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Rajahmundry, officially known as Rajamahendravaram,[5] is a city located in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is located on the banks of Godavari River.. In the Madras Presidency, the District of Rajahmundry was created in 1823.[6] It was reorganised in 1859 and was bifurcated into Godavari and Krishna districts. During British rule, Rajahmundry was the headquarters of Godavari District, which was further bifurcated into East Godavari and West Godavari districts in 1925. When the Godavari District was bifurcated, Kakinada became the headquarters of East Godavari and Eluru became headquarters of West Godavari.[7] It is administered under Rajahmundry revenue division.[8] [9] The city is known for its Floriculture, History, Culture, Agriculture, Economy, Tourism, Industrial potential and its Heritage.[10] It is known as the Cultural Capital of Andhra Pradesh.[11]

Rajahmundry
Rajamahendravaram
A train moving inside Rail/Road Bridge
A train moving inside Rail/Road Bridge
Nickname(s): 
Cultural Capital of Andhra Pradesh
Rajahmundry is located in Andhra Pradesh
Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry
Location of Rajamahendravaram in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates: 16°59′N 81°47′E / 16.98°N 81.78°E / 16.98; 81.78Coordinates: 16°59′N 81°47′E / 16.98°N 81.78°E / 16.98; 81.78
CountryIndia
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionCoastal Andhra
DistrictEast Godavari
Founded byRajaraja Narendra
Government
 • BodyRajamahendravaram Municipal Corporation
Area
 • City228.76 km2 (88.32 sq mi)
 • Metro572.86 km2 (221.18 sq mi)
Area rank3
Elevation
14 m (46 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1][3]
 • City602,728
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
533 1xx
Telephone code+91-883
Vehicle registrationAP 05
Websiterajahmundry.cdma.ap.gov.in/en

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The city earlier was called Rajamahendravaram, derived from the Sanskrit name Rajamahendrapuram (The city of King Mahendra).[2] Carrying the same meaning, it is also referred to as Rajamahendri, which during the British colonial era became Rajahmundry. On 10 October 2015, the State Government of Andhra Pradesh officially renamed the city with its original name.[12]

HistoryEdit

 
Portrait of Nannayya
 
Painting representing historical significance of Rajahmundry city at a wall in Rajahmundry railway station

Rajahmundry was established by Ammaraja Vishnuvardhana the First (919–934 AD). The city as a prominent settlement can be traced back to the rule of the Eastern Chalukya[13] king Rajaraja Narendra, who reigned around 1022 AD.[14] Remains of 11th-century palaces and forts still exist.[15]

Rulers:[16]

  • Eastern Chalukyas
  • Kakatiyas
  • Reddy and Gajapathi Rulers
  • Vijayanagar Rulers
  • Nizam Rule
  • European Rulers and Zamindars

Rajamahendravaram was under Dutch rule for some time. In 1602, the Dutch constructed a fort here. In 1857, the British conquered the Dutch. They converted it into a jail in 1864 and elevated it into a central jail in 1870. The jail is spread over 196 acres (79 ha) out of which the buildings occupy 37.24 acres (15.07 ha).

In the Madras Presidency, the District of Rajahmundry was created in 1823.[6] It was reorganised in 1859 and was bifurcated into Godavari and Krishna districts. During British rule, Rajahmundry was the headquarters of Godavari district, which was further bifurcated into East Godavari and West Godavari districts in 1925. When the Godavari district was split, Kakinada became the headquarters of East Godavari and Eluru became headquarters of West Godavari.[17]

Rajahmundry was the hotbed of several movements during India's freedom struggle and acted as a base for many key leaders. When the Indian National Congress had its first meeting in Bombay (Mumbai), two leaders from Rajahmundry, Nyapathi Subba Rao and Kandukuri Veeresalingam, participated in it. Subba Rao, founder of Hindu Samaj in Rajahmundry, was also one of the six founders of India's noted English daily, The Hindu.

The Renaissance of Andhra Pradesh started in Rajahmundry. Kandukuri Veeresalingam is known as the Father of reforms in Andhra Pradesh. He started a monthly magazine Vivekavardhini, and a school for girls at Dowleswaram in 1874. The first widow remarriage took place on 11 December 1881. A society with 16 members was started on 22 June 1884, which used to look after widow remarriages in Rajahmundry. The town hall was established in 1890 by Veeresalingam. Bipin Chandra Pal visited Rajahmundry in April 1905 during the Vandemataram Movement. During his visits, he used to address the public in "Pal Chowk" (the present-day Kotipalli Bus Stand). Annie Besant visited Rajahmundry twice. First, she came during the foundations of a branch of the Divya Gyan Samaj at Alcot Gardens were being laid. She came again during the opening ceremony. Ramakrishna Mission was established in the city during 1950–51 near Kambal tank. The place is now the Ayakar Bhavan.

