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Plug-in electric vehicles in Europe

Cumulative light-duty plug-in electric vehicle sales in Europe compared to the world's top-selling countries and regional markets as of December 2018. Europe is the world's second largest plug-in market.[1][2][3][4]

The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in Europe is actively supported by the European Union and several European government have set public subsidies and other non-financial incentives to promote their widespread adoption.

More than one million plug-in electric passenger cars and vans have been registered in Europe by June 2018,[5] the second largest stock after China.[1][2][3] As of December 2018, Norway is the leading market with almost 300,000 units registered, followed by the UK with more than 212,000 units, and France with almost 205,000 units.[2][6][7][8]

As of December 2015, France ranked as the largest European market for light-duty electric commercial vehicles or utility vans, accounting for nearly half of all vans sold in the European Union.[9] The French market share of all-electric utility vans reached a market share of 1.22% of new vans registered in 2014, and 1.30% in 2015.[10] Denmark is the second largest European market, with an 8.5% market share of all vans sold in the country in 2015. Most of the vans sold in the Danish market are plug-in hybrids, accounting for almost all of the plug-in hybrid van sales across the EU.[9]

Government incentivesEdit

Electrification of transport (electromobility) figures prominently in the Green Car Initiative (GCI),[11] included in the European Economic Recovery Plan. DG TREN is supporting a large European "electromobility" project on EVs and related infrastructure with a total budget of around €50 million as part of the Green Car Initiative.[12]

There are measures to promote efficient vehicles in the Directive 2009/33/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles[13] and in the Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services.

As of April 2011, 15 of the 27 European Union member states provide tax incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles, which includes all Western European countries plus the Czech Republic and Romania. Also 17 countries levy carbon dioxide related taxes on passenger cars as a disincentive. The incentives consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of PEVs, hybrid vehicles, and some alternative fuel vehicles.[14][15]

Markets and salesEdit

 
Annual sales of plug-in passenger cars in Europe compared to the world's top country markets between 2011 and 2018[16][17][18][19]

More than one million plug-in electric passenger cars and vans have been registered in Europe by June 2018,[5] making the region the world's second largest market after China.[1][2][3] Of these, more than 50% were registered in the two previous years, 215,624 units in 2016, and 302,383 in 2017.[18][20][21][22] The European stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles includes 501,798 battery electric cars and vans as of December 2017, of which, almost 150,000 (29.7%) were registered in 2017.[21]

Cumulative sales of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Europe passed the 500,000 unit milestone in May 2016.[23] Norway passed the 100,000th registered plug-in unit milestone in April 2016,[24] France passed the same milestone in September 2016,[25] and the Netherlands in November 2016.[26] The UK achieved the 100,000 unit mark in March 2017.[2][27]

As of December 2018, European sales of plug-in cars and vans are led by Norway with over 296,000 units registered followed by the UK with more than 212,000 units, and France with almost 205,000 units.[2][6][7][8] Norway was also the top selling plug-in country market in Europe in terms of annual sales in 2016, 2017 and 2018.[2][28] The other top selling European markets in terms of cumulative registrations are Germany (196,750), the Netherlands (145,882) and Sweden (80,000).[2][29][30][31] The plug-in segment market share achieved a record 1.74% of new car registrations in 2017.[32]

Annual sales of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Europe (EU + EFTA)
by type of powertrain (2010–2018)
Year Total BEV(1) Growth
(BEVs)
Total
PHEV(2)
Growth
(PHEVs)
Total PEV(3) Growth
(PEVs)
PEV
market
share(4)
2010 2,919[33] 0 - 2,919 - 0.01%[34]
2011 13,779[33] 372.0% 304[35] 14,083 382.5% 0.08%[36]
2012 24,713[37] 79.4% 9,620[35][38] 3,064% 34,333 143.8% 0.23%[39]
2013 40,496[37] 63.9% 31,447[40] 226.9% 71,943 109.5% 0.53%[41]
2014 65,199[42] 61.0% 39,547[40] 25,8% 104,746 45.6% 0.75%[43]
2015 97,687[44] 49.8% 96,436[18] 143.9% 194,120 85.3% 1.41%[45]
2016 102,625[20] 5.1% 112,999[18] 17.2% 215,624 11.1% 1.35%(5)
2017 149,086[21] 45.3% 153,297[22] 35.7% 302,383 40.2% 1.74%(5)[32]
2018 223,284[22][46] 49.8% 182,768[22] 19.2% 406,052 34.3% 2.5%[46]
Total 719,788 626,418 1,346,206
Notes: (1) Battery electric vehicles (BEV) includes all-electric passenger cars and utility vans.
(2) ACEA figures only include plug-in passenger cars registered in the European Union and EFTA countries.
(3) Includes all-electric passenger cars, all-electric utility vans, and plug-in hybrids.
(4) Market share of the plug-in passenger segment of total new car sales (utility vans not included).
(5) New passenger vehicle registrations in the EU and EFTA totaled 15,131,719 units in 2016 and 15,631,687 in 2017.[47]

2010–2015Edit

A total of 1,614 all-electric cars and 1,305 light-utility vehicles were sold in 2010. Sales jumped from 2,919 units in 2010 to 13,779 in 2011, consisting of 11,271 pure electric cars and 2,508 commercial vans.[33] In addition, over 300 plug-in hybrids were sold in 2011, mainly Opel Amperas.[35] Light-duty plug-in vehicle sales totaled 34,333 units in 2012, consisting of 24,713 all-electric cars and vans, and 9,620 plug-in hybrids.[35][37][38] The Opel/Vauxhall Ampera plug-in hybrid was Europe's top selling plug-in electric car in 2012 with 5,268 units, closely followed by the all-electric Nissan Leaf with 5,210 units.[35][48]

 
The Opel Ampera plug-in hybrid was the top selling plug-in electric car in Europe in 2012 with 5,268 units.[35]

The plug-in segment sales more than double to 71,943 units in 2013. Pure electric passenger and light commercial vehicles sales increased by 63.9% to 40,496 units.[37] In addition, a total of 31,477 extended-range cars and plug-in hybrids were sold in 2013.[40] Registrations reached 104,746 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in 2014, up 45.6% from 2013. A total of 65,199 pure electric cars and light-utility vehicles were registered in Europe in 2014, up 60.9% from 2013. All-electric passenger cars represented 87% of the European all-electric segment registrations.[42] Extended-range cars and plug-in hybrid registrations totaled 39,547 units in 2014, up 25.8% from 2013.[40]

During 2013 took place a surge in sales of plug-in hybrids in the European market, particularly in the Netherlands, with 20,164 PHEVs registered during the year.[49][50] Out of the 71,943 highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans sold in the region during 2013, plug-in hybrids totaled 31,447 units, representing 44% of the plug-in electric vehicle segment sales that year.[37][40] This trend continued in 2014. Plug-in hybrids represented almost 30% of the plug-in electric drive sales during the first six months of 2014, and with the exception of the Nissan Leaf, sales of the previous European best selling models fell significantly, while recently introduced models captured a significant share of the segment sales, with the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, Tesla Model S, BMW i3, Renault Zoe, Volkswagen e-Up!, and the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (available as a diesel–electric hybrid) ranking among the top ten best selling models.[51]

 
The Nissan Leaf was the top selling plug-in car in Europe in 2013 with 11,120 units sold.[52]

In 2014 Norway was the top selling country in the light-duty all-electric market segment, with 18,649 passenger cars and utility vans registered, more than doubling its 2013 sales. France ranked second with 15,046 units registered, followed by Germany with 8,804 units, the UK with 7,730 units, and the Netherlands with 3,585 car and vans registrations.[53] In the plug-in hybrid segment, the Netherlands was the top selling country in 2014 with 12,425 passenger cars registered,[54] followed by the UK with 7,821,[55] Germany with 4,527,[56] and Sweden 3,432 units.[57] Five European countries achieved plug-in electric car sales with a market share higher than 1% of new car sales in 2014, Norway (13.84%), the Netherlands (3.87%), Iceland (2.71%), Estonia (1.57%), and Sweden (1.53%).[58][57][59]

