Tommy Robinson (activist)
Stephen Yaxley-Lennon (born 27 November 1982), known as Tommy Robinson, is a British far-right activist serving as a political adviser to the Leader of the UK Independence Party (UKIP), Gerard Batten since November 2018. Robinson is a co-founder, former spokesman and former leader of the English Defence League (EDL) organisation. He was a member of the British National Party (BNP) from 2004 to 2005. For a short time in 2012, he was joint vice-chairman of the British Freedom Party (BFP). He has on previous occasions used the pseudonyms Andrew McMaster, Paul Harris and Wayne King.
Stephen Christopher Yaxley
27 November 1982
|Residence||Luton, Bedfordshire, England|
|Other names||Andrew McMaster, Paul Harris, Wayne King|
|Known for||Former leader of the English Defence League and European Defence League|
|Special Political Advisor for the|
Leader of the UK Independence Party
|Assumed office |
22 November 2018
|Preceded by||Jonathan Arnott|
|Leader of the English Defence League|
5 August 2009 – 8 October 2013
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||Tim Ablitt|
|Political party||British National Party (2004–2005)|
British Freedom Party (2012)
Robinson led the EDL from 2009 until 8 October 2013. He continued as an activist, and in 2015 became involved with the development of Pegida UK, a British chapter of the German-based Pegida organisation (Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the West). From 2017 to 2018, Robinson wrote for and appeared in online videos for The Rebel Media, a Canadian far-right political website.
In May 2018, Robinson was sentenced to 13 months' imprisonment for contempt of court after publishing a Facebook Live video of defendants entering a law court, contravening a court order that disallows reporting on such trials while proceedings are ongoing. That sentence included activation of an earlier three-month suspended sentence for a similar contempt of court at Canterbury. Robinson was released on 5 November 2018, with his appeal against the Leeds conviction succeeding and the sentence being quashed. A new trial was ordered.
Robinson was born Stephen Christopher Yaxley in Luton, England. In an interview with Victoria Derbyshire on BBC Radio Five live in 2010, he said that his parents "were Irish immigrants to this country". His mother, who worked at a local bakery, remarried when Robinson was still young; his stepfather, Thomas Lennon, worked at the Vauxhall car plant in Luton.
According to Robinson, after leaving school, he applied to study aircraft engineering at Luton Airport: "I got an apprenticeship 600 people applied for, and they took four people on". He qualified in 2003 after five years of study, but then lost his job when he was convicted of assaulting an off-duty police officer in a drunken argument. He served a 12-month prison sentence.
Robinson joined the British National Party, then led by Nick Griffin, in 2004. When questioned about this by journalist Andrew Neil in June 2013, he said that he had left after one year, saying, "I didn't know Nick Griffin was in the National Front, I didn't know non-whites couldn't join the organisation. I joined, I saw what it was about, it was not for me".
The name Tommy Robinson is a pseudonym taken from a prominent member of the "Men In Gear" (MIG) football hooligan crew, which follows Luton Town Football Club. The member named Tommy Robinson wrote two books about his 25 years of hooliganism.
Robinson was involved with the group United Peoples of Luton, formed in response to a March 2009 protest against Royal Anglian Regiment troops returning from the Afghan War being attacked by the Islamist groups Al-Muhajiroun and Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah.
Robinson denies racism and antisemitism, and has declared his support for the Jewish people and Israel, calling himself a Zionist. Robinson has said that his group of friends includes black and Muslim people.
English Defence League
Robinson founded the English Defence League (EDL) in 2009 with Kevin Carroll, Robinson's cousin, and became its leader with Carroll as deputy leader. Robinson stated that he had been prompted to found the EDL after he had read a newspaper article about local Islamists attempting to recruit men outside a bakery in Luton to fight for the Taliban in Afghanistan. Robinson has appeared masked at protests. Although Robinson repeatedly insisted from the early days of the organisation that the EDL was "against the rise of radical Islam" and that its members "aren't against Islam", its rank and file were noted for including football hooligans and members who described themselves as anti-Muslim. Robinson founded the European Defence League, a co-ordination of groups similar to the EDL operating in different European countries.
Robinson said he was assaulted on 22 December 2011 after stopping his car due to another car flashing its lights at him. He said that a group of three men attacked and beat him, until they were stopped by the arrival of a "good Samaritan". Robinson said that the attackers were of Asian appearance.
Robinson was convicted in 2011 of using "threatening, abusive or insulting behaviour" during a fight between supporters of Luton Town and Newport County in Luton the previous year. Robinson reportedly led the group of Luton fans, and played an integral part in starting a 100-man brawl, during which he chanted "EDL till I die". He was sentenced to a 12-month community rehabilitation order with 150 hours' unpaid work and a three-year ban from attending football matches.
Robinson was arrested again after an EDL demonstration in Tower Hamlets in September 2011 for breach of bail conditions, as he had been banned from attending that demonstration. Robinson later began a hunger strike while on remand in HM Prison Bedford, saying that he was a "political prisoner of the state", and refused to eat what he believed was halal meat. A handful of EDL supporters protested outside the prison in support of Robinson during his incarceration; the support peaked at a turnout of 100 protesters on 10 September. Robinson was released on bail on 12 September.
On 29 September 2011, Robinson was convicted of common assault after headbutting a fellow EDL member at a rally in Blackburn in April that year. He was sentenced to 12 weeks' imprisonment, suspended for 12 months.
On 8 November 2011, Robinson held a protest on the rooftop of the FIFA headquarters in Zürich against FIFA's ruling that the England national football team could not wear a Remembrance poppy symbol on their shirts. For this he was fined £3,000 and jailed for three days.
In 2012 Robinson announced that he had joined the British Freedom Party (BFP). He was appointed its joint vice-chairman along with Carroll after the EDL and the BFP agreed an electoral pact in 2011. However, on 11 October 2012, Robinson resigned from the BFP to concentrate on EDL activities.
Leaving the EDL
In April 2012, Robinson took part in a programme in the BBC's television series The Big Questions in which far-right extremism was debated. Mo Ansar, a British Muslim political and social commentator, took part in the same programme, and invited Robinson to join him and his family for dinner. This resulted in several meetings over the next 18 months between Robinson and Ansar to discuss Islam, Islamism and the Muslim community, accompanied by a BBC team which created the documentary When Tommy Met Mo. On 8 October 2013, Quilliam held a press conference with Robinson and the EDL's deputy leader Kevin Carroll to announce that Robinson and Carroll had left the EDL. Robinson said that he had been considering leaving for a long time because of concerns over the "dangers of far-right extremism". Robinson said: "I acknowledge the dangers of far-right extremism and the ongoing need to counter Islamist ideology not with violence but with better, democratic ideas". Ten other senior figures left the EDL with Robinson and Carroll, and Tim Ablitt became the EDL's new leader.
When Robinson was questioned by The Guardian about having blamed "'every single Muslim' for 'getting away' with the 7 July bombings, and for calling Islam a fascist and violent religion, he held up his hands and said, 'I'm sorry, I'm sorry.'" Robinson also said that he would now give evidence to the police to help in their investigation of racists within the EDL. Robinson added that "his future work would involve taking on radicalism on all fronts". Robinson said in his autobiography that he was paid £2,000 per month for Quilliam to take credit for his leaving the EDL, which a Quilliam spokesperson denied.
