First Kok cabinet

  (Redirected from Netherlands cabinet Kok-1)

The first Kok cabinet, also called the first Purple cabinet was the executive branch of the Dutch government from 22 August 1994 until 3 August 1998. The cabinet was formed by the social-democratic Labour Party (PvdA), the conservative-liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), and the social-liberal Democrats 66 after the election of 1994. The cabinet was a centrist grand coalition and had a substantial majority in the House of Representatives with Labour Leader Wim Kok serving as Prime Minister. Prominent Liberal politician Hans Dijkstal served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior, while Progressive-Liberal Leader Hans van Mierlo served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs.

First Kok cabinet
First Purple cabinet
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
62nd Cabinet of the Netherlands
Kabinet-Kok I.jpg ZetelsKokI.svg
The installation of the first Kok cabinet on 22 August 1994
Date formed22 August 1994 (1994-08-22)
Date dissolved3 August 1998 (1998-08-03)
(Demissionary from 6 May 1998 (1998-05-06))
People and organisations
Head of stateQueen Beatrix
Head of governmentWim Kok
Deputy head of governmentHans Dijkstal
Hans van Mierlo
No. of ministers14
Member partyLabour Party
(PvdA)
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(VVD)
Democrats 66
(D66)
Status in legislatureCentrist
Majority government
(Grand coalition/Purple)
Opposition partyChristian Democratic Appeal
Opposition leaderEnneüs Heerma
(1994–1997)
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
(1997–1998)
History
Election(s)1994 election
Outgoing election1998 election
Legislature term(s)1994–1998
Incoming formation1994 formation
Outgoing formation1998 formation
PredecessorThird Lubbers cabinet
SuccessorSecond Kok cabinet

The cabinet served during the economic expansion of the 1990s. Domestically, it was able to implement several major social reforms such as legalizing euthanasia and had to deal with the fallout of the El Al Flight 1862 crash. Internationally, the signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam took place, but it also had to deal with several crises such as the Bosnian War. The cabinet suffered no major internal conflicts, completing its entire term, and was succeeded by a continuation of the coalition in the second Kok cabinet following the election of 1998.[1]

FormationEdit

After the election on 3 May 1994 the Labour Party (PvdA) of Wim Kok was the winner of the election despite losing 12 seats and now had a total of 37 seats. The Christian Democratic Appeal of incumbent Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers who had announced his retirement from national politics earlier was succeeded as Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal by the Parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal in the House of Representatives Elco Brinkman, a former Minister of Welfare, Health and Culture on 29 January 1994, under the new leadership they lost 20 seats and now had 34 seats. The Democrats 66 of Hans van Mierlo was the biggest winner gaining 12 new seats and now had a total of 24 seats. The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy under Frits Bolkestein where the other big winner gaining 9 new seats had a total of 31 seats in the House of Representatives.

On 6 May 1994 Queen Beatrix appointed President of the Senate Herman Tjeenk Willink (PvdA) as Informateur to start the cabinet formation process. After a first round of talks the Labour Party, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and the Democrats 66 agreed to start negotiation talks. The first round of negotiations were troubled by objections from the Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy Frits Bolkenstein, in the end an agreement was reached to form a coalition. On 14 May 1994 Queen Beatrix appointed President of the Association of Netherlands Municipalities Klaas de Vries (PvdA), a former Member of the House of Representatives and Gijs van Aardenne (VVD), a former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economic Affairs and Senator Jan Vis (D66), a professor of Constitutional law at the University of Groningen as Informateurs. On 3 June 1994 party leaders Wim Kok (PvdA), Frits Bolkenstein (VVD) and Hans van Mierlo (D66) reached an agreement to begin the cabinet formation. The final cabinet formation negotiations were also troubled by new objections from Frits Bolkenstein about a stronger integration policy and on 26 June 1994 negotiations between the parties failed to form a cabinet.