In 2013 the top selling plug-in was the Leaf with 11,120 units sold,[52] followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 8,197 units.[60] The Mitsubishi Outlander plug-in hybrid was the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in Europe in 2014 with 19,853 units sold,[61] surpassing of the Nissan Leaf (14,658), which fell to second place.[62] Ranking third was the Renault Zoe with 11,231 units.[63]

For a second year running, the Mitsubishi’s Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in electric car in Europe with 31,214 units sold in 2015, up 57% from 2014.[61] The Renault Zoe ranked second among plug-in electric cars, with 18,727 registrations, and surpassed the Nissan Leaf to become best selling pure electric car in Europe in 2015.[44] Ranking next were the Volkswagen Golf GTE plug-in hybrid (17,300), followed by the all-electric Tesla Model S (15,515) and the Nissan Leaf (15,455), the BMW i3, including its REx variant, (12,047), and the Audi A3 e-tron plug-in hybrid (11,791).[44][61]

 
The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was Europe's top selling plug-in car in 2014 and 2015, and also is the region's all-time best-selling plug-in electric car with 100,097 units delivered as of 2017.[64][65]

The Netherlands was the top selling country in the European light-duty plug-in electric market segment, with 43,971 passenger cars and utility vans registered in 2015. Norway ranked second with 34,455 units registered, followed by the UK with 28,188 units, France with 27,701 car and vans registrations, and Germany with 23,464 plug-in cars.[66] Eight European countries achieved plug-in electric car sales with a market share higher than 1% of new car sales in 2015, Norway (22.4%), the Netherlands (9.7%), Iceland (2.9%), Sweden (2.6%), Denmark (2.3%), Switzerland (2.0%), France (1.2%) and the UK (1.1%).[66][67] As of December 2015, almost 25% of the European plug-in stock was registered in the Nordic countries, with over 100,000 units registered. In 2015, combined registrations in the four countries were up 91% from 2014.[68][69]

For the first time in the region, in 2015 plug-in hybrids (95,140) outsold all-electric cars (89,640) in the passenger car segment,[45] however, when light-duty plug-in utility vehicles are accounted for, the all-electric segment totaled 97,687 registrations in 2015, up 65,199 in 2014, and ahead of the plug-in hybrid segment.[44] Also in 2015, the European market share of plug-in electric cars passed the 1% mark for the first time, with a 1.41% share of new car sales that year.[45] This trend continue during 2016. Since April 2016 plug-in hybrids have outsold all-electric cars, and the gap has continued to widen. Accounting for passenger plug-in car sales in Western Europe between January and July 2016, plug-in hybrids captured almost 54% of the region's plug-in market sales.[70] During 2016 the all-electric car segment ended with a market share of 0.57% of new car sales, while plug-in hybrids reached a market share of 0.73%.[71]

2016–2017Edit

European sales of plug-in electric cars passed 200,000 units for the first time in 2016. The plug-in segment achieved a market share of 1.3% of total new car sales in 2016.[72] Norway was the top selling plug-in car country in Europe in 2016 with 45,492 plug-in cars and vans registered, followed by the UK with about 36,907 units, France with 33,774, Germany with 25,154, the Netherlands with 24,645, and Sweden with 13,454.[2] France was the top selling market in the light-duty all-electric segment with 27,307 units registered, up 23% from 2015.[20] The plug-in car segment of ten European countries achieved a market share of new car sales above 1%,[73] led by Norway with 29.1%,[2] followed by the Netherlands with 6.4%,[2] 6.4 %,[73] Sweden with 3.5%,[2] and Switzerland with 1.8%.[73]

 
The Renault Zoe has been the top selling plug-in electric car in Europe for two years in a row, 2016 and 2017.[21][20][74]

The Renault Zoe was the best-selling all-electric car in Europe in 2016 with 21,735 units delivered,[20][74] and also topped European sales in the broader plug-in electric car segment, ahead of the Outlander P-HEV, the top selling plug-in in the previous two years.[74] The Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with 21,446 units sold was the second best-selling plug-in car,[74][75] followed by the Nissan Leaf with 18,718.[76] The Outlander PHEV has been Europe's best-selling plug-in hybrid vehicle for four years in a row, from 2013 to 2016.[64] The top selling all-electric commercial van was the Nissan e-NV200 with 4,319 units registered.[77]

Registrations totaled 302,383 units in 2017, of which, 149,086 (49.3%) were all-electric cars and vans, and 153,297 (50.7%) were plug-in hybrid cars.[21][22] The segment market share achieved a record 1.74% in 2017.[32] Accounting for new registrations of plug-in passenger cars, Norway was Europe's top selling country in 2017 with 62,313 units, followed by Germany with 54,617, which more than doubled in 2017 and moved ahead of French and the British markets for the first time ever.[47] Ranking next were the UK with 47,298, France with 36,835, and Sweden with 19,678 units.[19] Norway also led the all-electric car segment with 33,025 new units registered, up 36.3% from 2016, and the UK led the plug-in hybrid car segment with 31,154 registrations, up 25.1% from 2016.[47]

In 2017, sales in the Netherlands fell by 51.7% from 2016 due to changes in tax rules, and as a result, it was overtook by both Sweden (+48.4%) and Belgium (+59.2%). Denmark was the only other significant plug-in car market with weaker sales in 2017, down 30.1% from 2017 with the fall also due to a change in taxes. In addition to Germany, plug-in car sales also doubled in Spain (+104.6%) and Portugal (+121.2%), and sales also increased sales significantly in Italy (+71.2%).[19][47]

Among all-electric cars, the top selling model was the Renault Zoe with 31,302 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 17,293.[21] Combined sales of BMW i3 pure electric and REx models totaled 20,855 units, making the i3 Europe's second best selling plug-in car in 2017 after the Zoe.[3] The best selling plug-in hybrids were the Outlander P-HEV with 19,189 units, the VW Passat GTE with 13,599 and the Mercedes Benz GLC 350e with 11,249.[3]

As of December 2017, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV continues to rank as the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the region with 100,097 units delivered since its launch in 2013,[65] followed by the Renault Zoe with 91,927 units,[21][20][78][79] the Nissan Leaf with 84,947 units,[21][44][76][80] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. is the all-time top selling all-electric utility van with 29,150 units sold through December 2017.[20][78][79]

Top selling plug-in modelsEdit

Top 15 selling plug-in electric car models in Europe
(sales or registrations between 2010 and 2017)
Ranking Model Total sales/
registrations
2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012(2) 2011 2010
1 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV[60][61][64][65][75] 100,097 19,189 21,446 31,214 19,853 8,197      
2 Renault Zoe[20][78][79] 91,927 31,302 21,735 18,728 11,231 8,863 68    
3 Nissan Leaf[21][35][44][52][76][80][81] 84,947 17,293 18,718 15,455 14,658 11,120 5,210 1,728 144
4 BMW i3[3][61][81][82] 59,122 20,855 14,999 12,047 9,744 1,477      
5 Tesla Model S[44][20][81][83][84] 54,116 ~15,400 10,567 15,515 8,734 ~3,900      
6 Volkswagen Golf GTE[3][61][85] 38,993 9,267 11,329 17,300 1,097        
7 Volkswagen e-Golf[21][44][20][81] 33,644 12,663 6,543 11,110 3,328        
8 Volkswagen Passat GTE[3][61][85][86] 31,632 13,599 13,110 4,922 1        
9 Renault Kangoo Z.E.[20][78][79] 29,150 4,233 3,901 4,238 4,197 5,850 5,260 991  
10 Audi A3 e-tron[3][61][85][86] 28,209 8,356 6,908 11,791 1,154        
11 Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid[3][61][85][86][87][88][89] 25,694 1,677(1) 4,119 6,349 5,441 8,066 42    
12 Mercedes-Benz C 350 e[3][61][85][86] 22,049 6,861 10,125 5,006 57        
13 Volvo XC90 T8[3][85][90] 19,969 7,847 9,469 2,653          
14 BMW 330e iPerformance[3][85] 18,808 10,117 8,691            
15 BMW 225xe Active Tourer[3][85] 16,720 10,805 5,915            
Notes:
(1) CYTD sales through July 2017 only.
(2) The Opel Ampera plug-in hybrid was the top selling plug-in car in 2012 with 5,268 units.[35] Sales ended in 2015.