Robinson spoke at the Oxford Union on 26 November 2014. Unite Against Fascism (UAF) protested against his appearance, criticising the Union for allowing him the platform when, according to UAF, he had not renounced the views of the EDL. Robinson told the audience he was not allowed to talk about certain issues because he was out on prison licence. He said, "I regain my freedom of speech on the 22 July 2015." He criticised "politicians, the media and police for failing to tackle certain criminal activities because of the fear of being labelled Islamophobic." He said that Woodhill prison had become "an ISIS training camp", and that radicals were "running the wings".
After release from licence at the end of his sentence, Robinson returned to anti-Islam demonstrations with Pegida, a British offshoot of a German anti-immigration organisation founded in Dresden amid the European migrant crisis. Addressing a Pegida anti-Islam rally in October 2015, Robinson spoke out against what he perceived to be the threat of Islamist terrorists posing as refugees. He announced the creation of a "British chapter" of Pegida in December 2015. He said that alcohol and fighting would not be permitted because "It's too serious now for that stuff", and told The Daily Telegraph that a mass demonstration would take place across Europe on 6 February 2016. On 14 February 2016, Robinson was attacked and treated at a hospital after leaving a nightclub in Essex.
Robinson travelled to watch UEFA Euro 2016 in France and demonstrated with a T-shirt and English flag ridiculing the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). Bedfordshire Police imposed a football banning order on him on his return; his solicitor Alison Gurden accused the police of equating the proscribed terrorist group with all Muslims in their action. In September, a judge at Luton Magistrates' Court dismissed the case, calling the prosecution's evidence "vague" and "cagey".
On 27 August 2016, 18 Luton Town football supporters, including Robinson and his family, were ejected by police from a Cambridge pub on the day of the Cambridge United versus Luton football match. Robinson claimed he had been victimised, and complaints were submitted to Cambridge Police. In March 2019, at Peterborough County Court, Robinson accused Cambridgeshire Constabulary of harassment, direct discrimination, humiliation, stress, anxiety, and breach of human rights namely, the right to family life, right to freedom of conscience or religion and freedom of expression. The claims related to police behaviour around Robinson's possibly being issued a section 35 dispersal order at the pub after the match in 2016. The court rejected Robinson's claims and ordered him to pay £20,000 towards costs. Robinson said he would appeal against the ruling.
Robinson was a correspondent for The Rebel Media, a Canadian, right-wing website. In May 2017, he was arrested for contempt of court after he attempted to take video of the defendants in an ongoing rape trial outside Canterbury Crown Court.
In March 2018, Robinson attended court in support of Mark Meechan, who had been charged for a hate crime after posting footage online of a dog performing Nazi salutes in response to the phrases "gas the Jews" and "Sieg Heil". Meechan was found guilty because the video was "antisemitic and racist in nature" and was aggravated by religious prejudice. Meechan said that the video was taken out of context and was a joke to annoy his girlfriend.
Actions relating to Finsbury Park terrorist attack
It was revealed in court that the perpetrator of London's 2017 Finsbury Park terrorist attack received emails from Robinson and read Robinson's tweets in the lead-up to the attack. Robinson's tweet mocking people for responding to terrorism with the phrase "don't look back in anger" was found in the note at the scene of the attack. An email from Robinson's account to the attacker Darren Osborne shortly before read, "Dear Darren, you know about the terrible crimes committed against [name redacted] of Sunderland. Police let the suspects go… why? It is because the suspects are refugees from Syria and Iraq. It's a national outrage…" Another email read, "There is a nation within a nation forming just beneath the surface of the UK. It is a nation built on hatred, on violence and on Islam."
Robinson responded on Twitter to the Finsbury Park attack, writing, "The mosque where the attack happened tonight has a long history of creating terrorists & radical jihadists & promoting hate & segregation," and, "I'm not justifying it, I've said many times if government or police don't sort these centres of hate they will create monsters as seen tonight." Robinson's statements were widely criticised in the media as inciting hatred. Appearing the next morning on Good Morning Britain, Robinson held up the Quran and described it as a "violent and cursed book". The host, Piers Morgan, accused him of "stirring up hatred like a bigoted lunatic", and Robinson's appearance drew a number of complaints to Ofcom.
Commander Dean Haydon of Scotland Yard's counter-terrorism command said that online material from Robinson had played a "significant role" in how Osborne was radicalised and "brainwashed". Mark Rowley, the outgoing Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police and the UK's most senior counter-terror officer said that there is "no doubt" that material posted online by people including Robinson drove the Finsbury Park terror attacker to targeting Muslims. In response, Robinson said "I'm gonna find Mark Rowley."
Almondbury Community School assault and legal action against Robinson
After a Syrian refugee boy was assaulted in a school bullying incident in October 2018, Robinson falsely accused the victim of having previously attacked two schoolgirls.
The 15-year-old refugee was dragged to the floor by his neck and told by his attacker, "I'll drown you", while water was forced into his mouth. The boy's arm was in a cast after it had been broken in a separate assault. His sister had also been assaulted.
A 16-year-old boy believed to be the attacker, who was interviewed by police and given a court summons, had shared numerous social media posts by Robinson. On Facebook, Robinson subsequently posted a screenshot of a message from a mother saying her daughter had been bullied and he accused the refugee of being the bully. However, the mother responded on Robinson's Facebook page informing him this was false. Robinson also made a false allegation using a photo stolen from a news article on a teenage cancer patient.
Robinson may have breached court orders preventing the naming of the alleged perpetrator in several videos on Facebook and Instagram, including one that has been viewed more than 150,000 times. A lawyer said in doing so Robinson had "compounded" the refugee's suffering, adding "many people on social media having viewed Mr Yaxley-Lennon’s [Robinson's] lies believed them and expressed their outrage toward Jamal [the refugee]."
In January 2019, the refugee said returning to Almondbury Community School was still too dangerous. He described living in fear after Robinson's postings because "there are people who hang around outside my house and video me on their phones. They call me 'little rat' if I go outside. One of my neighbours threatened me outside my house just yesterday." His lawyers said Robinson's postings had made him "the focus of countless messages of hate and threats from the extreme right wing" and led to a police safety warning.
After receiving a letter from lawyers representing the refugee boy's family, pointing out that the videos Robinson had posted "contain a number of false and defamatory allegations", Robinson admitted to his followers that it was fake news and claimed that he had been duped: "I have been completely had, how embarrassing man." Robinson deleted the videos and admitted to posting a fake photograph purporting to show violence by a Muslim gang. He was warned about legal action for defamation. In response to allegations from Robinson's supporters that this warning "blocked" free speech, a lawyer said, "Tommy Robinson thinks it is a good idea to defame this 15-year-old boy and accuse him of being the author of his own bullying. It is actually sickening."
It was reported that Facebook protects prominent figures such as Robinson from the normal rules of moderation that would usually see a page removed after posting content that violates its rules. Solicitors representing the victim are pursuing legal action against the social media firm on the basis Facebook was responsible for Robinson's posts as it had given him "special treatment [that] seems to be financially driven". However, on 26 February 2019, Facebook announced that it had banned Robinson from the service for violating Facebook community standards and "posting material that uses dehumanizing language and calls for violence targeted at Muslims." They also cited violations of policies concerning "organized hate".
