Tesla Model X
The Tesla Model X is a mid-sized, all-electric, luxury, crossover utility vehicle (CUV) made by Tesla, Inc. that uses falcon wing doors for access to the second and third row seats. The prototype was unveiled at Tesla's design studios in Hawthorne on February 9, 2012. The Model X has an official EPA rated 237–295 mi (381–475 km) range and the combined fuel economy equivalent and energy consumption for the AWD P90D was rated at 89 mpg‑e (39 kW⋅h/100 mi).
|Tesla Model X|
|Designer||Franz von Holzhausen|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Mid-size luxury crossover SUV|
|Body style||5-door SUV|
|Related||Tesla Model S|
|Electric motor||Dual Motor AWD
259 hp (193 kW) front and rear
259 hp (193 kW) front, 503 hp (375 kW) rear
|Transmission||Single-speed transaxle gearboxes
60D, 70D, 75D, 90D, 100D: 9.34:1 front, 9.34:1 rear
P90D, P100D: 9.34:1 front, 9.73:1 rear
|Electric range||90D 90 kWh (320 MJ)
257 mi (414 km) (EPA)
P90D 90 kWh (320 MJ)
250 mi (400 km) (EPA)
|Wheelbase||116.7 in (2,965 mm)|
|Length||198.3 in (5,036 mm)|
|Width||78.7 in (1,999 mm)|
|Height||66.3 in (1,684 mm)|
|Curb weight||60D 5,072 lb (2,300 kg)
70D 5,072 lb (2,300 kg)
75D 5,140 lb (2,300 kg)
90D 5,271 lb (2,390 kg)
P90D 5,381 lb (2,440 kg)
100D 5,421 lb (2,459 kg)
P100D 5,531 lb (2,509 kg)
The Model X was developed from the full-sized sedan platform of the Tesla Model S. The Model X has an EPA Size Class as an SUV, and shares ~30% of its content with the Model S, half of the originally planned ~60%, and weighs about 10 percent more, both are being produced at the Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. First deliveries of the Model X began in September 2015. After one full year on the market, the Model X ranked in 2016 seventh among the world's best-selling plug-in cars.  Global cumulative sales since inception totaled about 72,059 units through December 2017.
Initially Tesla planned for deliveries to commence in early 2014. However, in February 2013, the company announced that deliveries had been rescheduled to begin by late 2014 in order to achieve its production target of 20,000 Model S cars in 2013. In November 2013, Tesla said it expected to begin Model X high volume production the second quarter of 2015. In November 2014, Tesla again delayed and announced that Model X deliveries would begin in the third quarter of 2015. Deliveries began on September 29, 2015. Among the reasons for delay were problems with the falcon-wing doors and cooling the motors when hauling trailers.
In 2016, the company filed a lawsuit against Swiss hydraulics firm Hoerbiger Holding for not producing satisfactory falcon-wing doors for the Model X. Tesla claimed the doors suffered from oil leakage and overheating. Many believe this is one of the reasons for the delay of the Model X. The lawsuit was settled in September 2016.
On July 29, 2015, Tesla announced a referral program though October 31, 2015 wherein owners of a Model S who refer 10 new buyers gain the option to buy a Founder Series Model X for the price of a base model. The first person (in each of three regions; Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific) to reach this 10 referral point would be given this model for free.
On July 13, 2016, Tesla introduced its Model X 60D, which is slightly lower priced than the Model X's starting price. The Model X 60D has a 200 mi (320 km) range and can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) in 6 seconds, with a top speed of 130 mph (210 km/h). The battery can be upgraded by software to 75 kWh.
Tesla plans to use the Model X platform for the Tesla Minibus.
Global sales passed the 10,000 unit mark in August 2016, with most cars delivered in the United States. In August 2016, Tesla introduced the P100D with Ludicrous Mode to be the new top Model X. The P100D has a 100 kWh battery, accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) in 2.9 seconds (0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) in 3.1 seconds) and 289 mi (465 km) of range. In October 2016 Tesla discontinued the 60D version and made the "Smart Air Suspension" standard instead of coil springs, increasing base price to $85,000.