On 27 June 1994 Queen Beatrix reappointed Herman Tjeenk Willink as Informateur to look at the possibility of the Christian Democratic Appeal joining the Labour Party and the Democrats 66 in a coalition but objections from Democrats 66 halted that. On 6 July 1994 Queen Beatrix appointed Wim Kok as Informateur to write an open coalition proposal with the possibility of other parties to join the agreement. On 29 July 1994 the Labour Party, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and the Democrats 66 finally agreed to form a cabinet and Queen Beatrix appointed Wim Kok as Formateur that same day and tasked him with forming a new cabinet. On 22 August 1994 the cabinet formation was completed and the First Kok cabinet was installed with Wim Kok as Prime Minister and with Hans Dijkstal and Hans van Mierlo as Deputy Prime Ministers.

On 16 August 1994 shortly before the cabinet formation was completed Elco Brinkman who had only been the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal since 29 January 1994 stepped down following the disappointing election results and his inability to join the new cabinet, he was succeeded by Member of the House of Representatives Enneüs Heerma, the former State Secretary for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment.

TermEdit

The main aim of the cabinet under the lead of Wim Kok was to create employment. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth had been erratic in recent years. The aim of the cabinet was to increase the influence of markets in the economy, with policies of tax reduction, economizing and trying to keep people out of the social care by supporting employment. Large infrastructural projects were started. Another aim was to make an end to the enormous debt of the Dutch government.

The Treaty of Amsterdam was signed during this cabinet. The Srebrenica massacre occurred under the responsibility of this government, which led later to the fall of the Second Kok cabinet.

The cabinet started processes of liberalization which were completed by the same coalition in the following cabinet: the legalization of prostitution in 2000, same-sex marriage in 2001 and Euthanasia in 2002.

This cabinet was the last to serve a full term until the Second Rutte cabinet from 2012 to 2017. Five of the following cabinets resigned and one was a temporary caretaker cabinet.[2]

ChangesEdit

On 28 June 1996, State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment Robin Linschoten (VVD) resigned after a majority of the House of Representatives indicated that they had lost confidence in his ability to remain in office after a critical parliamentary inquiry into his handling of several social security issues was released. On 2 July 1996, Amsterdam alderman Frank de Grave (VVD), a former Member of the House of Representatives was appointed as his successor.

 
Mayor of Haarlem Jaap Pop and Prime Minister Wim Kok at a Labour party conference in Haarlem on 1 May 1995.
 
Commandant of Dutchbat Lieutenant colonel Thom Karremans and Minister of Defence Joris Voorhoeve in Zagreb days before the Srebrenica massacre in July 1995.
 
European Leaders before the signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam on 2 October 1997.

Cabinet MembersEdit

Ministers Title/Ministry/Portfolio(s) Term of office Party
  Wim Kok
(1938–2018)
Prime Minister General Affairs 22 August 1994 –
22 July 2002
[Continued]
Labour Party
  Hans Dijkstal
(1943–2010)
Deputy
Prime Minister
Interior 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
Minister
  Hans van Mierlo
(1931–2010)
Deputy
Prime Minister
Foreign Affairs 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
Minister
  Gerrit Zalm
(born 1952)
Minister Finance 22 August 1994 –
4 June 1996
[Note]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Dr.
Hans Wijers
(born 1951)
4 June 1996 –
26 June 1996
[Acting]
Democrats 66
  Gerrit Zalm
(born 1952)
26 June 1996 –
22 July 2002
[Continued]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Winnie Sorgdrager
(born 1948)
Minister Justice 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
  Dr.
Hans Wijers
(born 1951)
Minister Economic Affairs 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
  Dr.
Joris Voorhoeve
(born 1945)
Minister Defence 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
Minister Interior Netherlands
Antilles and
Aruba Affairs
  Dr.
Els Borst
(1932–2014)
Minister Health, Welfare
and Sport
3 August 1998 –
22 July 2002
[Continued]
Democrats 66
  Ad Melkert
(born 1956)
Minister Social Affairs and
Employment
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
  Dr.
Jo Ritzen
(born 1945)
Minister Education, Culture
and Science
7 November 1989 –
3 August 1998
[Retained]
Labour Party
  Annemarie
Jorritsma

