Amber Augusta Rudd (born 1 August 1963) is a British politician serving as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions since 16 November 2018. A member of the Conservative Party, she served as Home Secretary from 2016 to 2018. Rudd was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Hastings and Rye in 2010. She identifies as a one-nation conservative, and has been associated with both economically liberal and socially liberal policies. 
Rudd was born in Marylebone and studied History at the University of Edinburgh School of History, Classics and Archaeology. She was first elected to the House of Commons for Hastings & Rye, in East Sussex in 2005 after defeating incumbent Labour MP Michael Foster. Rudd served in the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change from 2015 to 2016 in the Cameron Government, where she spearheaded the need for renewable energy resources and climate change mitigation. She previously served as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, deputising for Ed Davey at the Department for Energy and Climate Change from 2014 to 2015.
She was appointed Home Secretary in the May Government on 13 July 2016, and given the additional role of Minister for Women and Equalities in January 2018. Rudd was the third female Home Secretary, the fifth woman to hold one of the Great Offices of State and the fastest-rising politician to a Great Office of State since the Second World War.. Rudd resigned as Home Secretary in April 2018 in connection with the Windrush deportation scandal.
Early life and careerEdit
Rudd was born on 1 August 1963 in Marylebone, London, the fourth child of stockbroker Tony Rudd (1924–2017) and magistrate Ethne Fitzgerald (1929–2008), daughter of Maurice Fitzgerald, QC (grandson of the judge and Liberal politician John FitzGerald, Baron FitzGerald of Kilmarnock) and Christine (daughter of Augustus Bradhurst). Tony Rudd and Ethne Fitzgerald were married for 56 years. Her elder brother Roland is a public relations executive, and a prominent Labour supporter.
She was educated at Cheltenham Ladies' College, an independent school in Gloucestershire, and from 1979 to 1981 at Queen's College, London, an independent day school for girls in London, followed by Edinburgh University where she read History. After graduating from university, Rudd joined J.P. Morgan & Co., working in both London and New York.
Rudd became a director of the investment company Lawnstone Limited at the age of 24 in January 1988, taking over from her sister and brother-in-law. Lawnstone became involved with Zinc Corporation, which was taken over by Monticello in 1999, before going into liquidation in 2001.
Rudd was a co-director of Monticello between 1999 and 2000, but the company was liquidated in 2003. Between 1998 and 2000, she was also a director of two companies based in the Bahamas, Advanced Asset Allocation Fund and Advanced Asset Allocation Management.
Rudd helped to find extras for the film Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994), for which she was credited as the "aristocracy co-ordinator", and appeared briefly in one of the church scenes in the film.
After she had stood at the 2005 general election as the Conservative candidate for the Labour-held seat of Liverpool Garston, Rudd's name was added to the Conservative A-List. Following her selection to contest the Hastings and Rye constituency in 2006, she moved to the Old Town in 2007. In the May 2010 general election, Rudd was elected as the MP for Hastings and Rye with a majority of 1,993 votes. Shortly afterward, she was elected to serve as a Conservative member on the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Select Committee.
Rudd is vice-chair of the Parliamentary committee on female genital mutilation, which has campaigned against FGM and called for tougher legal penalties in the area. She has championed the cause of sex equality as chairperson of the All-party parliamentary group for Sex Equality, which published a report on women in work. Rudd chaired a cross-party enquiry into unplanned pregnancies, which called for statutory sex-and-relationships education in all secondary schools. She has also called for a higher proportion of women in Cabinet.
In September 2012, she was made Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne. In October 2013, she became an assistant government whip. In July 2014, Rudd was appointed Minister for the Department for Energy and Climate Change.
Secretary of State for Energy and Climate ChangeEdit
Following the 2015 general election, where she held her seat with an increased majority, she was promoted as Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change. In May 2015, she was appointed as a member of the Privy Council.
In November 2015, she proposed that the UK's remaining coal-fired power stations would be shut by 2025 with their use restricted by 2023. "We need to build a new energy infrastructure, fit for the 21st century." In November 2015, a leaked letter showed that the government was not on course to deliver its 2020 mandatory renewable energy target, leading to accusations from The Ecologist that Rudd had knowingly misled Parliament.
In July 2015, Craig Bennett of Friends of the Earth accused Rudd of hypocrisy in claiming to want to address climate change while at the same time, in his view, "dismantling an architecture of low-carbon policies carefully put together with cross-party agreement over the course of two parliaments". Rudd replied that "[Government] support must help technologies eventually stand on their own two feet, not encourage a permanent reliance on subsidy."