Main country marketsEdit

NorwayEdit

 
Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in Norway by year between 2004 and 2018. Includes plug-in hybrids, all-electric cars and vans, and used imports.[91][92][93][94][95][96]

Norway is the country with the largest electric vehicle ownership per capita in the world.[97][98][99] As of December 2018, the stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway totaled 296,214 units consisting of 200,192 all-electric passenger cars and vans, and 96,022 plug-in hybrids,[6] making Norway the European country with the largest stock of plug-in cars and vans, and the third largest in the world.[1][2] Norway has been the top selling plug-in country market in Europe for three consecutive years, from 2015 to 2018.[2][28]

 
Historical evolution of the Norwegian plug-in electric car segment market share of new car sales and monthly records through March 2019

The Norwegian plug-in electric vehicle market share of new car sales is the highest in the world. The segment had market share of 29.1% in 2016,[100][101] rose to 39.2% in 2017, and achieved to 49.1% of all new passenger cars registered in 2018.[91][92] In September 2018, the combined market share of the plug-in car segment reached 60.2% of new car registrations, becoming the world's highest-ever monthly market share for the plug-in passenger car segment in Norway, and in any country. Accounting for conventional hybrids, the electrified segment achieved a record 71.5% market share in September 2018.[102][103]

The Norwegian fleet of plug-in electric cars is one of the cleanest in the world because 98% of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower.[104][105] In March 2014, Norway became the first country where one in every 100 registered passenger cars was a plug-in electric.[106] The plug-in car market penetration reached 5% at the end of 2016,[2] and, as of 31 October 2018, plug-in electric cars were 10% of all passenger cars on Norwegian roads.[107]

Also, Norway was the first country in the world to have all-electric cars topping the new car sales monthly ranking. The Tesla Model S has been the top selling new car four times, and the Nissan Leaf has topped the monthly new car sales ranking twice.[108] In March 2014 the Tesla Model S also broke the 28-year-old record for monthly sales of a single model regardless of its power source, surpassing the previous record set in May 1986.[109][110] The Nissan Leaf, with 12,303 units registered in 2018, was the country's best selling new passenger car model, marking the first time an electric car tops annual sales of the passenger car segment.[111][112]

United KingdomEdit

 
Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in the UK between 2011 and December 2018.[55][113][114][115][116][117][118][119]

More than 212,000 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles had been registered in the UK up until December 2018, including about 10,000 plug-in commercial vans.[7] The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in the United Kingdom is actively supported by the British government through the plug-in car and van grants schemes and other incentives. Since the launch of the Plug-In Car Grant in January 2011, a total of 176,962 eligible cars have benefited with the government's subsidy through September 2018,[120] and, the number of claims made through the Plug-in Van Grant scheme, as of September 2018, totaled 5,218 units since the launch of the programme in 2012.[121]

A surge of plug-in car sales took place in Britain beginning in 2014. Total registrations went from 3,586 in 2013, to 37,092 in 2016, and rose to 59,911 in 2018.[116][118][119] The market share of the plug-in segment went from 0.16% in 2013 to 0.59% in 2014, and achieved 2.6% in 2018.[116][55][119]

As of September 2018, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in car in the UK almost 37,000 units registered, followed by the Nissan Leaf nearly 24,000 units. Ranking third is the BMW 330e with more than 13,000 units, followed by the BMW i3 with 11,000 units.[7]

FranceEdit

 
Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles in France by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2018.[8][122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130]

As of December 2018, the stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in France totaled 204,617 plug-in cars and electric utility vans delivered since 2010,[2][8] consisting of 125,532 all-electric passenger cars, 38,710 all-electric utility vans, and 40,375 plug-in hybrids.[8][130][25]

The market share of all-electric passenger cars increased from 0.30% of new car registered in 2012, to 0.59% in 2014.[131][122] After the introduction of the super-bonus for the scrappage of old diesel-power cars in 2015, sales of both pure electric cars and plug-in hybrids surged, rising the market share that year to 1.17%,[128][66] 1.40% in 2016,[122][130] and achieved a record market share of 2.11 % in 2018.[8]

As of December 2015, France is the country with the world's largest market for light-duty electric commercial vehicles or utility vans. Nearly half of the vans sold in the European Union are sold in France as a result of a national purchase incentive scheme, which French companies have embraced.[9] The market share of all-electric utility vans reached a market share of 1.22% of new vans registered in 2014, 1.30% in 2015, and 1.77% in 2018.[8][10]

GermanyEdit

 
Annual registration of plug-in electric cars in Germany by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2018.[56][132][133][134][135][136][137][29]

As of December 2018, a total of 196,750 plug-in electric cars have been registered in Germany since 2010.[2][137][29] The country is the largest passenger car market in Europe, however, as of December 2016, ranked as the fifth largest plug-in market in Europe.[23][2] About 93% of the plug-in cars registered in the country through December 2018 were registered since January 2014.[56][135][29]

A record of 54,492 plug-in cars were registered in 2017, up 217% from 2016, and rose to 67,504 in 2018.[29] The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.58% in 2017 and 1.9% in 2018.[137][29] The surge in sales that took place in 2017 allowed Germany to rank as Europe's second best selling market that year, and the country moved ahead of French and the British markets for the first time ever. Again in 2018, Germany ranked second after Norway.[47]

The top selling models in 2017 were the Audi A3 e-tron (4,454), Renault Zoe (4,322), and BMW i3 (4,319).[138]

NetherlandsEdit

 
Number of registered plug-in electric vehicles on the road in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2018.[139][54][140][141][142][143][30]

As of 31 December 2018, there were 145,882 highway-legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 97,702 plug-in hybrids, 44,984 pure electric cars, and 3,196 all-electric light utility vans. When buses (404), trucks (94), motorcycles (608), quadricycles and tricycles (1,257) are accounted for, the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet climbs to 148,245 units.[30]

A distinct feature of the Dutch plug-in market is dominance of plug-in hybrids, which represented 67% of the country's stock of passenger plug-in electric cars and vans registered at the end of December 2018, down from 81% in 2017.[30]

The Netherlands listed as the world's third best-selling country market for light-duty plug-in vehicles in 2015,[66] however, plug-in sales fell sharply in 2016 due to changes in tax rules, and as a result, the Netherlands was surpassed by both Norway and France during 2016.[25][24] As a result of this change in the government incentives, the plug-in market share declined from 9.9% in 2015, to 6.7% in 2016, and fell to 2.6% in 2017.[30] The intake rate rose to 6.5% in 2018 due to another change in tax rules from January 2019.[30].[30] As of July 2016, the Netherlands had the second largest plug-in market concentration per capita in the world after Norway.[144]

SwedenEdit

 
Plug-in electric vehicle annual registrations in Sweden between 2011 and 2018.[31][57][88][145][146][147][148][149]

As of December 2018, a total of 80,025 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered since 2011, consisting of 58,148 plug-in hybrids, 19,301 all-electric cars and 2,576 all-electric utility vans.[31][57][88][145][148][149] The Swedish plug-in electric market is dominated by plug-in hybrids, representing 72.4% of the Swedish light-duty plug-in electric vehicle registrations through December 2017, and 75.1% through 2018.[31][57][88][145][146][147][148][149]

Sweden has ranked among the world's top ten best-selling plug-in markets for two years running, 2015 and 2016, listed in both years as the ninth largest country market.[2][66] As of December 2016, the Swedish stock of plug-in cars and vans is the sixth largest in Europe.[2] The plug-in passenger car segment had a record market share of 5.2% of new registrations in 2017,[149] and achieved a record of 8.2% in 2018.[31]

In September 2011 the Swedish government approved a 200 million kr program, effective starting in January 2012, to provide a subsidy of 40,000 kr per car for the purchase of 5,000 electric cars and other "super green cars" with ultra-low carbon emissions, defined as those with emissions below 50 grams of carbon dioxide (CO
2
) per km.[150] After renewing appropriations for the super green car rebate several times, from 2016, only zero emissions cars are entitled to receive the full premium, while other super green cars, plug-in hybrids, receive half premium.[151] Registrations of super clean cars increased five-fold in July 2014 driven by the end of the quota of 5,000 new cars eligible for the super clean car subsidy.[152][153][154]