In February 2019, using his Facebook account, Robinson wrote "I guess it's ok to rape white women then?" next to a Rape Crisis flyer about specialist services for ethnic minority victims, resulting in hundreds of racist and abusive phone calls to the centre from Robinson's supporters. The centre, which was providing support for rape victims of all ethnic backgrounds, condemned Robinson's post for "disrupting much-needed service provision for victims and survivors of sexual violence and abuse of all ethnicities and backgrounds". The centre included specialised services for ethnic minorities because "some groups of women who have survived sexual violence and abuse can face additional barriers to accessing services, including related to language and to the fear and/or past or current experience of racism and racial discrimination".
On 4 March 2019, at 11pm, Robinson arrived uninvited outside the home of a journalist who covers far-right issues and attempted to intimidate him. Robinson revealed the journalist's address on a livestream and threatened to reveal the addresses of other journalists. He left after police arrived, but returned at 5am. Robinson said this was an act of retaliation for having been served a legal letter at his parents-in-law's home, an act which he said was videoed and which he described as harassment. However, Robinson gave no indication that the journalist he attempted to intimidate had been involved in that alleged act. The journalist said the letter had in fact been given to a police officer 50m from the house in question.
In April 2019, YouTube restricted Robinson's account due to its "borderline content", placing its content "behind an interstitial [warning page], removed from recommendations, and stripped of key features including livestreaming, comments, suggested videos, and likes".
In 2017, Robinson received a suspended sentence for putting a trial at Canterbury Crown Court at risk of collapse, by broadcasting prejudicial statements about defendants from inside the court building. In 2018, he was imprisoned for a similar offence at Leeds Crown Court. However, he was later released following a successful challenge to the court's sentencing procedure. A retrial was requested from the Attorney General for England and Wales.
Both sentences were for the criminal offence of contempt of court, which can include speeches or publications that create a "substantial risk that the course of justice in the proceedings in question will be seriously impeded or prejudiced".
2017 suspended sentence
In May 2017, Robinson was convicted of contempt of court for putting a gang-rape trial in danger of collapsing. He filmed inside Canterbury Crown Court and posted prejudicial statements calling the defendants "Muslim child rapists" while the jury was deliberating. He received a three-month sentence, suspended for 18 months.
Judge Heather Norton said Robinson used "pejorative language in his broadcast which prejudged the outcome of the case and could have had the effect of substantially derailing the trial". She added, "this is not about free speech, not about the freedom of the press, nor about legitimate journalism, and not about political correctness. It is about justice and ensuring that a trial can be carried out justly and fairly, it's about being innocent until proven guilty. It is about preserving the integrity of the jury to continue without people being intimidated or being affected by irresponsible and inaccurate 'reporting', if that's what it was".
On 25 May 2018, Robinson was arrested for a breach of the peace while live streaming outside Leeds Crown Court during the trial of the Huddersfield grooming gang on which reporting restrictions had been ordered by the judge. Following Robinson's arrest, Judge Geoffrey Marson QC issued a further reporting restriction on Robinson's case, prohibiting any reporting of Robinson's case or the grooming trial until the latter case was complete.
The reporting restriction with regard to Robinson was lifted on 29 May 2018, following a challenge by journalists. The media reported that Robinson had admitted contempt of court by publishing information that could prejudice an ongoing trial, and had been sentenced to 13 months' imprisonment. Justice Marson sentenced Robinson to ten months for contempt of court and his previous three months' suspended sentence was activated because of the breach. Robinson's lawyer said that Robinson felt "deep regret" after comprehending the potential consequences of his behaviour. Having breached a temporary section 4 (2) order under the Contempt of Court Act 1981, Robinson was told that if a retrial had to be held as a result of his actions the cost could be "hundreds and hundreds of thousands of pounds".
Robinson lodged an appeal against the contempt convictions at Canterbury and at Leeds. The matter came before The English Court of Appeal. Robinson claimed that he had not admitted the charges or been given a chance to apologise. His lawyer claimed that his initial contempt trial was flawed; the details of the charge were not clear. He argued that his sentence was unfair. The appellate court issued its ruling on 1 August 2018 and ordered a new hearing of the case. Robinson was released on bail pending the new hearing. The Court of Appeal agreed to hear Robinson's appeal even though it was launched outside the 28-day time limit for challenging convictions. The court agreed to hear the appeal because Robinson had been held in "effective solitary confinement", which had made it difficult for Robinson to have meetings with his lawyers. Following court hearings on 27 September and 23 October, the case was referred to the Attorney General, Geoffrey Cox QC MP. Judge Nicholas Hilliard said the matter was so complex it needed further consideration, adding "all the evidence must be rigorously tested". The referral would allow witnesses to be cross-examined.
On 5 November 2018, Robinson was released from bail, meaning "there are no bail conditions". Robinson's appeal against the Leeds conviction succeeded and the sentence was quashed. A new trial was ordered. His appeal against the Canterbury conviction failed in all respects bar one. The court had wrongly recorded that Robinson had been sentenced to three months' imprisonment suspended for 18 months. In fact he had been committed to prison for three months suspended for 18 months. The Court of Appeal ordered the court records be amended to reflect the correct sentence. The distinction between sentenced to imprisonment and committed to prison for contempt affects the way the sentenced person is managed.
Actions of supporters
The jailing of Robinson drew condemnation from right-wing circles. The UK Independence Party leader Gerard Batten MEP expressed concern about the proceedings and the ban on reporting. Robinson attracted sympathy from several right-wing politicians in Europe, including the Dutch Party for Freedom leader Geert Wilders and the member of the German Bundestag for the far-right Alternative for Germany Petr Bystron.
On the weekends following Robinson's arrest, his supporters held rallies in his support. Demonstrators prevented a Muslim woman from driving a bus, performed Nazi salutes, threw scaffolding, glass bottles and street furniture at police and damaged vehicles and buildings.
Robinson's supporters sent abusive messages to journalists who were complying with the court order by waiting until after the trial, wrongly lambasting them for "covering up" crime.
An online petition for his release had more than 500,000 signatures. Anti-fascist advocacy group Hope not Hate said its analysis showed that 68.1% of the signatures were from the UK, with 9.7% from Australia, and 9.3% from the US. Canada, Germany, France, New Zealand, Netherlands, Sweden and Ireland accounted for the remainder.
In July 2018, Reuters reported that the United States Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom, Sam Brownback, lobbied the UK government on the treatment of Robinson. The Middle East Forum has also lobbied the United States government and provided financial aid for rallies and legal aid.
Robinson's manager, Caolan Robertson, spread false information substantially exaggerating the Muslim population of a prison to which Robinson was moved. Robertson told the InfoWars conspiracy theorist Alex Jones that Robinson's new prison was "about 71 per cent Muslim" and therefore "really, really, really disastrous". This falsehood was also propagated by the InfoWars writer Paul Joseph Watson. The former Breitbart editor Raheem Kassam tweeted it to his followers while falsely accusing the Home Secretary, Sajid Javid, of moving Robinson there.