A series production vehicle was unveiled on September 29, 2015. It has a panoramic windshield. According to Tesla founder Elon Musk, it is the safest SUV in terms of frontal and side impact crash, being more than twice as safe as the next closest SUV in rollover tests as well. The Model X does not come with Autopilot as standard, but has an optional Enhanced Tesla Autopilot. The Model X is has standard a collision avoidance system that uses radar-based autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and side-directed ultrasound detection that steers the car away from threats. Tesla uses a wide-band radar system to help prevent the falcon wing doors from hitting nearby objects when opening or closing.
The Model X has double hinged falcon wing doors, which open upwards allowing the leading edge of the door to remain tucked close to the body, unlike traditional gull-wing doors. Tesla says the falcon doors make access easier. The Model X offers room for seven adults and their luggage in three rows of seating and front and rear trunks.
The Model X weighs about 8% more than the Model S and shares about 30% of its parts content – down from around 60% expected when development began.
Over the years, the Model X has been available with five lithium-ion battery packs, rated at either 60, 70, 75, 90, or 100 kW·h. The highest performance version of the model P100D goes from 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) in 2.9 seconds and the 1⁄4 mile (400 meters) in 11.4 seconds, outperforming the fastest SUVs and most sports cars. The Model X's all-wheel drive system uses two motors (one for the front and the other for the rear wheels), unlike conventional AWD systems that have a single source of power. The Tesla Model X 100D has an official EPA rated range of up to 295 mi (475 km).
The company planned to offer rear-wheel drive models, but instead all models use all wheel drive. The standard AWD has 259 horsepower (193 kilowatts) on both the front and rear motors, while the performance edition has 259 hp (193 kW) front and 503 hp (375 kW) rear. With an optional towbar, the Model X has a towing capacity of up to 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg). At the 55 mph (89 km/h) towing speed limit in California, a Model X may have 70% of the 257 mi (414 km) EPA-registered range when pulling a 2,300 lb (1,000 kg) travel trailer. The car is the only available EV with a towing bar.
The following table shows the EPA's official ratings for fuel economy in miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe) for the variants of the Model X rated as of 30 September 2015[update] and as displayed in the Monroney label.
|Fuel efficiency (MPGe)|
|2016||92; 34 kWh/100 mi
or 21 kWh/100 km
|90; 37 kWh/100 mi
or 23 kWh/100 km
|94; 32 kWh/100 mi
or 20 kWh/100 km
|2016||89; 38 kWh/100 mi
or 24 kWh/100 km
|89; 38 kWh/100 mi
or 24 kWh/100 km
|90; 38 kWh/100 mi
or 24 kWh/100 km
|2016||86; 38 kWh/100 mi
or 24 kWh/100 km
|81; 38 kWh/100 mi
or 24 kWh/100 km
|92; 38 kWh/100 mi
or 24 kWh/100 km
Production and salesEdit
Tesla started taking reservations for the Model X in February 2012 without announcing prices. The standard Model X required a US$5,000 deposit, while the limited time production Signature model required a US$40,000 deposit in 2013. More than 20,000 Model Xs had been reserved by September 2014. In August 2015, user groups estimated around 30,000 Model X pre-orders had been received, compared to 12,000 for the Model S.
The first six Founders Series models were delivered at a market launch event in the Fremont factory on September 29, 2015. The first Signature edition was delivered on December 18, 2015. Pricing for the limited edition Signature version of the Model X varies between US$132,000 and US$144,000, while the standard production version of the Model X will be priced at US$5,000 more than a comparably equipped AWD Model S that is priced at US$75,000 for the base Model 70D.
After the first quarter of 2016 all Tesla Model X deliveries had gone to US customers. Nevertheless, in January 2016 a Tesla car other than the Model S was registered in Germany and a Tesla Model X was sighted driving there with a license plate from Ingolstadt. Since the Audi headquarters are located in Ingolstadt, this led to speculation that Audi has acquired a Tesla Model X as part of its effort to develop its own battery-electric SUV.
Tesla produced 507 Model X in the fourth quarter of 2015, of which 206 were delivered to customers. Model X sales totaled 2,400 units during the first quarter of 2016. According to Tesla Motors, deliveries were lower than expected because production was impacted by severe Model X supplier parts shortages in the first two months of 2016, and because Tesla had been too ambitious in wanting advanced features (committed "hubris"). The first Model X that didn't need corrections was made in April 2016.