Registrations and market share by countryEdit

European countries new plug-in passenger car registrations and market share[32]
Country PEV
registrations
2017
PEV
registrations
2016
Change
2016–2017
PEV
market share
2017
PEV
market share
2016
BEV/PEV
2017
  Norway 62,170 44,888 39% 39.2% 29.0% 53%
  Germany 53,561 24,626 117% 1.6% 0.7% 46%
  UK 48,395 39,044 24% 1.9% 1.5% 28%
  France 36,888 29,205 26% 1.8% 1.5% 69%
  Sweden 20,031 13,415 49% 5.3% 3.6% 21%
  Belgium 14,654 9,390 56% 2.7% 1.7% 18%
  Netherlands 9,190 22,875 -60% 2.2% 6.0% 87%
   Switzerland 8,029 5,432 48% 2.6% 1.7% 58%
  Spain 7,448 3,662 103% 0.6% 0.3% 53%
  Austria 7,265 5,063 43% 2.1% 1.5% 75%
  Italy 4,827 2,831 71% 0.2% 0.2% 41%
  Portugal 4,237 1,873 126% 1.9% 0.9% 42%
  Finland 3,055 1,432 113% 2.6% 1.2% 16%
  Iceland 2,990 1,158 158% 14.1% 6.3% 29%
  Hungary 1,126 310 263% 1.0% 0.3% 67%
  Luxembourg 992 306 224% 1.9% 0.6% 36%
  Ireland 945 673 40% 0.7% 0.5% 66%
  Denmark 913 1,402 -35% 0.4% 0.6% 77%
  Poland 907 270 236% 0.2% 0.1% 52%
  Czech Republic 630 363 74% 0.2% 0.1% 62%
  Slovenia 528 272 94% 0.7% 0.4% 64%
  Slovakia 394 55 616% 0.4% 0.1% 53%
  Romania 374 162 131% 0.4% 0.2% 62%
  Greece 163 47 247% 0.2% 0.1% 21%
  Turkey 108 127 -15% 0.0% 0.0% 71%
  Latvia 101 46 120% 0.6% 0.3% 70%
  Cyprus 99 39 154% 0.8% 0.3% 44%
  Lithuania 70 81 -14% 0.3% 0.4% 69%
  Estonia 52 56 -7% 0.2% 0.3% 50%
  Bulgaria 61 12 408% 0.2% 0.1% 18%
  Malta 53 17 212% 0.4% 0.1% 91%
  Croatia 23 88 -74% 0.1% 0.2% 35%
  Europe 290,279 209,220 39% 1.7% 1.3% 46%