Aftermath of imprisonment
On 2 August 2018, Robinson was interviewed on Tucker Carlson Tonight. During the interview, Robinson mainly discussed his prior two months in prison. He said that he was initially put in HM Prison Hull, where he was treated well; he was then transferred to HM Prison Onley, where, he claimed, he was severely mistreated, including with solitary confinement. The prison service rejected his claims saying "Mr Yaxley-Lennon was treated with the same fairness we aim to show all prisoners – he had access to visits, television and showers – and it is totally false to say he was held in 'solitary confinement'", adding that he had been kept in a care and separation unit for 48 hours whilst an assessment was made of his safety.
In October 2018, further controversy arose after Robinson posted a joint photo with two dozen young British Army "recruits" as he described them. He also posted on his Facebook page a video of the occasion in which the soldiers allegedly cheered him shouting his name. The British Army launched an investigation into the matter, saying, "Far-right ideology is completely at odds with the values and ethos of the armed forces. The armed forces have robust measures in place to ensure those exhibiting extremist views are neither tolerated nor permitted to serve." The Government's lead counter-extremism commissioner praised the army's response, saying, "This is typical of the far right. They manipulate and exploit their way into the mainstream, often targeting the military and co-opting its symbols. Tommy Robinson's attention-seeking is cover for divisive anti-Muslim hatred that is causing real harm to individuals, communities and society in general."
Reporting restrictions were lifted on the three Huddersfield grooming gang trials after the jury reached a verdict in the final trial. The Yorkshire Evening Post explained that it abided by the temporary restrictions because "If we had reported on the first trial then jurors may have been swayed in the second trial – a defence lawyer would argue that their clients could not get a fair hearing ... the whole trial could have collapsed ... a judge may have had to rule that they could not get a fair trial and those girls would NEVER have seen the men brought to justice".
Also in October 2018, U.S. Republican Party congressman Paul Gosar and six other members of congress invited Robinson to speak at a private meeting at the U.S. Congress on 14 November 2018. The trip was to be sponsored by the Middle East Forum, which said it had provided Robinson with legal funds since his imprisonment. Robinson was not granted a visa for the trip.
In January 2019, a group led by Robinson surrounded a library where the Glasgow South MP, Stewart McDonald, was holding a surgery, causing a lockdown. The group included the convicted armed kidnapper Daniel Thomas. The library was reportedly bombarded with phone calls. McDonald was eventually escorted away by police and he said the group blocked emergency exits.
On 23 February 2019, Tommy Robinson held a rally in MediaCityUK outside BBC's Salford, Greater Manchester offices to protest against BBC's investigative current affairs programme Panorama and its presenter John Sweeney. During the rally, Robinson launched his film Panodrama that was broadcast on a large screen to the protesters estimated to be 4000 people, showing undercover footage of Sweeney, filmed by Robinson’s former aide Lucy Brown. UKIP leader Gerard Batten spoke in support during the rally. Robinson said the aim of the protest was to make a stand "against the corrupt media" and called for the BBC licence fee to be scrapped. Concurrently, about 500 people attended a counter-protest by anti-fascists. In response, the BBC made an announcement that it strongly rejects any suggestion that its journalism is biased. Confirming that an upcoming Panorama episode was being prepared to investigate Robinson and his activities, it added that all programmes the BBC broadcasts follow BBC's "strict editorial guidelines". Regarding some of Sweeney's remarks during Robinson's Panodrama film exposé, the BBC announcement added: "Some of the footage which has been released was recorded without our knowledge during this investigation and John Sweeney made some offensive and inappropriate remarks, for which he apologises."
In March 2019, the attorney general, Geoffrey Cox, decided that it is in the public interest to bring further proceedings against Robinson. A contempt conviction had been quashed by the court of appeal in August 2018, and Robinson had been freed on bail pending new proceedings at the Old Bailey. But Nicholas Hilliard, the recorder of London had referred the case to attorney general Cox in October 2018 for further investigation. Cox acted on the referral and after further studies for five months, he decided to raise further proceedings against Robinson. The attorney general said about his action: "After carefully considering the details of this case, I have concluded there are strong grounds to bring fresh contempt of court proceedings against Stephen Yaxley-Lennon." He added: "As proceedings are now under way, it would not be appropriate to comment further and I remind everyone that it is an offence to comment on live court cases." The first hearing in this renewed case is due to take place at the High Court in London on 22 March 2019. Robinson reacted by alleging that this new procedure by the attorney general is part of "an ongoing state persecution of a journalist [Robinson], who exposes the [UK] government and establishment and all of their wrongs." Robinson could be sent to jail if he is found in contempt in this new trial.
Robinson's criminal record includes convictions for violence, financial and immigration frauds, drug possession, public order offences, and contempt of court. He has served at least three separate custodial sentences: in 2005 for assault, in 2012 for using false travel documents, and in 2014 for mortgage fraud.
In July 2011, at Luton and South Bedfordshire Magistrates' Court, Robinson was convicted of using threatening, abusive or insulting behaviour, for leading a group of Luton Town F.C. supporters into a brawl involving 100 people in Luton on 24 August 2010.
In September 2011, at Preston Magistrates' Court, Robinson was convicted of assault for headbutting a man in Blackburn on 2 April 2011. In November 2011, he was given a 12-week jail term, suspended for 12 months.
In October 2012, Robinson was arrested and held on the charge of having entered the United States illegally. Robinson pleaded guilty at Southwark Crown Court to using someone else's passport to travel to the United States in September 2012, and was sentenced in January 2013 to 10 months' imprisonment.
Robinson had used a passport in the name of Andrew McMaster to board a Virgin Atlantic flight from Heathrow to New York. He had been banned from entering the US due to a drugs offence. When he arrived at New York's JFK Airport, customs officials who took his fingerprints realised he was not Mr McMaster. He was asked to attend a second interview but left the airport, entering the US illegally. He stayed one night and returned to the UK the following day using his own legitimate passport – which bears the name Paul Harris.
Judge Alistair McCreath told him: "What you did went absolutely to the heart of the immigration controls that the United States are entitled to have. It's not in any sense trivial."
In November 2012, Robinson was charged with three counts of conspiracy to commit fraud by misrepresentation in relation to a mortgage application, along with five other defendants. He pleaded guilty to two charges and in January 2014 was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment.
Robinson's fraud amounted to £160,000 over a period of six months. Judge Andrew Bright QC described him as the "instigator, if not the architect" of a series of frauds totalling £640,000. "This was an operation which was fraudulent from the outset and involved a significant amount of forward planning." He described Robinson as a "fixer" who had introduced others to fraudulent mortgage broker Deborah Rothschild. Rothschild had assisted some defendants by providing fake pay slips and income details.
Robinson was attacked by several fellow prisoners in HM Prison Woodhill. Following news of the attack, Maajid Nawaz wrote to the Secretary of State for Justice, Chris Grayling, asking for Robinson's situation to be urgently addressed. Shortly after this incident, Robinson was moved to HM Prison Winchester. Robinson told Jamie Bartlett, a director of the think tank Demos: "In Woodhill, I experienced Islam the gang. [...] In Winchester, I have experienced Islam the religion." Robinson made friends with several Muslim prisoners, referring to them as "great lads [...] I cannot speak highly enough of the Muslim inmates I'm now living with". In June 2014 Robinson was released on licence. The terms of his early release included having no contact with the EDL until the end of his original sentence in June 2015. He was due to talk to the Oxford Union in October 2014, but was recalled to prison before the event for breaching the terms of his licence. He was ultimately released on 14 November 2014.