Rajahmundry is acclaimed as the birthplace of the Telugu language—its grammar and script evolved from the pen of the city-born poet Nannayya. Also known as 'Ādi Kavi' (the first poet) of Telugu, Nannayya, along with Tikkana and Yerrana, translated the Sanskrit version of Mahabharata into Telugu. Kandukuri Veeresalingam – a social reformer and the author of Rajashekhara Charithra, the first Telugu novel – was also from Rajahmundry.

GeographyEdit

Rajamahendravaram is located at 16°59′N 81°47′E / 16.98°N 81.78°E / 16.98; 81.78.[18] with an average elevation of 14 metres (46 ft).It is geographically located at centre of Godavari Districts.There is paddy, sugarcane and various varieties of flowers cultivation in the area. River Godavari flows through the west of Rajahmundry.

The Rajahmundry traps, part of the Deccan Traps, are located on the Godavari river and are of particular interest to geologists.[19]

ClimateEdit

The weather is hot and humid, with a tropical climate and, therefore, no distinct seasons. The mean maximum temperature is 32 °C. The hottest season is from April to June, with temperature ranging from 34 °C to 48 °C with maximum of 52 °C recorded in May 2002 and May 2007. The coolest months are December and January, when it is pleasant at 27 °C to 30 °C. There is heavy monsoon rain at the end of summer, with depressions in the Bay of Bengal.

Climate data for Rajahmundry
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
32
(90)
37
(99)
40
(104)
44
(111)
40
(104)
37
(99)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
29
(84)
27
(81)
34
(94)
Average low °C (°F) 19
(66)
21
(70)
23
(73)
27
(81)
29
(84)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
21
(70)
18
(64)
24
(75)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3
(0.1)
6
(0.2)
11
(0.4)
21
(0.8)
67
(2.6)
142
(5.6)
260
(10.2)
187
(7.4)
177
(7.0)
197
(7.8)
37
(1.5)
7
(0.3)
1,115
(43.9)
Source: en.climate-data.org

DemographicsEdit

YearPop.±%
1871 19,738—    
1881 24,555+24.4%
1891 28,397+15.6%
1901 36,408+28.2%
1911 48,417+33.0%
1921 53,791+11.1%
1931 63,526+18.1%
1941 74,564+17.4%
1951 105,276+41.2%
1961 130,002+23.5%
1971 188,805+45.2%
1981 267,749+41.8%
1991 324,881+21.3%
2001 315,251−3.0%
2011 341,831+8.4%

As of 2018 Census of India, the city had a population of 602,728.[20][21] 29,883 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 15,152 are boys and 14,731 are girls—a ratio of 972 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 84.28% (male 88.14%; female 80.54%) with 264,653 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[3][22]

GovernanceEdit

Rajamahendravaram City is spread over an area of 228.76 km2 (88.32 sq mi) with population of 602,728(2011 census).[1][23] The Municipal Commissioner of City is Sumit kumar Gandhi[24][25] The Government is planning to construct an Under Ground Drianage system in the city.[26] The govt of AP approved merger of 23 surrounding villages from Korukonda, Rajanagaram, Rajahmundry Rural and Kadiam Mandals into Rajamahendravaram Municipal Corporation (RMC). The city is going to achieve greater city status.The government of Andhra Pradesh approved a new master plan to Rajahmundry Municipal Corporation with 23 surrounding villages which were merged in Municipal Corporation (RMC). Godavari Urban Development Authority (GUDA) is also working for the progress of new master plan.

Present representatives of City:

  • Margani Bharat Ram(Rajahmundry Lok Sabha).
  • Adireddy Bhavani(Rajamahendravaram Urban).
  • Gorantla Butchaih Chowdary(Rajamahendravaram Rural).
  • Jakkampudi Raja(Rajanagaram).

Mandals in city:

  • korukonda
  • Rajanagaram
  • Rajahmundry Urban
  • Rajahmundry Rural
  • Kadiam.

FloricultureEdit

Rajamahendravaram city is also famous for flowers. Various varieties of flowers are cultivated here. Nurseries here are spread more than 3,500 acres in Kadiam, Rajahmundry Rural mandals of City. Floriculture is expanding to Mandapeta town. Floriculture Institute and Research Centre is in construction at Vemagiri in the city. Government is trying to export these flowers from Rajahmundry Airport through Cargo planes.