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-16). "The World Just Bought Its Two-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-17. An estimated 2,032,000 highway-legal plug-in passenger cars and vans have been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. The top selling markets are China (645,708 new energy cars, including imports), Europe (638,000 plug-in cars and vans), and the United States (570,187 plug-in cars). The top European country markets are Norway (135,276), the Netherlands (113,636), France (108,065), and the UK (91,000). Total Chinese sales of domestically produced new energy vehicles, including buses and truck, totaled 951,447 vehicles. China was the top selling plug-in car market in 2016, and also has the world's largest stock of plug-in electric cars.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-17). "Top 10 Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries of 2016". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-18.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Jose, Pontes (2018-01-28). "Europe December 2017". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2018-02-25. "European sales totaled 306,143 plug-in cars in 2017."
  4. ^ Jose Pontes (2018-01-18). "China December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  5. ^ a b "Electric cars exceed 1m in Europe as sales soar by more than 40%". The Guardian. 2018-08-26. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  6. ^ a b c Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association) (January 2019). "Norwegian EV market". Norsk Elbilforening. Retrieved 2019-01-10. Place the pointing device over the graph to show the cumulative number of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids in Norway at the end of each year. As of 31 December 2018, the registered light-duty plug-in electric stock totaled 296,214 units, consisting of 200,192 battery electric vehicles and 96,022 plug-in hybrids.
  7. ^ a b c d Lane, Ben (January 2019). "Electric car market statistics". UK: Next Green Car. Retrieved 2019-01-17. As of 31 December 2018, the total UK light-duty electric fleet totals 212,000 plug-in electric vehicles, consisting of about 102,000 plug-in cars and 10,000 plug-in electric commercial vans. This figure includes a significant number of registered plug-in electric cars and vans which were not eligible for the grant schemes.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2019-01-09). "Baromètre annuel : près de 40 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2018 !" [Annual barometer: nearly 40,000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2018!] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2019-01-18. A total of 53,745 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2018 consisting of 31,055 all-electric cars plus 1,148 REx vehicles, 8,103 electric utility vans, and 13,439 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 2.1% of new car registrations in the country in 2018. Includes revised figures for 2017
  9. ^ a b c Fergusson, Malcolm (October 2016). "Electric Vehicles in Europe - 2016: Approaching adolescence" (PDF). Transport & Environment. Retrieved 2016-10-13. See pp. 15-16.
  10. ^ a b Automobile Propre (August 2016). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations d'utilitaires électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric utility van registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2016-10-02. See "Ventes d’utilitaires électriques en 2016/2015/2014 for all-electric utility van registrations. Light-duty electric vehicles reached a 1.22% market share of new van sales in the country in 2014, and rose to 1.30% in 2015.
  11. ^ "PPP European Green Cars Initiative". Green-cars-initiative.eu. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
  12. ^ "Transport: Electric vehicles - European commission". Ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2011-03-19. Retrieved 2009-09-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  13. ^ "DIRECTIVE 2009/33/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles". Retrieved 2010-12-26.
  14. ^ Paul Hockenos (2011-07-29). "Europe's Incentive Plans for Spurring E.V. Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
  15. ^ "Overview of Purchase and Tax Incentives for Electric Vehicles in the EU" (PDF). European Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2011-03-14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-07-31. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  16. ^ Argonne National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy (2016-03-28). "Fact #918: March 28, 2016 – Global Plug-in Light Vehicles Sales Increased By About 80% in 2015". Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  17. ^ International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2018). "Global EV Outlook 2017: 3 million and counting" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2018-10-23.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 9–10, 19–23, 29–28, and Statistical annex, pp. 107–113.
  18. ^ a b c d European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (2017-02-01). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Alternative Fuel Type In The European Union: Quarter 4 2016" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2017-02-05. See table New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA - Plug‐In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Total Europe (EU + EFTA), 96,436 registered units in 2015 and 112,999 units in 2016.
  19. ^ a b c European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (2018-02-01). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Alternative Fuel Type In The European Union: Quarter 4 2017" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2018-02-25. See table New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA - Plug‐In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Total Europe (EU + EFTA), a total of 143,974 units were registered in EU + EFTA region in 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2017-01-30). "La France s'impose comme le leader des ventes de véhicules 100% électriques en Europe en 2016" [France has emerged as the leader in vehicle sales 100% electric in Europe in 2016] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2017-02-05. Sales in the European light-duty all-electric vehicle market reached a record of 102,625 registrations in 2016 (includes passenger cars and utility vans).
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2018-01-23). "En 2017, près de 150 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés à travers l'Europe" [Almost 150,000 electric vehicles registered across Europe in 2017] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2018-02-25. Registrations of new light-duty all-electric vehicles totaled 149,086 cars and vans in 2017 (excluding range-extender models), of which 132,687 units were passenger cars.
  22. ^ a b c d e European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (2019-02-07). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Fuel Type In The European Union: Quarter 4 2018" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2019-02-07. See tables: "Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) - New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA" and "Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) - New Passenger Car Registrations By Market In The EU + EFTA" A total of 201,284 BEVs were registered in EU + EFTA region in 2018, and 135,775 in 2017. A total of 182,768 PHEVs were registered in 2018, and 153,297 in 2017. Combines sales of BEVs and PHEVs totaled 384,052 passenger cars in 2018, and 289,072 in 2017.
  23. ^ a b Cobb, Jeff (2016-06-15). "Europe Buys Its 500,000th Plug-in Vehicle". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
  24. ^ a b Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-09). "Norway Is Fourth Country To Register 100,000 Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-09. As of April 2016, the United States is the leading country market with a stock of about 450,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with around 300,000 units sold since 2011, followed by Japan with about 150,000 plug-in units sold since 2009, both through March 2016. European sales are led by Norway with over 100,000 units registered by the end of April 2016.
  25. ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2016-10-10). "France Becomes Fifth Nation To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-10-10.
  26. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-11-17). "The Netherlands Becomes Sixth Country To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
  27. ^ Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (2017-04-05). "March 2017 – EV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2017-04-16.
  28. ^ a b Bratzel, Stefan (2019-01-16). "E-Mobility 2019: An International Comparison of Important Automotive Markets" (PDF). Center of Automotive Management. Bergisch Gladbach. Retrieved 2019-01-21.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2019). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2018" [New registration barometer in December 2018] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2019-01-15. Click on the tab Kraftstoffarten for the market shares by fuel: Electric was 1.0% in 2018, and plug-in hybrid was 0.9%
  30. ^ a b c d e f g "Statistics Electric Vehicles in the Netherlands (up to and including December 2018)" (PDF). Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) - Dutch National Office for Enterprising -. RVO. January 2019. Retrieved 2019-01-20. As of 31 December 2018, there were 145,882 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 97,702 plug-in hybrids, 44,984 pure electric cars, and 3,196 all-electric light utility vans. With a total of 24,273 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs registered by the end of December 2018, the plug-in hybrid is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands. The Tesla Model S is the best selling all-electric car with 12,990 units registered.
  31. ^ a b c d e Bil Sweden (2019-01-07). "Nyregistreringar december 2018 (def)" [Definitive new registrations December 2018 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2018-01-20. Download the pdf file "PressRel1812_DEF.pdf" See tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2018", "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2018" and "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell" - A total of 29,909 light-duty plug-in vehicles were registered in 2018, consisting of 22,074 plug-in hybrids, 7,078 all-electric cars, and 757 all-electric vans. Passenger car registrations totaled 379,393 units in 2017, of which, the plug-in segment captured a market share of 8.2%."
  32. ^ a b c d European Alternative Fuels Observatory (eafo) (February 2018). "PEV (M1) market share in Europe". eafo. Retrieved 2018-02-26. The plug-in passenger car market share in Europe was 1.74%, corresponding to 0.93% for plug-in hybrids and 0.81% for all-electric cars. Put the mouse over the bar graph to see market share by year.
  33. ^ a b c European Association for Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (AVERE) (2012-11-26). "AVERE Data Collection – from June to August 2012" (PDF). AVERE. Retrieved 2015-02-21. See Figure 1.1 Electric Vehicle sales in Europe since 2010. Only pure electric cars are reported. In 2010 there were no production plug-in hybrids in sale in Europe.
  34. ^ Henk Bekker (2011-01-17). "2010 Europe: Car Sales Statistics by Country". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21. A total of 13,785,698 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2010.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h Mat Gasnier (2013-02-10). "Europe Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 models & Top 60 brands". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-13. A total of 1,728 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2011 and 5,210 in 2012. Ampera sales in Europe totaled 5,268 units in 2012 and 304 in 2011.
  36. ^ Henk Bekker (2012-01-17). "2011 Full Year Car Sales by European Country". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21. A total of 13,768,401 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2011.
  37. ^ a b c d e AVERE-France (2014-03-14). "Europe – Les ventes de véhicules électriques en hausse en 2013" [Europe – Sales of electric vehicles on the rise in 2013] (in French). AVERE-France. Retrieved 2015-01-21.
  38. ^ a b Jose Pontes (2013-02-03). "Europe Full Year 2012". EV sales. Retrieved 2013-01-12. During 2012 a total of 3,496 Prius PHV, 609 Chevrolet Volts and 247 Fisker Karmas were sold in Europe.