Robinson has received in excess of £2m in donations and sponsorship, much of it from foreign sources.
In 2017, American billionaire Robert Shillman funded a paid fellowship at the rightwing Canadian website Rebel Media, with Robinson receiving over $6,000 (£5,000) per month.
In 2018, Robinson received £2m in donations that were sought by opponents of his imprisonment. In July 2018, Middle East Forum, a US think tank that was described as "fomenting anti-Muslim sentiment", said it had been funding rallies in Robinson's support and paying legal costs in his appeal against his prison sentence. He also received funding from the rightwing group Australian Liberty Alliance.
For several months in late 2018, Robinson used Facebook's donations feature that was intended for charities to instead collect money for a new conspiracy theory website and to fund legal action against the British government in relation to his own prison treatment. Within hours of learning of the charity feature's misuse, Facebook removed the button from Robinson's page.
In November 2018, PayPal told Robinson that it would no longer process payments on his behalf, saying that "Striking the necessary balance between upholding free expression and open dialogue and protecting principles of tolerance, diversity and respect for all people is a challenge that many companies are grappling with today." Robinson described the decision as "fascism". The service said it cannot "be used to promote hate, violence, or other forms of intolerance that is discriminatory".
In September 2018, Robinson expressed a desire to join the UK Independence Party (UKIP). On 23 November 2018, UKIP leader Gerard Batten appointed Robinson as his own adviser. In response, the former UKIP leader Nigel Farage described Robinson as a "thug" and said he was heartbroken with the direction UKIP was going. Farage and a Welsh Assembly member called for Batten to be removed as leader. At a UKIP meeting on 30 November, Robinson sat with Daniel Thomas, a convicted kidnapper.
Many prominent UKIP members including eight of its MEPs resigned from the party in response to Robinson's appointment. Of the eight MEPs who left, two were former party leaders one was the UKIP's leader in Scotland. One was Nigel Farage who said Robinson and his associates brought "scuffles" and "violence" into the party and "many have criminal records, some pretty serious".
UKIP's rules prohibit membership to those who have been part of extreme right wing groups in the past, which preclude Robinson from joining as he founded the English Defence League (EDL), had been a member of the British National Party, and has had ties with the British Freedom Party.
UKIP's National Executive Committee intends to consider waiving that clause for Robinson as a special case. If approved, his possible membership would be put to a vote at the party's conference. The committee's decision was deferred until after 29 March 2019. Batten supports Robinson joining the party, while UKIP Welsh Assembly members Michelle Brown and David Rowlands said they oppose it.
- Elgot, Jessica (16 June 2013). "EDL's Tommy Robinson Admits Real Name Is Stephen Yaxley, Was In BNP To Andrew Neil On Sunday Politics". The Huffington Post (UK). Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- "Stephen Lennon and Kevin Carroll Join British Freedom!". British Freedom Party. 5 May 2012. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "EDL Leader Stephen Lennon, AKA Tommy Robinson, Jailed For 10 Months For False Passport". Huffington Post UK. 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013.
Lennon has a chequered history of run-ins with the law. Searchlight magazine reported that he was convicted in April 2005 for assaulting an off-duty police officer who had intervened to stop a confrontation between Lennon and his partner. ... The court heard that he was previously jailed for assault in 2005 and also has previous convictions for drugs offences and public order offences.
- Hopkins, Steven (10 December 2015). "Tommy Robinson Explains The Making Of An Alter-Ego Even His Wife Can't Stand". Huffington Post UK. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015.
After high school Robinson got an apprenticeship to study aircraft engineering at Luton Airport, but shortly after qualifying he was jailed for a year for assaulting an off-duty policeman... The officer had come to the rescue of Robinson's then girlfriend... The couple were “drunk arguing” at 3am. The cop wanted to walk Robinson’s girlfriend home. Robinson: 'I was being heated, and arguing, but I've never, ever, ever, ever, ever assaulted my missus and my wife. So I'm like, "fuck off man, what-you-talking-about".' At that point Robinson said the officer 'rugby tackled him' to the floor. 'I'm a young 23, 21-year-old lad and I'm pissed up, like to fight, and we're fighting, so I started fighting him, and when he's gone down to the floor.' Speaking in a low-voice now: 'I've kicked him in the head.'
- Sawer, Patrick (8 December 2018). "Met police fear violent clashes over march by far-right 'Brexit Betrayal' militants". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018.
Robinson, a former member of the extremist British National Party, is a convicted fraudster and football hooligan who was also jailed for 12 months for assaulting an off-duty police officer in 2005.
- "Who is Tommy Robinson? The former EDL leader and right-wing figurehead". The Scotsman. 15 November 2018. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018.
- "EDL founder Stephen Lennon guilty over football brawl". BBC News. BBC. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "English Defence League founder convicted of leading street brawl". Theguardian.com. 25 July 2011.
- WalesOnline (25 July 2011). "English Defence League thug convicted for Newport County fight". walesonline.
- "EDL leader Stephen Lennon convicted of assault". BBC News. 29 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011.
- Carter, Helen (3 November 2011). "EDL leader sentenced for headbutting fellow protester". The Guardian. London, UK. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017.
- "EDL leader facing jail after assault in Blackburn". Lancashire Telegraph. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- White, Steve (4 November 2011). "EDL leader Stephen Lennon given suspended sentence for headbutting fellow member". mirror.
- "EDL leader Stephen Lennon jailed for passport fraud". London Evening Standard. 7 January 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- "EDL leader Stephen Lennon jailed for false passport offence". BBC News. 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Simmonds, Julian (7 January 2013). "EDL leader jailed for being illegal immigrant after entering US on friend's passport". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
- "EDL leader Lennon jailed for passport offence". Sky News. 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- "EDL founder Stephen Yaxley-Lennon admits mortgage fraud". BBC News. 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "Tommy Robinson, former EDL leader, jailed for fraud". BBC News. 23 January 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- Dearden, Lizzie (19 October 2018). "Tommy Robinson could have caused Huddersfield grooming trials to collapse and child rapists go free". The Independent. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- "Far right activist spared jail after filming in court". Kent Online. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson jailed for contempt of court". ITV News. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- "Court of Appeal Judgement" (PDF). www.judiciary.uk. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- "Tommy Robinson bailed after appeal win". BBC News. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- Wheeler, Caroline (12 August 2018). "Steve Bannon says Tommy Robinson is a star like Kanye West". The Times. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- *"UK far-right figure Tommy Robinson jailed for contempt". Business Insider. 29 May 2018. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Facebook erases far-right activist's page, Instagram profile". Chicago Tribune. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- "Morrissey defends Tommy Robinson and new far-right party". The Week. 7 June 2018. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- Hamilton, Fiona (30 May 2018). "Far-right provocateur Tommy Robinson jailed over court rant". The Times. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- Morrin, Siobhan (29 May 2018). "Why Tommy Robinson Was Jailed, and Why U.S. Rightwingers Care". Time. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- Palmer, Ewan (29 May 2018). "WHY WAS TOMMY ROBINSON ARRESTED? FAR-RIGHT ACTIVIST JAILED FOR 13 MONTHS FOR 'PREJUDICING RAPE TRIAL'". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "The EDL – Britain's Far Right Social Movement" (PDF). Radicalism and New Media Research Group, University of Northampton, 22 September 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Kelly, Jane (28 May 2018). "Tommy Robinson; The Three Boys. Drunk Driving or a police cover up?". Salisbury Review.
