Over-the-top media services in India

There are currently about 46 providers of over-the-top media services (OTT) in India, which distribute streaming media over the Internet. In fiscal year 2018, the OTT market in India was worth 2,150 crore. The streaming market in India is predicted to be worth $15 billion by 2030, with $12.5 billion coming from the video market and $2.5 billion from audio. The OTT market in fiscal year 2020 was estimated to be worth $1.7 billion.[1][2]

History and growthEdit

The first dependent Indian OTT platform was BIGFlix, launched by Reliance Entertainment in 2008.[3]

In 2010 Digivive launched India's first OTT mobile app called nexGTv, which provides access to both live TV and on–demand content. nexGTV is the first app to live–stream Indian Premier League matches on smart phones and did so during 2013 and 2014. The livestream of the IPL since 2015, when rights were won,[4] played an important role in the growth of another OTT platform, Hotstar (now Disney+ Hotstar) in India.[5][needs update]

OTT gained significant momentum in India when both DittoTV (Zee) and Sony Liv were launched in the Indian market around 2013. DittoTV was an aggregator platform containing shows across all media channels including Star, Sony, Viacom, Zee, etc.[citation needed]


Hotstar, (now Disney+ Hotstar), is the most subscribed–to OTT platform in India, owned by Star India as of July 2020, with around 300 million active users and over 350 million downloads.[6] According to Hotstar's India Watch Report 2018, 96% of watch time on Hotstar comes from videos longer than 20 minutes, while one–third of Hotstar subscribers watch television shows.[7] In 2019, Hotstar began investing ₹120 crore in generating original content such as "Hotstar Specials." 80% of the viewership on Hotstar comes from drama, movies and sports programs.[6] Hotstar has the exclusive streaming rights of IPL in India, which is one of the biggest sporting event in India.[8]


American streaming service Netflix entered India in January 2016. In April 2017, it was registered as a limited liability partnership (LLP) and started commissioning content. It earned a net profit of ₹2020,000 (₹2.02 million) for fiscal year 2017. In fiscal year 2018, Netflix earned revenues of ₹580 million.[9] According to Morgan Stanley Research, Netflix had the highest average watch time of more than 120 minutes but viewer counts of around 20 million in July 2018.[7] As of 2018, Netflix has six million subscribers, of which 5–6% are paid members.[10]

India was not affected by Netflix's July 2018 increase in subscription rates for the US and Latin America. Netflix has stated its intent to invest ₹600 crore in the production of Indian original programming.[11] In late 2018, Netflix bought 150,000 square feet (14,000 m2) of office space in Bandra–Kurla Complex (BKC) in Mumbai as their head office. As of December 2018, Netflix has more than 40 employees in India.[9]

Netflix faces tough competition with other OTT platforms in India such as Amazon Prime Video and Disney+ Hotstar, each of which charge lower subscription rates than Netflix.[10]

Other OTT providersEdit

AAO NXT, the first independent OTT platform that originated from Odisha, is a flagship product of Kaustav Dreamworks. Apart from the website, they also have application for Android mobiles and TVs. The content library of AAO NXT is unique in terms of originality of the content irrespective of the language. Short films, movies, and web series can be viewed in their original language along with English subtitles.

nexGTv is the flagship product of Digivive Services Pvt Ltd. Its app offers users entertainment across multiple devices. It streams over 200 live TV channels and on-demand content, including movies, TV Shows and videos. In 2015, nexGTv launched India's first mobile talent discovery platform, called SPOTLight, with director Imtiaz Ali. In 2016 nexGTV, launched its first original series In My City with Priyanka Chopra making her mobile series debut.

Sun NXTis an Indian video on demand service run by Sun TV Network. It was launched in June 2017, streaming in Tamil Language and six other Launguages. The platform has more than 4,000 Tamil movies and 200 Tamil shows, as well as regional movies and shows.[12] Sun NXT also streams a large library of its own Sun TV shows and movies. In India Sun NXT launched its TV shows and movies also in Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Bengali and soon in Marathi.

Amazon Prime Video was launched in 2016. The platform has[when?] 2,300 titles available including 2,000 movies and about 400 shows. It has announced that it will invest ₹20 billion in creating original content in India. Besides English, Prime Video is available in six Indian languages as of December 2018.[13] Amazon India launched Amazon Prime Music in February 2018.[14]

Neestream is a streaming media service owned by NeST Technologies Corp., which is part of the US-based JKH Holdings. It is the first OTT platform targeting the global Malayalee diaspora.[15] In the aftermath of the COVID pandemic and the subsequent lockdown, OTT platforms had become the only avenue for film releases, redefining the movie watching experience for several viewers.[16]

Single-language OTT sites, like Aha Video in Telugu[17][18] is the first time that the platform is diversifying into another language, while CityShor.tv in Gujarati, Neestream in Malayalam, Hoichoi in Bengali and Planet Marathi in Marathi are streaming movies and shows for people in those languages.[19]