  39. ^ Henk Bekker (2013-01-16). "2012 (Full Year) Europe: Best-Selling Car Manufacturers and Brands". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21. A total of 12,527,912 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2012.
  40. ^ a b c d e European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (February 2015). "New Electric Vehicles Registrations In The European Union" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2015-02-18. See table Total Electrically Charged Vehicles: Total Europe (EU+EFTA), 65,071 registered units for 2013 and 97,791 units for 2014. For Denmark, Ireland and Romania includes only pure electric vehicles. Total Electrically Charged Vehicles = Pure Electric Vehicles + Extended‐Range Electric Vehicles + Plug‐In Hybrid Electric Vehicles.
  41. ^ Henk Bekker (2014-01-20). "2013 (Full Year) Europe: Best-Selling Car Manufacturers, Brands and Models". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21. A total of 12,308,215 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2013.
  42. ^ a b AVERE France (2015-01-30). "En Europe, le marché du véhicule électrique a progressé de + 60,9 % en 2014" [In Europe, the electric vehicle market grew by 60.9% in 2014] (PDF) (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2015-11-21. A total of 65,199 electric cars and utility vehicles were registered in Europe in 2014, up 60.9% from 2013. Passenger cars represented 87% of total all-electric registrations.
  43. ^ Henk Bekker (2015-01-21). "2014 (Full Year) Europe: Car Sales by EU Country". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21. A total of 13,006,451 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2014.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h Association Nationale pour le Développement de la Mobilité Electrique – AVERE France (2016-03-24). "Quelle est la place de la France sur le marché européen du véhicule électrique ?" [What is the place of France in the European electric vehicle market] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2017-02-06. A total of 97,687 all-electric vehicles, including vans, were registered in the European market in 2015, up from 65,199 in 2014 (+49.8%). The top selling electric cars were the Renault Zoe (18,727), Tesla Model S (15,515), Nissan Leaf (15,455), and the Volkswagen e-Golf (11,110). A total of 2,875 VW e-Up! were sold in 2015.The Renault Kangoo Z.E. registered 4,328 units in Europe in 2015.
  45. ^ a b c Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2016-02-15). "PHEVs – Take off or transitory blip?". AID Newsletter. Retrieved 2016-02-19. Market share only includes Western European countries. A total of 95,140 plug-in hybrid cars were sold in Europe in 2015.
  46. ^ a b Jose, Pontes (2019-01-28). "Europe December 2018". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2019-02-07. "About 22,000 light commercial vehicles (vans) were sold in Europe in 2018. The market share of the plug-in passenger car segment was 2.5%."
  47. ^ a b c d e Bekker, Henk (2018-01-17). "2017 (Full Year) Europe: Car Sales per EU and EFTA Country". Car Sales Statistics. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  48. ^ "Opel Ampera – a Pioneer of Green Mobility Europe's Most Successful Passenger EV". The European Financial Review. 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2013-02-11.
  49. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (March 2014). "Cijfers elektrich vervoer – Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland" [Figures electric transport – Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-03-16.
  50. ^ Zachary Shahan (2014-02-26). "Top European Countries For 100%-Electric Car Sales & Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car Sales (Charts)". Clean Technica. Retrieved 2014-03-16.
  51. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-08-04). "Europe – Plus de 40.000 véhicules rechargeables vendus au premier semestre 2014" [Europe – Over 40,000 plug-in vehicles sold in the first half of 2014] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-08-25.
  52. ^ a b c Nissan Newsroom Europe (2014-02-12). "Nissan LEAF the best-selling EV in Europe in 2013". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-02-13. A total of 11,120 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2013.
  53. ^ AVERE-France (2015-01-30). "Immatriculations de véhicules électriques en Europe : +60% en 2014 !" [Registrations of electric vehicles in Europe: +60% in 2014] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
  54. ^ a b Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2015). "Special: Analyse over 2014" [Special: Analysis over 2014] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2015-02-24. See total 2014 registration by type of PEV under the heading "31-12-2014". The market share of the plug-in electric passenger car segment in 2014 was 3.86% of total new passenger car registrations.
  55. ^ a b c Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2015-01-07). "December 2014 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2015-01-08. A total of 14,518 plug-in electric cars were registered during 2014, consisting of 6,697 pure electrics and 7,821 plug-in hybrids, up from 3,586 plug-in electric cars were registered in 2013. A total of 2,476,435 new cars were registered in 2014.
  56. ^ a b c Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2015). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2014" [New Registrations Barometer December 2014] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2015-01-27. A total of 13,049 plug-in electric cars registered in Germany during 2014, consisting of 8,522 all-electric cars and 4,527 plug-in hybrids.
  57. ^ a b c d e Bil Sweden (2015-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" [New registrations in December 2014 (preliminar)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2015-01-04. Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2014" with summary of plug-in passenger car registrations by model for 2013 (revised) and 2014, and table "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell:" for plug-in utility vans registrations for the same two years. A total of 303,866 new passenger vehicles were registered in 2014, and a total of 4,656 super clean cars, resulting in a PEV market share of 1.53% of new car sales.
  58. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-02-18). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2014". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  59. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-02-06). "Markets Roundup December 2014 (Special Edition)". EV Sales. Retrieved 2015-03-15. See section "Engines of Growth - by EV share" Estonia's market shared in 2014 climbed to 1.57% from 0.68% in 2013. Iceland's market share grew from 0.21% in 2012, to 0.94% in 2013, to 2.71% in 2014.
  60. ^ a b Mark Kane (2014-01-20). "8,197 Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Sold In Europe In 2013; Almost All In Netherlands". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-08.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gibbs, Nick (2016-03-15). "Hybrid sales expected to triple in Europe as tougher CO2 rules loom". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2016-02-22. Sales in Europe as reported by JATO Dynamics: Mitsubishi Ourlander sales totaled 19,853 units in 2014 and 31,214 in 2015; VW Golf GTE sales totaled 1,097 units in 2014 and 17,300 in 2015; Audi A3 e-tron sales totaled 1,154 units in 2014 and 11,791 in 2015; Volvo V60 sales totaled 5,441 units in 2014 and 6,349 in 2015. During 2015 a total of 5,481 all-electric BMW i3s and 6,566 i3 REx models (total 12,047). A total of 3,940 i3 REx models were sold in 2014.
  62. ^ Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield (2015-01-19). "Nissan LEAF Electric Car Still Top in Europe After Four Years. Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Top Plug-in for 2014". Transport Evolved. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
  63. ^ Groupe Renault (January 2015). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2015-02-22. Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "+ Voir plus" to download the files "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" – Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" – "XLSX – 220 Ko Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2014)" for 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 sales, and open the tab "Sales by Model".
  64. ^ a b c "Mitsubishi Motors to supply 635 Outlander PHEVs to National Police of Ukraine" (Press release). Tokyo: Mitsubishi Motors. 2017-01-27. Retrieved 2017-02-11. Since its launch in 2013, the Outlander PHEV has recorded cumulative sales of 80,768 units (as at the end of 2016) and ranked the best-selling plug-in hybrid vehicle for four years in a row in Europe.
  65. ^ a b c "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV clears 100,000 sales milestone in Europe" (Press release). Tokyo: Mitsubishi Motors. 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  66. ^ a b c d e Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-18). "Top Six Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23. About 520,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles were sold worldwide in 2015, with cumulative global sales reaching 1,235,000. The United States is currently the leading market, with 411,120 units sold since 2008, followed by China, with 258,328 units sold since 2011. Japan ranks third (about 130,000), followed by the Netherlands (88,991), Norway (77,897), France (74,291), and the UK (53,254). Four of these countries achieved a PEV market share over 1% of new car sales in 2015: Norway (22.39%), the Netherlands (9.74%), France (1.2%), and the UK (1.1%)
  67. ^ Jose, Pontes (2016-02-03). "Markets Roundup December 2015 (Special Edition)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. For countries with top PEV market share in 2015 see "Engines of Growth:" Hong Kong 4.84%, Denmark 2.29%, and Switzerland 1.98%.
  68. ^ Ida Warner (2016-02-15). "Over 100.000 ladbare biler i Norden" [Over 100,000 plug-in cars in the Nordic countries]. Insero.com (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Archived from the original on 2016-02-23. Retrieved 2016-02-15. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) Out of over 100,000 plug-in passenger cars registered in the Nordic countries at the end of 2015, a total of 74,883 were registered in Norway, 16,187 in Sweden, 7,926 in Denmark, and 1,479 in Finland (see graph).
  69. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-02-16). "Nordic Countries Buy Their 100,00th Plug-in Car in 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  70. ^ Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2016-09-21). "Europeans are turning to PHEVs" (PDF). AID. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
  71. ^ European Alternative Fuel Observatory (EAFO) (February 2017). "PEV (M1) market share in Europe". EAFO. Retrieved 2017-01-06.
  72. ^ LeSage, Jon (2016-02-06). "Renault Zoe Ekes By Mitsubishi Outlander in 2016 European Plug-in Sales". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
  73. ^ a b c Jose, Pontes (2017-01-31). "Markets Roundup December 2016 (Special Edition)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2017-02-08. For countries with top PEV market share in 2016 see "II. Engines of Growth: By EV share - Hong Kong ~5%, Iceland 4.6%, Switzerland 1.8%, Belgium 1.8, and 1.6% Austria.
  74. ^ a b c d Pontes, Jose (2017-02-03). "Europe's Best-Selling Electric Car = Renault Zoe". EV-Sales.blogspot.com. CleanTechnica.com. Retrieved 2017-02-25.
  75. ^ a b Roberts, Graeme (2017-01-16). "Mitsubishi Motors Europe sales dip 7% in 2016". Just Auto. Retrieved 2017-01-21. European sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander totaled 51,736 units of which 21,446 were plug-in hybrids.
  76. ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-26). "Tesla Model S Is World's Best-Selling Plug-in Car For Second Year In A Row". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-26. See also detailed 2016 sales and cumulative global sales in the two graphs.
  77. ^ "Nissan e-NV200 is Europe's best-selling electric van" (Press release). Nissan GB. 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  78. ^ a b c d Groupe Renault (January 2017). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2017-01-18. Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "(décembre 2016)" to download the file "XLSX - 239 Ko" for CYTD sales in 2016, and open the tab "Sales by Model". Click on "+ Voir plus" (See more) to download the files "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" – Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" – "XLSX - 220 Ko Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2014)" – "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2015)" to download the file "XLSX - 227 Ko" for 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 sales. Sales figures for 2013 were revised in the 2014 report