- Bartlett, Jamie (4 December 2015). "Across Europe with Tommy Robinson: inside the new wave of anti-immigration protest coming soon to Britain". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 5 December 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- Dearden, Lizzie (29 May 2018). "Tommy Robinson jailed after breaking contempt of court laws with Facebook Live video". The Independent. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Robinson: I have to live a two-tier life". BBC News. 17 June 2013. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013.
- Victoria Derbyshire (host), Tommy Robinson (guest) (4 January 2010). Interview with Tommy Robinson (Audio). Victoria Derbyshire. BBC Radio 5 Live.
- Rowland Hill, Matt (18 October 2013). "Who is the real Tommy Robinson?". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Randolph, Eric (8 October 2013). "'What we're really against is extremism...': The complex world of former EDL leader Tommy Robinson revealed". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015.
- Copsey, Nigel (2010). "The English Defence League: Challenging our Country and our Values of Social Inclusion, Fairness and Equality" (PDF). Faith Matters. pp. 13–14.
- "Under the skin of English Defence League". BBC News. 12 October 2009.
- Casciani, Dominic (11 September 2009). "Who are the English Defence League?". BBC News magazine. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Urry, Allan (22 September 2009). "Is far-right extremism a threat?". BBC News Online.
- "Luton parade protesters 'were members of extremist group'". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. 12 March 2009. Archived from the original on 15 March 2009.
- Delingpole, James (8 April 2017). "Britain's most hated man isn't all that hateful". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 2 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- Rashty, Sandy (5 March 2015). "What makes the EDL's former leader, who says he is a friend of the Jews, tick?". The Jewish Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Murray, Douglas (19 October 2013). "Tommy Robinson: Double standards, not fear of diversity, provoked the EDL". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Siddique, Haroon. "Tommy Robinson quits EDL saying it has become 'too extreme'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Ex-EDL leaders Tommy Robinson and Kevin Carroll cleared". BBC News. 16 October 2013.
- Gover, Dominic (1 July 2014). "EDL's Tommy Robinson Quits over 'Dangerous Far-Right Extremists'". International Business Times.
- "EDL leader in lay-by attack". Luton Today. 28 December 2011. Archived from the original on 3 January 2012.
- "EDL leader 'on hunger strike' in custody". Luton Today. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- "EDL 'Tommy' released from prison in Bedford and on bail for assault". Bedford Today. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- "EDL members protest outside prison". Bedfordshire Local News. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Bail term threat of EDL top boss". Bedfordshire Local News. 18 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "EDL members fined over rooftop protest". Luton Today. 16 November 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Kevin Rawlinson (25 November 2011). "English Defence League prepares to storm local elections". The Independent. London, UK. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Tommy Robinson steps down from party to devote all his energy to EDL". British Freedom Party. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012.
- Ansar, Mohammed (19 October 2013). "My 18 months with former EDL leader Tommy Robinson". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Sally Kent (23 October 2013). "BBC One to broadcast documentary on Tommy Robinson's departure from English Defence League". Archived from the original on 23 February 2019.
- "EDL leader Tommy Robinson quits group". BBC News. 8 October 2013. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Thomas Daigle, Free speech firebrand Tommy Robinson's contentious views on Islam spreading beyond U.K. CBC News, 28/30 September 2018
- Malik, Shiv (11 October 2013). "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson says sorry for causing fear to Muslims". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Wright, Paul (4 December 2015). "Pegida UK: Tommy Robinson says 'terrorist epicentre' of Birmingham will be location of far-right march". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Steven Hopkins (4 December 2015). "Tommy Robinson, Former EDL Leader, Claims Quilliam Paid Him To Quit Far-Right Group". Huffington Post UK. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016.
- "EDL founder Tommy Robinson speaks at the Oxford Union". BBC News. 27 November 2014. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Sherriff, Lucy (27 November 2014). "Tommy Robinson Speaks At Oxford University Union: Fear Has Paralysed The Police". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Milmo, Cahal (12 October 2015). "EDL founder Tommy Robinson addresses Pegida anti-Islam rally in Holland". The Independent. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017.
- Goodwin, Matthew (19 October 2015). "The fight against Islamophobia is going backwards". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017.
- Hopkins, Steven (15 February 2016). "Tommy Robinson Hospitalised After Being Attacked Outside Essex Nightclub, Days After Pegida Rally". Huffington Post UK. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016.
- Robinson, Tommy (2015). Enemy of the State. Batley, West Yorkshire, England: The Press News Ltd. ISBN 9780957096493.
- Bartlett, Jamie (4 February 2016). "What's it like to be Britain's most hated man? Ask Tommy Robinson". Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018.
- "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson wins football ban court case against Bedfordshire police". International Business Times. 19 September 2016. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- Sommers, Jack (19 September 2016). "Tommy Robinson Wins Court Case Against Bedfordshire Police Over Football Banning Order". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018.
- Brown, Raymond (1 September 2016). "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson's Cambridge pub incident – police boss defends officers". Cambridge News. Archived from the original on 3 September 2016.
- Freddie Lynne. "Tommy Robinson LOSES his case against Cambridgeshire Constabulary". Cambridgeshire Live. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Tommy Robinson loses harassment case against police force". The Guardian. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- Grafton-Green, Patrick (10 May 2017). "Former EDL leader Tommy Robinson arrested after 'trying to film Muslims' outside court". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017.
- Castle, Vicky (8 May 2017). "Far right activist Tommy Robinson was warned by police after turning up at Canterbury Crown Court". Kent Live. Trinity Mirror. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017.
- McLoughlin, Peter; Robinson, Tommy (2017). Mohammed's Koran: Why Muslims Kill For Islam. self published. ISBN 9781542627801.
- Togoh, Isabel (28 February 2019). "Tommy Robinson Book Removed From Amazon, Just Days After Facebook Account Disabled". Huffpost.
- Wilford, Greg (25 June 2017). "Former EDL leader Tommy Robinson filmed brawling with man at Ascot". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "Man guilty of hate crime for filming pug's 'Nazi salutes'". BBC News. 20 March 2018.
- "Count Dankula found guilty of hate crime after teaching pet pug 'Nazi salute'". 20 March 2018.
- Dearden, Lizzie (23 January 2018). "Finsbury Park terror suspect Darren Osborne read messages from Tommy Robinson days before attack, court hears". The Independent.
- Molloy, Mark (19 June 2017). "Former EDL leader Tommy Robinson condemned over Finsbury Park mosque comments". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018.
- Ruddick, Graham (20 June 2017). "ITV defends EDL founder's appearance on Good Morning Britain". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017.