EconomyEdit

Rajamahendravaram is a commercial hub for East Godavari and West Godavari Districts. Nurseries in Kadiam Mandal of city generates huge revenue to Rajahmundry revenue division. A floriculture research centre is in construction at Vemagiri, Rajamahendravaram to give a major boost to nurseries in Godavari Districts. Floriculture is expanding to Mandapeta, Alamuru and Atreyapuram Mandals. Main Road and Tadithota are main marketing places in the city. Many shopping complexes, multiplexes, hotels and convention halls are in construction near NH 216A (old NH 16) and it is becoming another shopping centre. Tourism also generate revenue to this region.[27] It is one of the largest bullion markets in India which consists hundreds of gold, silver and platinum shops throughout the city.

CultureEdit

Art and crafts

Damerla Rama Rao Art Gallery, dedicated to the works of the artist Damerla Rama Rao of the city has various paintings by him such as Krishna Leela, Godavari of Eastern Ghats and Milkmaids of Kathiawar.[28]

Literature

Nannayya is the earliest known Telugu poet, and the author of the first third of the Andhra Mahabharatam, a Telugu retelling of the Mahabharata. Sri Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919), a renowned social reformer, is widely considered as the man who first brought about a renaissance in Telugu literature and Telugu people; he is also known to have fought for women's issues.[29] General Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton, (15 May 1803 – 24 July 1899) was a British general and irrigation engineer.[30] Sri Adurthi Subba Rao, Prominent Old-time Director & Producer of Telugu Films. Julia Maitland, a campaigner for "native" education, founded a multilingual school and reading room in the town in 1837.[31]

Music and films

Durga Cinetone was the first south Indian film studio, to be built in Rajamahendravaram in the year 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya.Many films are being shooted in the city as the city has beautiful scenaries.[32]

The city has produced many well-known artists in the Telugu film industry such as S.V.Ranga Rao, Ali, Raja Babu, Jaya Prada, Sameera Reddy, Bhanupriya, Sriman, Meghna Reddy, Thotakura Venkata Raju, Uma Pemmaraju, Ramesh, and J. D. Chakravarthy.

TourismEdit

 
Cotton museum Dowleswaram

The river Godavari and its bridges and the Sir Arthur Cotton Museum[33] are some of the attractions in the city. Rajamahendravaram is a major tourist destination in the state. Beautiful scenaries can be seen in the city. Daily tourist boats are availed from Pushkar Ghat to Papikondalu and Bhadrachalam. Heli Tourism is introduced from Rajahmundry Airport to see tourist places in Godavari Districts. Nurseries in Kadiam Mandal of City is another major tourist destination. Government of Andhra Pradesh is going to rehabilitate Havelock Bridge and proposed resorts and recreational places at Pichukalanka and other islands on River Godavari and eco tourism centre at Kadiyapulanka. Rajahmundry Municipal Corporation (RMC), Godavari Urban Development Authority (GUDA) and Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation (APTDC) is planning River Front Development. State Government is making MoUs with private agencies for constructing Malls, Multiplexes, Hotels and Recreational places on PPP mode as a part of tourism development.Rajahmundry Airport is being developed as an international airport for giving a major boost to tourism in Godavari Districts. Polavaram Project, which is 25km away from city will become another major tourist site near city.[34]

TransportEdit

 
Godavari Rail Bridges view from PushkharGhat
 
Rajahmundry Railway station Entrance
 
Rajahmundry Airport

The bridges across Godavari River are an important transport infrastructure for connectivity such as, the Godavari Bridge,[35] which is the third longest railroad bridge in Asia;[36] and the Godavari Arch Bridge, commissioned on 14 March 1997 for Howrah–Chennai main line.[37] While, the Old Godavari Bridge (The Havelock Bridge) was the earliest of all, built in 1897 and was decommissioned in 1997.[36][38] New 4th Godavari Bridge is expected to ease some traffic through city.[39]

RoadsEdit

Rajamahendravaram is very well connected to the state and rest of India with network of state and national highways. NH 16 passes through the city.NH 365BB and NH 516D connects the city with Khammam, Suryapet and Hyderabad. NH 216A which is a spur road to NH 16 connects the city with Ravulapalem, Tanuku, Tadepalligudem and Eluru. NH 516E connects the city with Vizianagaram via Rampachodavaram, Narsipatnam and Araku. ADB Road and SH 40(Canal Road) connects the city with Kakinada and SH 41 is connected with Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Telangana borders with Andhra Pradesh and Bhadrachalam. SH 104 connects the city with Amalapuram. SH 172 is connected to Purushottampatnam and Polavaram Project. SH 72 is connected to Nidadavole, Palakollu and Narsapuram. NHAI is constructing flyovers on NH 16 and NH 216A at Diwancheruvu, Lalacheruvu, Morampudi, Vemagiri and Kadiyapulanka Junctions in the city to ease traffic. Trumpet Bridge is planned at ADB road on NH 16 in Rajanagaram. A ROB was proposed from Morampudi to Kotipalli Bus stand. Godavari Urban Development Authority(GUDA) is planning to construct an outer ring road (ORR) for the city to ease traffic in the city.