  79. ^ a b c d Groupe Renault (January 2018). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2018-02-25. Sales figures includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on link "XLSX - 162 Ko Ventes mensuelles du Groupe (Décembre 2017)" to download the file, and open the tab "Sales by Model" to access sales figures for 2017 and 2016.
  80. ^ a b "Renault-Nissan Alliance Sales Rise For Fifth Straight Year In 2014 To 8.5 Million Vehicles" (Press release). Paris: Nissan Motor Corporation. 2015-02-04. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-03-27. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) Cumulative Leaf sales in Europe totaled 33,481 units at the end of 2014.
  81. ^ a b c d "Nissan LEAF is the best-selling electric car in Europe for fourth year in a row" (Press release). Rolle, Switzerland: Nissan Europe. 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2017-02-06. A total of 14,658 Nissan Leafs, 8,734 Tesla Model S, 5,804 pure electric BMW i3s, 5,365 Volkswagen e-Up! and 3,328 Volkswagen e-Golfs were sold in Europe in 2014.
  82. ^ Mat Gasnier (2014-07-19). "World Full Year 2013: Discover the Top 1000 best-selling models!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-07-27. A total of 1,477 i3s were registered in 2013. Includes press fleet vehicles and dealer demonstrators.
  83. ^ Neil Winton (2014-02-06). "Electric Car Sales In Western Europe Spurt, But From Miniscule Base". Automotive Industry Data (AID). Forbes. Retrieved 2014-03-16. AID sales figures (38,617 units) include all-electric cars and range-extenders vehicles in Germany. Sales figures based on Automotive Industry Data (AID). About 3,900 Tesla Model S cars were sold in Europe in 2013.
  84. ^ "Tesla's Model S outsells Mercedes S-Class in last year's West European car market". Automotive Industry Data (AID). AID Newsletter. 2018-02-21. Retrieved 2018-02-26. According to AID’s estimates, 2017 sales of the Tesla Models S reached some 15,400 units in Western Europe.
  85. ^ a b c d e f g h Jose, Pontes (2017-01-30). "Europe December 2016 (Updated)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  86. ^ a b c d Nick Gibbs (2015-04-24). "Plug-ins poised to be Europe's top electrified drivetrain". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2016-03-30. A total of 5,441 Volvo V60 PHEVs and 933 Opel Amperas were sold in Europe in 2014.
  87. ^ Graeme Roberts (2014-10-24). "Vehicle Analysis: Mitsubishi's top-selling Outlander PHEV". Just auto. Retrieved 2015-04-26. A total of 8,066 Volvo V60 plug-in hybrids were sold in 2013.
  88. ^ a b c d "2012 (Full Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars & PHEV Models". BestSellingCars.com. 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  89. ^ Pontes, Jose (2017-08-27). "Europe July 2017". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  90. ^ Pontes, Jose (2016-01-30). "Europe December 2015". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-13. A total of 1,230 Ford C-Max Energi, 11,214 VW e-Golf, and 2,653 Volvo XC90 T8s were sold in Europe in 2015.
  91. ^ a b Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). "Bilsalget i 2017" [Car sales in 2017] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
  92. ^ a b Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (2019-01-02). "Bilsalget i 2018" [Car sales in 2018] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  93. ^ Staff (2014-01-08). "Over 20.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 20,000 rechargeable electric cars on Norwegian road] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Archived from the original on 2014-01-23. Retrieved 2014-01-13. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  94. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "Bilsalget i 2014" [Car sales in 2014] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-01-14. A total of 10,639 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2013, consisting of: 7,885 new electric cars, 2,086 used imported all-electric cars, 328 new plug-in hybrid cars and 340 new all-electric vans. A total of 23,390 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2014, consisting of: 18,094 new electric cars, 3,063 used imported all-electric cars, 1,678 new plug-in hybrid cars and 555 new all-electric vans.
  95. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "Bilsalget i 2015" [Car sales in 2015] (in Norwegian). OFV. Archived from the original on 2016-02-09. Retrieved 2016-03-05. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) Registrations of new plug-in electric vehicles totaled 25,779 electric cars (zero emission vehicles totaled 25,788 accounting for 9 hydrogen vehicles), 7,964 plug-in hybrids and 712 all-electric vans in 2015. In addition, registrations of used imports totaled 5,122 electric cars and 55 electric vans. Plug-in electric vehicle registrations totaled 39,632 units.
  96. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2017). "Bilsalget i 2016" [Car sales in 2016] (in Norwegian). OFV. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18. Retrieved 2017-01-11. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) A total of 50,875 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2016, consisting of: 24,222 new electric cars, 5,281 used imported all-electric cars, 20,663 new plug-in hybrid cars, 607 new all-electric vans, and 102 used imported all-electric vans.
  97. ^ Joly, David (2015-10-16). "Norway is A Model For Encouraging Electric Car Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  98. ^ Agence France-Presse (2011-05-15). "Electric cars take off in Norway". The Independent. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
  99. ^ AVERE (2012-06-07). "Norwegian Parliament extends electric car initiatives until 2018". AVERE. Archived from the original on 2013-10-24. Retrieved 2012-07-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  100. ^ Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association) (2017-01-05). "Elbilsalget: Ned i fjor – venter ny vekst i år" [EV Sales: Down from last year - awaiting new growth this year] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  101. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (2017-01-10). "Bilåret 2016 – status og trender" [Car sales 2016 - status and trends] (PDF) (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  102. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (October 2018). "Bilsalget i september" [Car sales in September] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2018-10-24. The market share of all-electric cars reached 45.3% and plug-in hybrids 14.9%, for a combined market share of the plug-in car segment of 60.2% of new car registrations in September 2018.
  103. ^ Kane, Mark (2018-10-02). "Plug-ins reach record market share in Norway". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  104. ^ Figenbaum, Erik; Kolbenstvedt, Marika (June 2016). "Learning from Norwegian Battery Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle users". Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Norwegian Centre for Transport Research. Retrieved 2016-08-17. TØI report 1492/2016. See pp. 1.
  105. ^ Alister Doyle & Nerijus Adomaitis (2013-03-13). "Norway shows the way with electric cars, but at what cost?". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  106. ^ Klippenstein, Matthew (2014-04-08). "One Percent Of Norway's Cars Are Already Plug-In Electrics". Green Car Reports.
  107. ^ Kane, Mark (2018-10-07). "10% Of Norway's Passenger Vehicles Are Plug Ins". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  108. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-10-11). "Almost Half The Cars Bought In Norway Last Month Were Electrified". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-10-11.
  109. ^ Ståle Frydenlund (2014-04-02). "Tesla knuste 28 år gammel rekord" [Tesla broke 28-year-old record] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2014-04-05. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  110. ^ John D. Stoll (2014-04-02). "Tesla Breaks Norway's All-Time Sales Record". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  111. ^ Haugneland, Petter (2019-01-04). "Nissan LEAF mest solgte bilmodell i 2018" [Nissan LEAF is the most sold car model in 2018] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  112. ^ Øystein Fossum (2019-01-05). "Dette var nordmenns favoritt-biler i 2018" [These were Norwegians' favorite cars in 2018] (in Norwegian). Dinside.no. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  113. ^ Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2016-01-07). "December 2015 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2016-01-21. A total of 28,188 plug-in electric cars were registered during 2015, consisting of 9,934 pure electrics and 18,254 plug-in hybrids. A total of 2,633,503 new cars were registered in 2015.
  114. ^ Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2012-01-06). "December 2011 – EV and AFV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
  115. ^ Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2013-01-07). "December 2012 – EV and AFV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
  116. ^ a b c Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2014-01-07). "December 2013 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2014-01-12. A total of 2,254 plug-in electric cars were registered in 2013.
  117. ^ Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2017-01-05). "December 2016 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2017-01-09. Registrations in 2016 totaled 36,907 plug-in electric vehicles consisting of 10,264 all-electric cars and 26,643 plug-in hybrids. Of these, a total of 35,447 cars were eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant. Since its launch in 2011, a total of 83,052 cars eligible for the PICG have been registered through December 2016. A total of 2,692,786 new cars were registered in 2016, resulting in a plug-in electric car market share of 1.37% of new car sales.
  118. ^ a b Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (2018-01-05). "December – EV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2018-01-11.Registrations in 2017 totaled 47,263 plug-in electric vehicles consisting of 13,597 all-electric cars and 33,6663 plug-in hybrids. Of these, a total of 45,187 cars were eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant. Since its launch in 2011, a total of 127,509 cars eligible for the PICG have been registered through December 2017. A total of 2,540,617 new cars were registered in 2017, resulting in a plug-in electric car market share of 1.86% of new car sales.
  119. ^ a b c Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (2019-01-07). "December – EV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2019-01-17.Registrations in 2018 totaled 59,911 plug-in electric vehicles consisting of 15,474 all-electric cars and 44,437 plug-in hybrids. A total of 2,367,147 new cars were registered in 2018, resulting in a plug-in electric car market share of 2.53% of new car sales.
  120. ^ RAC Foundation. "Plug-in car grant claims". Retrieved 2019-01-17.
  121. ^ RAC Foundation. "Plug-in van grant claims". Retrieved 2019-01-17.
  122. ^ a b c Autoactu.com (May 2016). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2016-05-14. See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2016/2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010" It shows all electric car registrations between 2010 and 2016.
  123. ^ AVERE-France (2014-01-08). "Baromètre AVERE-France Janvier 2014" [Barometer AVERE-France January 2014] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
  124. ^ Justin Aschard (2012-11-07). "Novembre 2012 – Ventes de véhicules électriques (CCFA)" [November 2012 – Sales of electric vehicles (CCFA)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-02-16. See table Bilan annuel des ventes de véhicules électriques (Annual sales of electric vehicles) for detailed sales by category during 2010 and 2011.
  125. ^ France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France (2013-01-07). "Bilan des Immatriculations pour l'Année 2012" [Record Registrations for 2012] (in French). AVERE. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-16. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) A total of 5,663 electric cars and 3,651 electric vans were registered in France in 2012.
