held in New York City's The Cutting Room, called "Break Free: United for Manchester", with Broadway theatre and television performers interpreting Ariana Grande songs. Performers include Alex Newell.[229]

Religious groupsEdit

At a large public vigil held on Wednesday 24 May in Albert Square, Manchester the Bishop of Manchester, David Walker, shared a platform with Imam Irfan Chishti of Manchester Central Mosque and a number of other local religious leaders to jointly condemn the attack and to remember the victims.[230][231] British Muslim groups, such as the Muslim Council of Britain[232][233][234] and Ahmadi Muslims UK[235] condemned the attack and expressed their condolences.

General Secretary of the Bible Society Egypt Ramez Attallah said "I was shocked this morning when I saw the scenes of the bloodshed. It remained me so much of when we had similar attacks in Egypt, this last year. My condolences to the families, to the orphans, to the parents that lost their children. And to the churches, as they try to comfort them. May God have mercy."[236]

Secretary General Stefan Gustavsson of the Swedish Evangelical Alliance stated "It is with shock, sadness and anger, that we have received the news about the terror attack in Manchester. It is an attack, not only on the many individuals who were so tragically affected, but also on the civilization we are a part of."[236]

Sporting organisationsEdit

ICCEdit

The International Cricket Council (ICC) suggested that the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy, starting in June, could be in doubt after the bombing as a result of security issues. Tournament Director Steve Elworthy added that "our thoughts and condolences are with everyone who has been affected by this appalling atrocity. The security plan and planning process has been developed in line with, and reflects, the current threat level within the UK. We will be assessing and reviewing that security plan all the time. We've continually worked with the venues to help develop our plan. The readiness testing has been completed, so we are up to speed with all of that. The ICC, through David Richardson [CEO] and ourselves have been in contact with all of the members and are in continual communication with them over the last 12 hours, and will continue to be in contact until the tournament kicks off."[237]

UEFAEdit

UEFA, in charge of the 2017 UEFA Europa League Final in Sweden between local club Manchester United and AFC Ajax, released a statement expressing "our thoughts are with the victims and families of those affected". They urged fans to arrive at the Friends Arena in Solna as early as possible due to tight security arrangements. These arrangements were already in place and scheduled since the attack in Stockholm earlier in the year.[238] The opening ceremony was considerably reduced as a mark of respect for the victims and a minute's silence will be observed prior to the final.[239] Manchester United players also wore black armbands for the victims of the bombing. After winning the match over Ajax, Manchester United dedicated the win to the city of Manchester, with several players stating "This is for you Manchester" in the wake of the attack.[240]

Manchester United stated: "Our thoughts and prayers go out to all those affected, including our supporters, club staff and members of our community such as the children from our Manchester United Foundation partner schools who were attending the concert at the Arena."[241] AFC Ajax stated: "From Amsterdam with love to Manchester. Our thoughts are with the victims and the loved ones of those affected."[242]

UEFA President Aleksander Čeferin said: "I am deeply saddened by the horrible terrorist attack in Manchester last night. It shocks me that so many innocent people lost their lives and I would like to send my condolences to the families of those affected."[243]

The band of the French Republican Guard covered Oasis' 1996 chart-topping hit "Don't Look Back in Anger" before a minute's silence was held, honouring both the victims of the Manchester attack and the subsequent London bridge attack on 3 June, prior to England's friendly against France in Paris on 13 June.[244]

Manchester Tattoo AppealEdit

 
"Love not hate" chalk graffiti on the pavement in St Ann's Square, featuring the worker bee symbol.

The worker bee has been a symbol of Manchester since the Industrial Revolution, when it was adopted in the city's coat of arms to represent industriousness, and bee motifs have been used to decorate various architectural features and street furniture in the city.[245] In the aftermath of the bombing, the bee began to gain in popularity as a symbol of public unity against terrorism, appearing on protest banners and graffiti.[246] A campaign was launched by a tattoo artist in Stalybridge to offer tattoos of the worker bee symbol for a £50 donation to support victims of the bombing. The Manchester Tattoo Appeal rapidly gained in popularity and spread to other tattoo parlours in Manchester and elsewhere.[247][248] Grande was among those to have a bee tattoo, posting an image of it on her social media shortly after the first anniversary of the attack, along with the word "forever".[249]

Reopening of Manchester ArenaEdit

On 16 August 2017, it was announced that Manchester Arena would reopen on 9 September, with a benefit concert featuring Noel Gallagher and other acts associated with the North West.[250] On 5 September it was announced the concert would be broadcast live on BBC Radio Manchester, Key 103 and Radio X.[251]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ National campaigning was restarted on this date, although some local activity resumed before then.
  2. ^ The dedication refers to Martyn Hett, a 29-year-old public relations manager who died in the attack, and was described by the media as a "superfan" of the British soap.

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External linksEdit