RailwaysEdit

Rajamahendravaram railway station is classified as an A category station in Vijayawada railway division.[40] It is located on the Howrah-Chennai main line of South Central Railway zone.Godavari and Kadiam are other railway stations serving to city. Second railway line is proposed on Godavari Arch Bridge.A new railway line to Raipur from the city connecting Rampachodavaram and other East agency areas was in proposal.The frequency of trains will be increased after completion of Kovvur-Bhadrachalam railway line and distance to Secunderabad Railway Station will be decreased.[41]

WaterwaysEdit

National Waterway 4 was declared on 24 November 2008, which connects the Indian states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and the union territory of Puducherry. It passes through Kakinada, Eluru, Commanur, Buckingham Canal and also part of Krishna and Godavari rivers rivers.[42] It is being developed by Inland Waterways Authority of India.Inland water port is proposed at Bobbillanka. APTDC and other private agencies's boats and launches are available daily from Pushakar Ghat to Papikondalu and Bhadrachalam[43]

AirwaysEdit

Rajahmundry Airport, situated at Rajamahendravaram City in East Godavari .[44] Spicejet, IndiGo and TruJet are airlines. This airport is being served to people of Godavari Districts. The airport has direct services to Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore. A new terminal building was inaugurated on 16 May 2012. Runway was expanded from the 1,749 m to 3,000 m to facilitate the landing and takeoff of bigger aircraft.[45] People here are requesting to develop this airport as an international airport. The state government is very keen in developing the airport as an international airport. Government proposed an IAF base in this airport.This airport plays a crucial role in economy of Godavari Districts. Government of AP is keen in exporting flowers through this airport from nurseries in Kadiam Mandal in the city. Heli tourism has been introduced in the airport[46]

EducationEdit

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[47][48] As per the school information report for the academic year 2016–17, the city has 55,501[49] students enrolled in 244 schools.[50] The medium of instruction followed by schools are Telugu, English.[51][52] The Railway High School in the city has a history of more than hundred years, established in the year 1909.[53]

The city has one of the thirteen regional offices of the Board of Intermediate Education, which administers Intermediate education (10+2) education.[54] The Government Junior College is the only government run junior college, established in 1974 and there are four private-aided, twenty private-unaided colleges in the city.[55]

The Government Arts College was founded more than 150 years ago by the reformer, Kandukuri Veeresalingam Panthulu.[56] The BEd Training Institute is one of the oldest in India. Adikavi Nannaya University was established in March 2006, named after an 11th-century poet, Nannayya.[57] Other major universities in the city include Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Telugu University,[58] Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University,[59] Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University Study Center.[60] the city contains nannya university as new era. Andhra Pradesh State Forest Academy is located in the city for Forest skills training.[61]National Institute of Technology, Andhra Pradesh, Tadepalligudem is located 34km from Rajamahendravaram city.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b "Municipality Profile". Rajahmahendravaram Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Census of India: Search Details". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Agglomerations and Cities". citypopulation.de.
  5. ^ Reporter, Staff (17 October 2015). "Rajahmundry is now 'Rajamahendravaram'". The Hindu. Vijayawada. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  6. ^ a b Bhaskar, B. v s (8 June 2014). "'Nyapathi Subbarao carved an identity for Telugus'" – via www.thehindu.com.
  7. ^ "East Godavari District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 365–366, 409. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
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  10. ^ "FM waves to touch Rajahmundry soon". 28 July 2006 – via www.thehindu.com.
  11. ^ Bhandari, R.R. "Bridges: The Spectacular Feat of Indian Engineering" (PDF). Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers. National Informatics Centre. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
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  18. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Rajamahendravaram, India". fallingrain.com.
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  31. ^ Letters from Madras, during the years 1836–1839, by a Lady (London, 1843).
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  60. ^ "Open university to set up study centres in Agency". 28 May 2008 – via www.thehindu.com.
  61. ^ "Forest academy hones skills of staff". The Hans India. 6 May 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.

External linksEdit