  126. ^ AVERE-France (2015-01-05). "Le marché du véhicule électrique maintient sa progression en 2014" [The electric vehicle market continues to grow in 2014] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2015-01-14.
  127. ^ France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France (2016-01-07). "Immatriculations des voitures électriques : + 62,1% en 2015" [All-electric car registrations: + 62.1% in 2015] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-14. A total of 17,779 all-electric cars were registered in France in 2015.
  128. ^ a b France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France (2016-01-08). "Immatriculations des hybrides rechargeables : La barre des 5.000 est franchie !" [Plug-in hybrid registrations: The 5,000 barrier is achieved!] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-14. A total of 5,006 plug-in hybrids were registered in France in 2015.
  129. ^ France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France (2016-01-12). "Immatriculations des utilitaires électriques : + 9,6% en 2015" [All-electric utility vehicle registrations: + 9.6% in 2015] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-14. A total of 4,916 all-electric utility vans were registered in France in 2015.
  130. ^ a b c France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2017-01-09). "Plus de 27 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en 2016, après un mois de décembre record" [More than 27,000 electric vehicles registered in 2016, after a record month of December] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2017-01-09. A total of 33,774 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2016 consisting of 27,751 all-electric cars, 5,556 electric utility vans and 6,467 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.40% of new car registrations in the country in 2016.
  131. ^ Yoann Nussbaumer (2013-01-16). "+115% pour les ventes de voitures électriques en France pour 2012" [Electric car sales in France increased 115% in 2011] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
  132. ^ Autobild (2012-01-12). "2011 Full Year Best-Selling Electric Cars in Germany in 2011". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2012-10-31. Cumulative number of registered electric cars was 4,541 as of January 1, 2012. All-electric car and van registrations in 2010 totaled 541 units and 2,154 in 2011..
  133. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (2013-01-31). "Neuzulassungen E-Mobilität 2012-Kaum Zuwachs wegen Twizy" [Registrations E-mobility – Low growth due to Twizy]. Auto Bild (in German). Retrieved 2013-02-14. A total of 2,956 all-electric cars were registered in Germany during 2012.
  134. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA). "Monatliche Neuzulassungen – Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2013" [Monthly registrations – New registrations Barometer in December 2013] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2014-09-06. A total of 1,385 plug-in hybrids and 6,051 all-electric cars were registered during 2013.
  135. ^ a b Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2016). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2015" [New Registrations Barometer December 2015] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2015-01-21. A total of 23,464 plug-in electric cars were registered in Germany during 2015, consisting of 12,363 all-electric cars and 11,101 plug-in hybrids.
  136. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2017). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2016" [New Registrations Barometer December 2015] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2017-01-11. A total of 25,154 plug-in electric cars were registered in Germany in 2016, consisting of 11,410 all-electric cars and 13,744 plug-in hybrids.
  137. ^ a b c Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (2018-01-12). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2017" [New Registrations Barometer December 2017] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2018-01-12. A total of 29,436 plug-in hybrids and 25,056 all-electric cars were registered in Germany in 2017.
  138. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2018). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Marken und Modellreihen im Dezember 2017 (FZ 10) (XLS, 153 KB, Datei ist nicht barrierefrei)" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2016] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2018-01-13. Click on the link Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Marken und Modellreihen im Dezember 2017 (FZ 10) (XLS, 153 KB, Datei ist nicht barrierefrei) to download the file with registrations figures.
  139. ^ "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische auto – Top 10 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische auto" [Figures electric transport – Top 5 registered plug-in hybrids – Top 10 registered fully electric vehicle models] (PDF). Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) - Dutch National Office for Enterprising - (in Dutch). BovagWebsite. January 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-13. With a total of 25,984 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs registered by the end of December 2016, the plug-in hybrid is the all-time top registered plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands.
  140. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (December 2015). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Top 10 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische auto (31-12-2015)" [Figures electric transport – Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland – Top 10 registered fully electric vehicle models (31-12-2015)] (PDF) (in Dutch). BOVBAG. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2016-02-07. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  141. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2015). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland – Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen (31-12-2014) – Top 6 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische voertuigen (31-12-2014)" [Figures electric transport – Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands, Top 5 registered plug-in electric hybrid vehicle models (12-31-2014) and Top 6 registered all-electric vehicle models (12-31-2014)] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2015-04-27. Click the url to download the file "2014-cijfers-elektrisch-vervoer-tm-december-2014.pdf.pdf" See under the heading "31-12-2014" for total registrations figures at the end of December 2014. A total of 2,645 Model S sedans were registered in the Netherlands as of December 2014, and it ranks as the top registered all-electric vehicles in the country.
  142. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2013). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer (30-12-2013)" [Figures electric transport (30-12-2013)] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-08-23.
  143. ^ RAI. "Verkoopstatistieken -nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics – New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Archived from the original on 2014-03-28. Retrieved 2013-02-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2011 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201112") and 2012 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201212").
  144. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-09-01). "Americans Buy Their Half-Millionth Plug-in Car: Concentration of plug-in electrified car registrations per 1,000 people". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-09-04. As of July 2016, Norway had a concentration of registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people of 21.52, the Netherlands of 5.63, California of 5.83, and the United States national average was 1.52.
  145. ^ a b c Bil Sweden (2016-01-04). "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" [New Registrations December 2015 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2016-04-15. Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" (PressRel1512_def.pdf) See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2015. A total of 5,625 plug-in hybrids, 2,962 all-electric cars and 321 all-electric vans were registered in 2015, for a total of 8,908 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles. Passenger car registrations totaled 345,108 units in 2015. Registration figures for 2014 were revised.
  146. ^ a b Bil Sweden (2015-10-02). "Urstark bilmarknad under 2014" [Exceptionally strong car market in 2014] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2015-02-22. A total of 4,656 super clean cars and 282 all-electric vans were registered in Sweden in 2014. Super clean cars are those with carbon dioxide emissions of up to 50 g/km (two Porsche plug-in models, the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the 918 Spyder are not accounted as super clean cars, instead they are accounted with conventional hybrids). In 2011 there were 181 plug-in electric vehicles registered, 928 in 2012, 1,546 in 2013 and 4,656 super clean cars were registered during 2014. Since the introduction of the super clean car rebate in January 2012 until December 2014, a total of 7,130 super clean cars have been registered.
  147. ^ a b Bil Sweden (2014-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel" [New registrations in December 2013 prel] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2014-01-03. Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel.pdf" see table "NYREGISTRERADE SUPERMILJÖBILAR DECEMBER 2013" with summary of PEV sales by model for 2013 and 2012.
  148. ^ a b c Bil Sweden (2016-01-04). "Nyregistreringar december 2016 def" [New Registrations December 2016 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2016-04-15. Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2016 def" (PressRel1612_DEF.pdf) See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2016 (def). A total of 10,257 plug-in hybrids, 2,924 all-electric cars and 273 all-electric vans were registered in 2016, for a total of 13,454 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles. Passenger car registrations totaled 372,318 units in 2016. Registrations of super green cars totaled 12,995 units, up from 8,582 in 2015. Figures for 2015 were revised.
  149. ^ a b c d Bil Sweden (2018-01-08). "Definitiva nyregistreringar under 2017" [Definitive new registrations in 2017] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2018-01-31. Download the pdf file "PressRel1712_DEF.pdf" See tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2017", "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2017" and "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell" - A total of 19,981 light-duty plug-in vehicles were registered in 2017, consisting of 15,447 plug-in hybrids, 4,217 all-electric cars, and 317 all-electric vans. Passenger car registrations totaled 379,393 units in 2017, of which, the plug-in segment captured a market share of 5.2%. Registrations of super green cars totaled 19,211 units, up from 12,995 in 2016. Table "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2017" reports 2017 figures that do not add up with detailed count in table "Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2017" so, plug-in cars figures were taken from the latter.
  150. ^ Desk, Lifestyle (2011-09-08). "Sweden Follows Suit with Electric Car Subsidy". The Global Herald. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  151. ^ "Fossil-free transport and travel: The Government's work to reduce the impact of transport on the climate". Government Offices of Sweden. 2016-05-25. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  152. ^ Bil Sweden (2014-08-01). "Fjärde högsta julisiffran någonsin för nya bilar" [Fourth highest July sales figure ever for new cars] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2014-09-01. A total of 5,209 super clean cars have been registered in Sweden since 2011. Super clean cars are those with carbon dioxide emissions of up to 50 g/km (two Porsche plug-in models, the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the 918 Spyder are not accounted as super clean cars, instead they are accounted with conventional hybrids). In 2011 there were 181 super clean vehicles registered, 928 in 2012, 1,546 in 2013 and 2,554 were registered during the first seven months of 2014.
  153. ^ Lasse Swärd (2014-08-01). "Supermiljöbilspremien är slut" [Super car rebate ends]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 2014-09-01.
  154. ^ "Fjärde högsta julisiffran någonsin för nya bilar" [Fourth highest July sales figure ever for new cars] (in Swedish). Joomla. August 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-09-01. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)