(born 1950)
Minister Transport and
Water Management
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Jozias van Aartsen
(born 1947)
Minister Agriculture, Nature
and Fisheries
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Margreeth de Boer
(born 1939)
Minister Housing, Spatial
Planning and the
Environment
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
Minister without portfolio Title/Ministry/Portfolio Term of office Party
  Jan Pronk
(born 1940)
Minister Foreign Affairs Development
Cooperation
7 November 1989 –
3 August 1998
[Retained]
Labour Party
State Secretaries Title/Ministry/Portfolio Term of office Party
  Tonny van de
Vondervoort

(born 1950)
State Secretary Interior Municipalities 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
  Jacob Kohnstamm
(born 1949)
Public Security
Emergency
Services

Emergency
Management

Urban Planning
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
  Michiel Patijn
(born 1942)
State Secretary Foreign Affairs European Union
Benelux
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Dr.
Willem Vermeend
(born 1948)
State Secretary Finance Fiscal Policy
Tax and Customs
Governmental
Budget
22 August 1994 –
24 March 2000
[Continued]
Labour Party
  Elizabeth Schmitz
(born 1938)
State Secretary Justice Immigration
and Asylum

Civil Law
• Youth Justice
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
  Anneke van Dok
-van Weele

(born 1947)
State Secretary
[Title]
Economic Affairs Trade and Export
• Consumer
Protection
Tourism
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
  Lieutenant commander
Jan Gmelich
Meijling

(1936–2012)
State Secretary Defence Human
Resources

Equipment
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Erica Terpstra
(born 1943)
State Secretary Health, Welfare
and Sport
• Social Services
Elderly Care
Youth Care
Disability Policy
Minorities
Food Policy
• Recreation
Sport
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Robin Linschoten
(born 1956)
State Secretary Social Affairs and
Employment
• Social Security
• Unemployment
Occupational
Safety
22 August 1994 –
28 June 1996
[Res]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Frank de Grave
(born 1955)
2 July 1996 –
3 August 1998
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Tineke Netelenbos
(born 1944)
State Secretary Education, Culture
and Science
Primary
Education

Secondary
Education

Special
Education
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
  Aad Nuis
(1933–2007)
Science Policy
Media
Culture
Art
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
  Dr.
Dick Tommel
(born 1942)
State Secretary Housing, Spatial
Planning and the
Environment
Public Housing
Spatial Planning
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
Resigned
Retained from the previous cabinet
Continued in the next cabinet
Acting
Designated with the diplomatic rank of Minister
Medical leave of absence from 4 June 1996 until 26 June 1996

TriviaEdit

  • Four cabinet members would later be granted the honorary title of Minister of State: Wim Kok (2002), Hans van Mierlo (1998), Winnie Sorgdrager (2018) and Els Borst (2012).
  • Four cabinet members had previous experience as scholars and professors: Gerrit Zalm (Political Economics), Joris Voorhoeve (International Relations), Els Borst (Medical Ethics) and Jo Ritzen (Public Economics).
  • Eight cabinet members (later) served as Party Leaders: Wim Kok (1986–2001) and Ad Melkert (2001–2002) of the Labour Party, Hans Dijkstal (1998–2002), Gerrit Zalm (2002–2004), Joris Voorhoeve (1986–1990) and Jozias van Aartsen (2004–2006) of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Hans van Mierlo (1966–1973, 1986–1998) and Els Borst (1998) of the Democrats 66.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "De formatie van Paars 1: een heidens karwei" (in Dutch). Andere Tijden. 3 September 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Paarse kabinetten (1994-2002)" (in Dutch). IsGeschiedenis. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2018.

External linksEdit

Official