During her time as Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, when she was expected to make a final decision on the construction of the Hinkley Point C nuclear power station, Rudd was criticised for not declaring a conflict of interest arising from her brother Roland's role as chairman and founder of Finsbury; his lobbying firm represented a company that had a £100 million construction contract for the power plant, and the Register of Members' Financial Interests had recently introduced a new category of "family members engaged in lobbying".
Rudd participated in ITV's Brexit referendum debate regarding the European Union. She campaigned for the remain side alongside Nicola Sturgeon and Angela Eagle. They faced Gisela Stuart, Boris Johnson and Andrea Leadsom.
When Theresa May became Prime Minister in July 2016, Rudd was appointed Home Secretary, being the fifth woman to hold one of the Great Offices of State, after Margaret Thatcher, Margaret Beckett, Jacqui Smith and May herself.
At the 2016 party conference, Rudd suggested that companies should be forced to disclose how many foreign workers they employ, with business leaders describing it as divisive and damaging. The proposal was revealed as a key plank of a government drive to reduce net migration and encourage businesses to hire British staff. However, senior figures in the business world warned the plan would be a "complete anathema" to responsible employers and would damage the UK economy because foreign workers were hired to fill gaps in skills that British staff could not provide. The plan was later dropped.
In October 2016, she negated calls for Australian citizens to obtain easier access to live and work in the United Kingdom following the UK's departure from the European Union, which were supported by UK Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary Boris Johnson, and Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop. Rudd also dismissed the idea that a free movement zone between British and Australian citizens would be established upon leaving the European Union; a measure supported by former Australian Prime Minister, Tony Abbott, stating "there are no plans to increase immigration from Australia...so I wouldn't envisage any change".
Later in October 2016, she decided not to open an inquiry into the events at Orgreave during the 1984 miners' strike, saying that there was "not a sufficient basis for me to instigate either a statutory inquiry or an independent review".
She was reappointed as Home Secretary after the 2017 general election, in which she retained her seat at Hastings and Rye by 346 votes.
In August 2017, Rudd replied to an email hoaxer posing as the recently appointed Downing Street Director of Communications, Robbie Gibb, revealing that "positive announcements" were imminent. The hoaxer used Rudd's public domain parliamentary email address but she replied using her private email which is not secure.
In September 2017 on The Andrew Marr Show, Rudd accused Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson of trying to undermine the Prime Minister, Theresa May, calling him a 'back-seat driver'. She said to Andrew Marr: "I don't want him (Boris) managing the Brexit process."
On 3 October 2017, during the Conservative Party Conference, it was reported that Rudd had hired Tory pollster Lynton Crosby to help her increase her majority in Hastings and Rye, amid speculation that she was planning to launch a bid for leadership of the party.
On 29 April 2018, Rudd resigned as Home Secretary after misleading the Home Affairs Select Committee on deportation targets. Later in the same day, Sajid Javid was appointed as Home Secretary.
Unlawful detention and deportation of asylum seekersEdit
In August 2017, an emergency High Court hearing was held to examine Rudd's four-week delay in releasing an asylum seeker, who had been tortured in a Libyan prison, from a UK detention centre. Concern was expressed that the Home Secretary failed to provide a satisfactory explanation for the delay in releasing the man from detention. Rudd also failed to provide a barrister for this proceeding and was instead represented by a government solicitor, a move which the presiding judge described as "inconceivable".
In September 2017 the Guardian reported that Rudd had authorised the deportation of Samim Bigzad to Kabul, in breach of an earlier ruling banning her from doing so owing to the ongoing threat to his life from the Taliban. A High Court Judge found Rudd to be in contempt of court on three counts, after she ignored orders to return him to the UK. An unnamed immigration barrister advised the Independent newspaper that Rudd could be given a custodial sentence for defying the High Court's instructions. Bigzad was later returned to London.
In October 2017, Rudd announced a move by the Tory government to crack down on what British citizens are permitted to view on the internet. Piloted as part of a campaign against "radicalisation", Rudd stated that the government would be tightening the law so that UK citizens repeatedly reading certain forbidden internet content could face up to 15 years in jail for looking at the websites. Rudd stated "I want to make sure those who view despicable terrorist content online, including jihadi websites, far-right propaganda and bomb-making instructions, face the full force of the law.”