- Osborne, Samuel (20 June 2017). "Finsbury Park mosque attack: EDL founder Tommy Robinson's appearance on Good Morning Britain sparks outrage". The Independent. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017.
- Horton, Helena; Boyle, Danny (20 June 2017). "'You're stirring up hatred like a bigoted lunatic': Piers Morgan in extraordinary row with ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018.
- "Darren Osborne guilty of Finsbury Park mosque murder". BBC News. 1 February 2018.
- Dodd, Vikram; Rawlinson, Kevin (1 February 2018). "Finsbury Park attack: man 'brainwashed by anti-Muslim propaganda' convicted". The Guardian.
- Dearden, Lizzie (26 February 2018). "Finsbury Park attacker turned violent by far-right posts from Tommy Robinson and Britain First, police say". The Independent.
- Agerholm, Harriet (27 February 2018). "Tommy Robinson threatens to 'find' UK's most senior counter terrorism police officer". The Independent.
- "Syrian refugee, 15, fears school after playing field attack". ITV News. 28 November 2018.
- Morris, Georgina (29 November 2018). "Syrian refugee, 15, says he feels unsafe at Huddersfield school as video emerges of attack on sister". Yorkshire Post.
- Parveen, Nazia (30 November 2018). "Syrian Huddersfield boy asks people not to attack his alleged bully". The Guardian.
- Dearden, Lizzie (29 November 2018). "Syrian refugee attack: Family plan to sue Tommy Robinson over allegations against teenage victim". The Independent.
- Parveen, Nazia (29 November 2018). "Bullied Syrian refugee says he will not return to Huddersfield school". The Guardian.
- "Huddersfield video: Syrian boy fundraiser 'spent on relocation'". BBC News. 5 December 2018.
- Parveen, Nazia (6 December 2018). "Tommy Robinson threatened with legal action over 'bully' video". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- Halliday, Josh (21 January 2019). "Bullied Syrian schoolboy to sue Facebook over Tommy Robinson claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Dearden, Lizzie (21 January 2019). "Syrian refugee attack: Boy's family crowdfunding to sue Tommy Robinson and Facebook over 'defamation'". The Independent. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Katy Clifton (30 November 2018). "Tommy Robinson admits he shared 'fake news' about Muslims attacking boy at school where Syrian refugee was filmed being bullied". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Far-right activist Tommy Robinson removes videos after legal threat". CNN International. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- Day, Aasma (3 December 2018). "Lawyer Suing Tommy Robinson On Behalf Of Syrian Refugee Dismisses Claims He Is Blocking Free Speech". Huffington Post.
- Hamilton, Isobel Asher (26 February 2019) "Facebook has banned far-right activist Tommy Robinson for spreading Islamophobia" Business Insider
- Rawlinson, Kevin (28 March 2018). "Tommy Robinson permanently banned by Twitter". The Guardian.
- Williams, Sophie (17 January 2019). "YouTube bans ads on Tommy Robinson's account to stop him making money". Evening Standard. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Busby, Eleanor (16 February 2019). "Rape charity hotline bombarded with 'racist abuse' from Tommy Robinson supporters". The Independent.
- Wareham, Stephanie (15 February 2019). "Tommy Robinson supporters attack Wycombe rape charity for advice leaflet". Bucks Free Press.
- "Rape charity gets abusive calls after Tommy Robinson post". BBC News. 16 February 2019.
- White, Nadine; Parker, Connor (16 February 2019). "Rape Victim Hotline Suffers 'Racist Abuse' Following Tommy Robinson Facebook Post". Huffington Post.
- Hern, Alex (26 February 2019). "Tommy Robinson banned from Facebook and Instagram". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- Walker, Peter; Parveen, Nazia (5 March 2019). "Journalist calls police as Tommy Robinson makes video at his home". Retrieved 5 March 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Opinion: I am the latest victim of Tommy Robinson's campaign to intimidate his critics – but he won't shut me up". The Independent. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "Police called after ranting Tommy Robinson bangs on critic's door at 5am". The Independent. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Dearden, Lizzie (2 April 2019). "Tommy Robinson's YouTube videos restricted after internet giant refuses to delete channel". The Independent.
- "Tommy Robinson: Contempt case referred to attorney general". BBC News. 23 October 2018.
- Dearden, Lizzie (25 May 2018). "Tommy Robinson arrested for 'breaching the peace' outside court during grooming trial". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
Judge Heather Norton handed him a three months imprisonment in May last year but suspended it for 18 months on the condition he did not commit further offences. […] “It is about preserving the integrity of the jury to continue without people being intimidated or being affected by irresponsible and inaccurate ‘reporting’, if that’s what it was.”
- Telegraph Reporters (20 June 2017). "Who is Tommy Robinson – the former EDL leader once branded a 'bigoted lunatic'". Telegraph. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "YEP says: Why what Tommy Robinson did was put Tommy first – what we did was put the victims first". Yorkshire Evening Post. 19 October 2018.
- Daro, Ishmael N. (29 May 2018). "Who Is Tommy Robinson And Why Has His Arrest Captivated The Right Wing Media?". BuzzFeed News.
- Perraudin, Frances (29 May 2018). "EDL founder Tommy Robinson jailed for contempt of court". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson jailed at Leeds court". BBC News. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- van Unen, David (28 May 2018). "Britse anti-islamactivist Tommy Robinson de cel in". NRC (in Dutch). Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "Verontwaardiging over publicatieverbod na arrestatie Tommy Robinson". De Telegraaf (in Dutch). 29 May 2018.
- McMenemy, Rachael (5 August 2018). "Tommy Robinson: This is what the judges said when they released the EDL founder". Cambridge News.
- Bird, Steve. "EDL founder Tommy Robinson jailed for contempt of court after broadcasting tirade on Facebook". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "Tommy Robinson's appeal: what happened?". The Secret Barrister. 18 July 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- Dearden, Lizzie (1 August 2018). "Tommy Robinson faces new contempt hearing after being released from prison". The Independent.
- "Tommy Robinson: Ex-EDL chief appears at Old Bailey for contempt case". BBC News. 27 September 2018.
- Gayle, Damien (23 October 2018). "Tommy Robinson: judge refers contempt case to attorney general". The Guardian.
- Hill, Laura (5 November 2018). "Tommy Robinson freed from bail at the Old Bailey". Yorkshire Evening Post.
- Selk, Avi (29 May 2018). "Conservative outrage after anti-Muslim campaigner Tommy Robinson secretly jailed in Britain". Washington Post.
- "Right-wing activist Tommy Robinson reportedly jailed after filming outside child grooming trial". Fox News. 26 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
- Isitman, Elif (29 May 2018). "Duitse politicus wil politiek asiel voor Tommy Robinson". Elsevier (in Dutch).
- Independent Reporter (27 May 2018). "Tommy Robinson protest: Hundreds demonstrate in Downing Street after far-right figure arrested". The Independent.
- Gayle, Damien; Ntim, Zac (11 June 2018). "Protesters charged after pro-Tommy Robinson rally in London". The Guardian.