Sales during the second quarter of 2016 totaled 4,638 units. Although production was up 20% from the previous quarter, the number of vehicles in transit at the end of June 2016 was much higher than expected (5,150 including Model S cars), representing 35.8% of the number of cars delivered in the quarter (14,402 vehicles including the Model S). Global sales passed the 10,000 unit mark in August 2016. A total of 8,774 units were delivered in the third quarter of 2016, totaling 15,812 Model X cars sold during the first nine months of 2016.
The Model X ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in Norway in September 2016. However, when Volkswagen Golf nameplate registrations are broken down by each variant's powetrain, the all-electric e-Golf registered 392 units, the Golf GTE plug-in hybrid 358, and the internal combustion-powered Golf only 242 units. Therefore, the Model X also ranked as the top selling new car model in September 2016. Norway was the world's first country to have all-electric cars topping the new car sales monthly ranking. Previously, the Model S had been the top selling new car four times, and the Nissan Leaf twice.
According to Tesla, with 5,428 units sold in the U.S. in the third quarter of 2016, the Model X captured a 6% market share of the luxury SUV market segment, outselling Porsche and Land Rover, but behind seven SUV models manufactured by Mercedes, BMW, Cadillac, Volvo, Audi, and Lexus. With an estimated 9,500 units delivered worldwide during the fourth quarter of 2016, global sales in 2016 totaled 25,312 Model X cars, allowing the Model X to rank seventh among the world's top ten best-selling plug-in cars just in its first full year in the market.
As of December 2016[update], cumulative sales totaled 25,524 units since its inception. The United States is its main country market with 18,240 units delivered through December 2016, of which, an estimated 18,028 Model X vehicles were delivered during 2016, making the electric SUV the third best selling plug-in electric in the American market that year after the Tesla Model S and the Chevrolet Volt. Registrations in California totaled 6,289 units in 2016, representing a 7.0% market share of the state's luxury mid-size SUV segment, ranking as the fifth best selling car in this class, which was led by the Lexus RX with 20,070 units. Retail deliveries in China began in June 2016, and a total of 4,065 Model X vehicles were sold in 2016.
Global sales totaled about 11,550 units during the first quarter of 2017. A severe production shortfall of 100 kWh battery packs limited the second quarter of 2017 global deliveries to just about 10,000 Model X vehicles, with a slight increase to 11,865 vehicles during the third quarter of 2017. An additional 13,120 units were delivered in the fourth quarter of 2017, for total annual deliveries of 46,535 units globally. As of December 2017[update], cumulative sales since inception totaled about 72,059 units.
Consumer Reports wrote that the all-wheel drive Model X 90D largely disappoints, as rear doors are prone to pausing and stopping, the second-row seats that cannot be folded, and the cargo capacity is too limited. Even its panoramic, helicopter-like windshield was disapproved of as it is cranky-sounding and it is not tinted enough to offset the brightness of a sunny day. And added that overall "the ride is too firm and choppy for a $110,000 car".
Car and Driver, despite some criticism of the Model X's falcon wing doors, approved of the panoramic windshield, stating "We were left dumbfounded, like slack-jawed tourists endlessly looking upward. Lose the Falcon Wing doors, Elon; the windshield is the Model X's best gimmick". Overall, it was given a rating of 5/5 stars, stating "There are no other electric SUVs at the moment. And even against fossil-fuel-fed SUVs, the Tesla's effortless performance and efficiency can't be matched." 
Motoring journalist Jeremy Clarkson's made his first review of a Tesla vehicle after 10 years on his TV show The Grand Tour in February 2018; Clarkson gave a positive review of the car that he called "fabulous" that is unlike anything on the road. Lawyers were present during the review presumably because Clarkson's previous scathing review of the original Roadster caused a lawsuit.
On November 16, 2015, the Tesla Model X was chosen as AutoGuide.com's 2016 Reader's Choice Green Car of the Year and Luxury Utility Vehicle of the Year awards. The model was noted for its falcon-wing doors, long range, efficiency, and acceleration. 