Eros Now, an OTT platform launched by Eros International, has the most content among the OTT providers in India, including over 12,000 films, 100,000 music tracks and albums, and 100 TV shows. Eros Now was named the Best OTT Platform of the Year 2019 at the British Asian Media Awards.[when?] It has 211.5 million registered users and 36.2 million paying subscribers as of September 2020.[20]

Apart from these, Balaji Telefilms–owned ALTBalaji and Viacom 18–owned Voot are popular because of the unique content they provide. Reliance Jio–owned JioCinema and JioTV, Times Group–owned MX Player, and Asianet Satellite Communications- owned Asianet Mobile TV are other OTT service providers in India.[citation needed]

Hoichoi is the first dedicated regional–language OTT service in India. It has launched 30 new shows and 12 original films in Bengali and has acquired about 200 Bengali films and dubbed content from English, Hindi and Arabic. In 2018 it entered Bangladesh as well as the United Arab Emirates, adding a prospective customer base of 180 million.[13]

In June 2017, Sun TV Network launched their Sun NXT regional OTT service in Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Bengali and Kannada.[21]

In February 2020, Aha OTT platform was launched, broadcasting exclusively Telugu content.[22]

In 2021, Planet Marathi OTT became the first OTT platform dedicated to Marathi content in India, including web-series, films, music, theater, fiction and non-fiction reality shows. It is available for both Android

and iOS mobile devices along with Android TV and Amazon Fire TV devices. Bollywood actress Madhuri Dixit helped launch the platform.[23][24]

With rising interest for Korean dramas, Rakuten Viki saw its biggest jump of web traffic from India in 2020 due to COVID-19 lockdown, which lead to ad localization on the platform.[25][26][27]

SonyLIV and ZEE5Edit

In December 2021, Sony and Zee merged, and announced plans to merge their OTT platforms.[28]

List of OTT platforms in IndiaEdit

The list is by alphabetical order, not by rank or popularity.

Name Parent Active years Languages Notes/Ref.
AAO NXT Kaustav Dreamworks Pvt Ltd 2020–Present Odia, English, Spanish, French, Hindi [29][30]
Addatimes Addatimes Media Private Limited 2016–Present Bengali
Aha Arha Media & Broadcasting Pvt. Ltd. 2020–present Telugu, Tamil [31]
Airtel Xstream Premium Bharti Airtel 2022–present Hindi, English, Marathi, Gujarati, Rajasthani, Punjabi, Bengali, Odia, Bhojpuri, Assamese, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Telugu [32][33]
ALTBalaji Balaji Telefilms 2017–present Bhojpuri, Hindi, Tamil [34]
Amazon Prime Video Amazon 2016–present Marathi, English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada, Odia, Punjabi, Gujarati [35][36]
Apple TV+ Apple Inc 2019–present English [37]
Arre UDigital 2015– present Hindi, English [38]
Asianet Mobile TV Asianet Satellite Communications 2015–Present Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Hindi
BIGFlix Reliance Entertainment 2008–present Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Marathi India's first movie on demand service[3]
Crunchyroll Sony 2006–Present English, Chinese, Arabic, Hindi, Castillian, Italian, Japanese, Spanish, Portuguese, German, French and Russian [39]
Discovery+ Warner Bros. Discovery 2020–Present Hindi, English, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Bengali and Marathi [citation needed]
Disney+ Hotstar Star India (The Walt Disney Company India) 2015–present Hindi, English, Tamil, Marathi, Telugu, Malayalam, Bengali, Kannada, India's most subscribed OTT platform[40][failed verification][41]
dittoTV Zee Entertainment Enterprises 2012–2018 English, Hindi, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi and Bengali Dissolved and Integrated into Zee5
Eros Now Eros International 2015–present Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi Titled as 'Best OTT Platform of the Year 2019' at the British Asian Media Awards[42]
Hayu NBCUniversal 2016–present English [43]
Hoichoi Shree Venkatesh Films 2017–present Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi Bengali Content
Hooq Sony Pictures, Warner Bros. and Singtel 2015–2020 English Dissolved in 2020[44]
Hungama Play Hungama Digital Media Entertainment 2015–present Bhojpuri, Hindi, English, Tamil, Telugu [45]
JioTV Jio Platforms 2016–present Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, English, French, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu Only available for Jio Subscribers[46]
JioCinema Jio Platforms 2016–present English, Hindi, Tamil, Marathi, Telugu, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada, Odia, Punjabi, Gujarati Only available for Jio Subscribers[46]
Klikk Angel Television Private Limited 2020–present Bengali Bengali Content
Lionsgate Play Lionsgate 2020–present English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Bengali, Kannada, Malayalam [47]
MX Player Times Internet 2018–present Bhojpuri, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada, Punjabi, Odia, Gujarati, English [48]
ManoramaMAX Malayala Manorama TV Ltd. 2019–present Malayalam Malayalam content[49]
Mubi Mubi Inc. 2019–present English, Hindi, Tamil, Marathi, Telugu, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada [50][51][52]
Netflix Netflix Inc. 2015–present English, Hindi, Tamil, Marathi, Telugu, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada [53]
OHO Gujarati OHO Gujarati 2021–present Gujarati Gujarati Content
Planet Marathi Planet Marathi 2021–present Marathi Marathi Content[54]
ShemarooMe Shemaroo Entertainment 2019–present Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Gujarati [55]
SonyLIV Culver Max Entertainment 2013–present Hindi, Telugu, English, Tamil, Marathi, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada, Punjabi [56][57]
Spuul Independent 2012–present Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, English
TVFPlay Contagious Online Media Network Private Limited 2015–present Hindi, Tamil, Telugu [58]
kanccha lannka Akshay Parija 2021–Present Odia
Sun NXT Sun Group 2017–present Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Bengali and Marathi
Ullu App Ullu App 2018–present Hindi [59]
Viki Rakuten 2010–Present English Web and mobile[60][61]
Viu HK Television Entertainment 2015–2021 Hindi, Tamil, Telugu [62] Stopped it's services in India in 2021.[63]
Voot Viacom 18 2016–present English, Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Marathi, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada, Odia, Punjabi, Gujarati [64]
Vuclip PCCW 2008–present Hindi, Tamil, Telugu [65]
YuppTV YuppTV 2007–present Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Kannada [66]
Zee5 Zee Entertainment Enterprises 2018–present Bhojpuri, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada, Punjabi, Odia, Gujarati, English [67]
Vi Movies and TV Vodafone Idea Ltd 2020-