Rise in violent crimeEdit
Rudd denied seeing a Home Office report saying cuts to the police force likely were a factor in rising violent crime. A section of the report states: "Since 2012–13, weighted crime demand on the police has risen, largely due to growth in recorded sex offences. At the same time officers’ numbers have fallen by 5% since 2014. So resources dedicated to serious violence have come under pressure and charge rates have dropped. This may have encouraged offenders. [It is] unlikely to be the factor that triggered the shift in serious violence, but may be an underlying driver that has allowed the rise to continue". Rudd had denied that falling police numbers contributed to increased crime. Yvette Cooper wrote, "This is shocking. Surely Home Office officials sent the document to Home Sec, to junior ministers and to special advisors? Cant imagine a department withholding from decision makers the evidence & analysis it did for a new strategy. Something has gone very wrong in Home Office".
In April 2018, it was reported that the British government had threatened the children of immigrants of the "Windrush generation" who arrived before 1973 with deportation if they could not prove their right to remain in the UK — however, the relevant documentation had been destroyed. Rudd apologised for the "appalling" treatment of the Windrush generation, but faced calls to resign from senior figures in the Labour Party. On 23 April 2018, Rudd announced that fees and language tests for citizenship applicants would be waived and compensation given to those affected amidst continued calls for her to resign.
Rudd first denied there were targets for the removal of immigrants. Later, she maintained that she had not known of targets. Later still, The Guardian published leaked evidence that Rudd had known about targets: "The six-page memo, passed to the Guardian, says the department has set 'a target of achieving 12,800 enforced returns in 2017–18' and indicates that 'we have exceeded our target of assisted returns'. It adds that progress has been made on a 'path towards the 10% increased performance on enforced returns, which we promised the Home Secretary earlier this year'". The revelation contradicted Rudd’s public pronouncements concerning what she was aware of the targets for enforcing the removal of immigrants. The New Statesman said that the leaked memo gave, "in specific detail the targets set by the Home Office for the number of people to be removed from the United Kingdom. It suggests that Rudd misled MPs on at least one occasion. She told the Home Affairs Select Committee that the Home Office had no targets for removals, then that she was unaware of these targets and that they would be scrapped. Now it emerges that she saw the relevant targets herself." Diane Abbott called for Rudd's resignation. In response, Rudd tweeted that she had not seen the memo "although it was copied to my office as many documents are", and said that she would make a further statement to the House of Commons.
On 29 April 2018, Rudd resigned as Home Secretary, stating in her letter of resignation that she had "inadvertently misled the Home Affairs Select Committee [...] on the issue of illegal immigration". In September 2018, during an interview on BBC Two's Politics Live, Rudd said that she had little choice but to resign given the "justifiable outrage" at the Government's handling of the Windrush generation.
Secretary of State for Work and PensionsEdit
On 16 November 2018, Rudd returned to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions following the resignation of Esther McVey over opposition to Theresa May's Draft Withdrawal Agreement and the Brexit negotiations.
Rudd campaigned successfully for the construction of the Hastings to Bexhill Link Road. In early 2013, the Government gave the road the go-ahead for construction after ten years of campaigning. Rudd is now spearheading a campaign called Complete The Link to see the final stage of the road get funding for construction. She has supported electrification of the Marshlink Line from Hastings to Ashford International, which could result in extending High Speed 1 and providing a high speed rail link from the constituency to Central London.
In April 2013, a profile of Rudd that appeared in the Financial Times reported her referring to "people who are on benefits, who prefer to be on benefits by the seaside... moving down here to have easier access to friends and drugs and drink." She responded by stating that "I am incredibly optimistic about Hastings. I described the well-known problems that Hastings has to the Financial Times but I also talked about the incredible investment in the town, the fact that unemployment is going down and that there are many positive things to say about it."
Rudd married the writer and critic A. A. Gill in 1990 and they had two children. The couple separated in 1995, after Gill entered into a long-term relationship with journalist Nicola Formby. Gill and Rudd later divorced. Gill died in December 2016. From 2010, Rudd was in a relationship with fellow Conservative MP Kwasi Kwarteng. 
Rudd is a trustee of the Snowdon Trust, an organisation that helps young disabled people access education. Rudd was a director of the Susan Smith Blackburn Prize since 2003, an annual award for a first-time female playwright in the English language. She also serves as a governor of The St Leonards Academy in Hastings.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amber Rudd.|
- Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom
- Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present
- Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
- Articles authored at Journalisted
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
| Member of Parliament
for Hastings and Rye
| Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change
as Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
| Home Secretary
| Minister for Women and Equalities
| Secretary of State for Work and Pensions