- Powell, Tom; Grafton-Green, Patrick (15 July 2018). "Twelve arrests as Tommy Robinson activists descend on Whitehall". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Drury, Colin (15 July 2018). "Bus driver in headscarf shows far-right Tommy Robinson demonstrators everything that's great about Britain". The Independent.
- Drury, Colin (23 July 2018). "Tommy Robinson protest: Police release pictures of nine people wanted after violence at London rally". The Independent.
- Rodger, James (30 May 2018). "Petition to free Tommy Robinson signed 500,000 times after he's jailed for 13 months". Birmingham Mail.
- Armstrong, Stephen (28 July 2018). "This is the Twitter data that shows who's backing Tommy Robinson". Wired. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- Hosenball, Mark (14 July 2018). "Trump's ambassador lobbied Britain on behalf of jailed right-wing activist Tommy Robinson". Reuters. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Polglase, Katie (26 July 2018). "A jailed UK far-right activist has gained some big-name US supporters". CNN. CNN. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- "Tommy Robinson Free – MEF Heavily Involved". Middle East Forum. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- Smith, Mikey; MacKenzie, Oliver (14 June 2018). "No, Tommy Robinson hasn't been moved to a 71 per cent Muslim prison". Cambridge News.
- "Tommy Robinson supporter and convicted rapist Wayne Kirby jailed for threatening Sajid Javid". Worcester News. 6 March 2019.
- Forrest, Adam (5 March 2019). "Tommy Robinson supporter and convicted rapist jailed for threatening Sajid Javid on Facebook". The Independent.
- UK activist Tommy Robinson speaks out after prison release. Fox News.
- Beale, Charlotte (8 August 2018). "Tommy Robinson complains he was 'mentally tortured' because he had no TV in prison". The Independent. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- "Army investigates Tommy Robinson photo with soldiers". BBC News. 9 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Grierson, Jamie (10 October 2018). "Counter-extremism chief attacks Tommy Robinson soldier photo". The Guardian.
- Dearden, Lizzie (25 October 2018). "Tommy Robinson invited to address US Congress members in Washington by Republican supporters". The Independent. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- "Tommy Robinson not granted US visa in time for Washington visit". The Guardian. 13 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "Tommy Robinson supporters 'blocked fire exits to confront SNP MP'". The National. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- Learmonth, Andrew (22 January 2019). "Tommy Robinson and a 'small gang' blocked fire exits to get to SNP MP". The National.
- "Tommy Robinson tries to confront MP in Glasgow". The Herald (Glasgow). 18 January 2019.
- Mitchell, Jenness (20 January 2019). "MP closes Facebook page after Tommy Robinson confrontation". STV News.
- Paterson, Stewart (18 January 2019). "Far-right activist Tommy Robinson targets Glasgow MP outside city surgery". Evening Times.
- Dearden, Lizzie (21 January 2019). "Tommy Robinson 'used coordinated gang' to surround MP's surgery at Glasgow library, Stewart McDonald says". The Independent.
- "Tommy Robinson holds Salford protest against BBC Panorama". BBC. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- Buck, Kate (23 February 2019). "Tommy Robinson claims to reveal all about 'fake news' BBC in documentary". Metro UK. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- "BBC – Complaints – BBC Panorama, BBC One, 23 February 2019". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- Bowcott, Owen (7 March 2019). "Tommy Robinson to face fresh contempt of court proceedings - Attorney general cites strong public interest grounds to bring case against EDL founder". The Guardian UK. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- Finnegan, Stephanie; MacKenzie, Oliver (30 May 2018). "This is why Tommy Robinson was jailed for filming outside a court". Cambridgenews-mews.co.uk. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "Tommy Robinson boasts about drugs and proclaims himself 'king of the whole Islam race', in leaked video". The Independent. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "Why Tommy Robinson could find himself in jail again". The Independent. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "EDL founder Tommy Robinson jailed for mortgage fraud". The Guardian (Associated Press). 23 January 2014. p. 10. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Arden, Christopher (22 February 2013). "English Defence League leader 'released from jail'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "EDL leader Stephen Lennon charged with mortgage fraud". BBC News. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "EDL Founder Tommy Robinson in Fear of Muslim Attack Beaten up in Woodhill Prison". International Business Times. 5 February 2014. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Tommy Robinson 'Attacked' In Prison, MoJ Urged To Re-Think Ex- EDL Chief's Incarceration". Huffington Post (UK). 7 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Letter from Maajid Nawaz" (PDF). Quilliam International. 6 February 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 January 2018.
- "'The guards don't run the prison, Islam does': my interview with a 'reformed' Tommy Robinson". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- "Tommy Robinson, former EDL leader, recalled to prison". BBC News. 20 October 2014. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "EDL return to Luton as march passes peacefully". Luton Today. 24 November 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- Halliday, Josh; Beckett, Lois; Barr, Caelainn (7 December 2018). "Revealed: the hidden global network behind Tommy Robinson". The Guardian.
- Childs, Simon (26 March 2019). "The far-right international". New Internationalist.
- Stuchbery, Mike (5 February 2019). "A spike in far right radicalisation should terrify us – here's how to stop it in its tracks". The Independent.
- Bailey, Luke (14 July 2018). "This hardline US conservative think tank says it's funding Tommy Robinson rallies in the UK". iNews.
- "Paypal stops handling payments for Tommy Robinson". BBC News. 8 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "PayPal bans Tommy Robinson from using service". The Guardian. 8 November 2018.
- "UKIP AM calls for new leadership election over Tommy Robinson role". BBC News. 23 November 2018.
- "Nigel Farage calls Tommy Robinson a 'thug'". Belfast Telegraph. 23 November 2018.
- Hope, Christopher; Bird, Steve (1 December 2018). "Revealed: far-Right Ukip Brexit demo 'organiser' is a convicted kidnapper". The Telegraph.
- Embury-Dennis, Tom (4 December 2018). "Nigel Farage quits Ukip: Former leader leaves party over Tommy Robinson links". The Independent.
- "Former leader Nigel Farage quits UKIP". BBC News. 4 December 2018.
- "Ex-Ukip leader quits in protest at 'catastrophic' appointment of Tommy Robinson as adviser". ITV News. 7 December 2018.
- Walker, Peter (27 November 2018). "Third Ukip MEP quits over party's courtship of Tommy Robinson". The Guardian.
- Martin, Dan (9 December 2018). "MEP Jonathan Bullock quits UKIP over party leader's 'increasing support' for EDL founder Tommy Robinson". Leicester Mercury.
- "Dr Julia Reid MEP resigns from UKIP over the current direction of the party". 8 December 2018.
- Phillips, Alison (10 December 2018). "South West MEP quits UKIP over appointment of Tommy Robinson". Gazette and Herald.
- Williamson, David (6 December 2018). "Welsh MEP Nathan Gill quits Ukip in protest at Tommy Robinson link-up". Wales Online.
- "UKIP: Scottish leader David Coburn quits over 'extremism'". BBC News. 7 December 2018.
- Kentish, Benjamin (6 September 2018). "Ukip to debate inviting Tommy Robinson to join party". The Independent. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
- Masters, James (23 November 2018). "Anti-Islam activist Tommy Robinson appointed as UKIP adviser". CNN.
- "UKIP AMs say Tommy Robinson should not be given membership". BBC News. 17 November 2018.