Hindi, English, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada Contents from Viacom18, Voot Select, ZEE5, Lionsgate Play, Shemaroo Me, Sun NXT, Hungama, Discovery, Yupp TV and more.

It is an entertainment service available at no additional costs to all active Vi subscribers.

OTT services launched as Amazon Prime Video channelsEdit

The list is by alphabetical order, not by rank or popularity.

Name Parent Active years Languages Notes/Ref.
Acorn TV RLJ Entertainment, Inc. 2011–Present English [68]
AMC+ AMC Networks 2020–Present English [68]
ShortsTV Shorts International Ltd 2006–Present English [69]

Flock entertainment is a new emerging platform catering the first time Urdu market in India

List of podcast platforms in IndiaEdit

Name Free access Selective streaming Lossless (Hi-Fi) Track download Tracks (millions) Active users (millions) Paying users (millions) First launched Login required
Amazon Music No Yes Yes[70] Yes[71] 50 (Unlimited), 2 (Prime Music)[72] 16[73] Yes
Apple Music No Yes Yes Yes 60 60[74] 60[75] June 2015 Yes
Gaana Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Google Play Music No Yes No Yes[76] 40[77] November 2011 Yes
Hungama Yes Yes No Yes Yes
JioSaavn Yes Yes No Yes 30[78] 20[78] Yes
SoundCloud Yes Yes Partial Limited 200+[79] 175[80] No
Spotify Yes Yes No Yes 50[81] 289[82] 130 October 2008 Yes
Wynk Yes Yes No Yes Yes
YouTube Music Yes Yes No Yes 50[83] November 2015 No

Content regulation and Legal actionEdit

Content ControversyEdit

From the year 2018 to 2021, Serval Web series has been accused and Get Sparked In To Controversies due to his Sexual Scenes, Abusive Language And Hurting Hindu Religious Sentiments, Like Tandav,[84] Paatal Lok,[85] Sacred Games,[86] and Mirzapur.[87]


Last year in February, the Indian Government [1] Introduce Intermediate Guidelines for Social media and digital Ethics code 2021 to regulate OTT platforms.[88] Indian Government has came with ott guidelines and code of ethics rules 2021, These rules include - Information, Self-regulation, and Oversight mechanism.

Legal action For Making Adult ContentEdit

Serval Ott platform has been Closed down by Cyber crime branch and their Ott platform owners have arrested for streaming adult movies on his platform.[89][90]

The Owners of Hotshots, Hothit, and Nuefliks app has been arrested: The Owners of Serval Ott Platforms Like Nuefliks/Fliz Movies, Hothit, Hotshots app, Have been arrested For Producing and Distributing Soft Pornographic Series through his Online Website/apps. Kundra has arrested for producing and distributing Soft Pornographic films through an app called HotShots, and Rowa Khan, the owner of ‘Hot Hit Movies’, and Arvind Shrivastava from the Nuefliks, who were also the Owner of the "Fliz Movies" app have been arrested by mumbai police.[89]


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