On November 8, 2016 the Model X was awarded the Golden Steering Wheel (Das Goldene Lenkrad), one of the most prestigious automotive awards in the world, in the "Large SUV" category. Candidates for this award are nominated by hundreds of thousands across Europe for excellence across six categories. The Golden Steering Wheel jury, composed of professional race car drivers, accomplished technicians, editors, designers, and digital and connectivity experts, then spent three days judging Model X.
On April 18, 2017, the American Automobile Association named the Tesla Model X 75D its Top Green Vehicle overall, as well as best in the SUV/Minivan category, with a score of 100/130. The vehicle scored 10/10 for its EPA Emissions Score, crashworthiness, Fuel Economy and Luggage Capacity. Though ambivalent toward Autopilot and the Model X's glass roof, AAA favoured its falcon-wing doors, and approved of the vehicle's performance, stating that its "acceleration is smooth and strong, as is the braking."
On June 8, 2017, the Model X was awarded the Australian Good Design Award in the Automotive and Transport category. The design of the vehicle was described as "set with an athletic build, whilst remaining proportional. Delivering on the functional form of a cross between SUV and people mover, the design remains true to a sports SUV." 
On December 11, 2017, Forbes named the Model X 100D Best Vehicle of the Year stating that "Tesla makes every internal combustion vehicle on the highway seem a clunky, clumsy relic of the 20th century." 
Guinness World RecordEdit
On May 15, 2018, the Tesla Model X and Qantas set the Guinness World Record for "heaviest tow by an electric production passenger vehicle. The Model X was able to tow a 287,000 pound Boeing 787-8 nearly 1,000 feet on a taxiway at Melbourne Airport.
The Tesla Model X has faced criticism for issues with the falcon-wing doors, which sometimes did not open or latch properly, and the windows, which sometimes did not open or close all the way. Tesla addressed these issues with several software updates, and no known issues remained after the 8.0 firmware was released. On June 27, 2016, Tesla settled on a lawsuit over usability concerns, accepting that the Model X was rushed to production before it was ready, and by October 2016, Tesla claimed the problems had been reduced by 92%.
In 2017 Chinese newspaper Xinhua reported that security researchers from Keen Security Lab at Tencent were able to remotely gain control of the Tesla Model X, allowing them to remotely open the car's doors, blink the lights and control their brakes. They found zero day vulnerabilites that allowed them to install new firmware. The lead researcher for the team said they informed Tesla of the findings and most of the cars were patched by an update one month after Tesla was made aware of issues.
- On April 11, 2016, Tesla voluntarily recalled 2,700 Model X due to safety concerns. During collision testing, it was found that the third-row seats would unlatch and fold over to the second row. Tesla urged customers to avoid using the third-row seats until after repairs.
- On April 20, 2017, Tesla issued a worldwide recall of 53,000 (~70%) of the 76,000 Model S and Model X vehicles it sold in 2016 due to faulty parking brakes that affect the Model S and Model X. The recall caused Tesla stocks to lose two percent of their value and added further questions about the reliability of Tesla's vehicles.
- In October 2017, Tesla issued an 11,000 vehicle recall for a faulty locking cable mechanism in the second row seats, estimating that about 3% of recalled vehicles may be affected.
On June 13, 2017, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration announced its crash testing results for the 2017-manufactured Tesla Model X, revealing 5-star ratings in all assessed categories, the only SUV to have done so. Tesla attributed the ratings to safety-focused design, in addition to a low centre-of-gravity resulting from its battery pack, adding "More than just resulting in a 5-star rating, the data from NHTSA's testing shows that Model X has the lowest probability of injury of any SUV it has ever tested. In fact, of all the cars NHTSA has ever tested, Model X's overall probability of injury was second only to Model S." 
On December 30, 2016, a South Korean celebrity named Son Ji-chang filed a lawsuit against Tesla, claims of sudden unintended acceleration of his Tesla Model X. The lawsuit cites seven other Model X-related complaints registered in a NHTSA database dealing with sudden acceleration without warning. "The evidence, including data from the car, conclusively shows that the crash was the result of Mr. Son pressing the accelerator pedal all the way to 100 percent," Tesla said in response to the lawsuit. The NHTSA estimates 16,000 accidents per year in U.S. are caused when drivers intend to apply the brake but mistakenly apply the accelerator.
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