Nellore district

Nellore district, officially known as Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district or simply SPSR Nellore district in Coastal Andhra Region,[3] is one of the 26 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. According to the 2011 Census, the district's population was 2,966,082, of which 29.07% was urban. Its administrative headquarters are located in Nellore city. Located in the Coastal Andhra region, the district is bordered by the Bay of Bengal to the east, Kadapa district and Annamayya district to the west, Prakasam district to the north, and Tirupati district to the south.[4]

Nellore district
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district
Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Galigopuram, Nellore (8).jpg
Barashadid darga-front view.nellore.JPG
Udayagiri Fort (16).jpg
Pinakini satygraha Aasram, in rainy.jpg
Mypadu beach-sunrise.jpg
Location of Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates (Nellore): 14°26′N 80°0′E / 14.433°N 80.000°E / 14.433; 80.000Coordinates: 14°26′N 80°0′E / 14.433°N 80.000°E / 14.433; 80.000
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
Named forPotti Sreeramulu
 • District collectorK. V. N. CHAKRADHAR IAS Collector & District Magistrate
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesNellore
 • MPAdala Prabhakara Reddy
 • Assembly constituencies07
 • Total10,447 km2 (4,034 sq mi)
 • Total2,469,712
 • Density240/km2 (610/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Literacy69.15%
 • Sex ratio986
Vehicle registrationAP-26 (former)
AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[2]
Major highwaysNH 16, NH 71, NH 67, NH 565


The name of the district is derived from the name of the district headquarters, Nellore. The district's name was Vikrama Simhapuri until the 13th century, when it became known as Nellore. The name Nellore originates from a mythological story from the Sthala Puranas which depict a lingam in the form of a stone under an amla, or nelli, tree in Nellore. The place gradually became Nelli-ooru (nelli referring to the amla tree and ooru referring to a place in the Tamil language) and then present-day Nellore.[5]

The official name of Nellore was changed to Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore District (SPSR Nellore) on 4 June 2008,[6] in honour of the Indian revolutionary Potti Sri Ramulu, who died fasting in an attempt to achieve the formation of a separate state for the Telugu people, which would later become Andhra Pradesh.[7]


Important Buddhist sites in Nellore district
Important Jain sites in Nellore district

Mauryas, early Cholas and PallavasEdit

With the rise of the Mauryan Empire under Ashoka, many parts of the Andhra Pradesh, including Nellore, came under its influence and became part of the empire in the third century BC. After Mauryan rule, the Chola dynasty ruled the area between the first and the fourth centuries AD. The earliest Chola inscription, from 1096 AD, was found at Jummaluru. The district was part of the empire forged by the first and the most famous Chola, Karikala, who remains well-known for engineering works such as the construction of flood banks on the river Kaveri.[citation needed]

Chola power declined with frequent attacks by the Pallavas, Cheras and Pandyas. The region came under the Pallava rule between the fourth and sixth centuries, after the overthrowal of Chola rule by Simha Vishnu Pallava. With the dawn of the seventh century, the Pallava political centre shifted to the south, leading to a weaker presence in the north, including in Nellore. Nonetheless, Pallava rule left its mark on Nellore. Several ancient Pallava and Chola temples can be found in Udayagiri village, while inscriptions about Pallava rule were discovered in the Guntur-Nellore tract of Andhra Pradesh. The four-storeyed cave at Vundavalli and eight-cave temple at Bhairavkonda resemble Pallava architecture during the period of Mahendravarma, a Pallava king.[citation needed]

Nellore Chola kingsEdit

The Cholas regained power in the ninth century; this period marked the peak of Nellore's political power. Tikkana Somayaji, a minister and Telugu poet who translated the Mahabharata into Telugu, gave a historical account of the Chola family in his book Nirvachanottara Ramayanamu. A branch of the Telugu Cholas, who were feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani, were appointed as rulers of Pakanadu (modern-day Kadapa, Nellore and southern Prakasam districts) for their assistance in the war between the Cholas and Chalukyas. They ruled over the region consisting of the Nellore, Kadapa, Chittur and Chengalput districts with Vikramasimhapuri (modern-day Nellore) as their capital.[citation needed]

Tikka (r. 1223–1248), a Nellore Chola king, defeated both the Hoysala and the Pandyas and conquered the Tondaimandalam region, assuming the title of Cholasthapanacharya. During the reign of Tikka's son and successor Manumasiddhi II (1248–1263), Nellore faced several attacks from other Cholas and Pandyas. Tikkana visited Ganapati of Kakatiyas and gained military support for his king. Around 1260, a feud over cattle grazing rights in certain meadows broke out between Manumasiddhi and Katamaraju, the chief of Erragaddapadu in Kanigiri region. It led to a bloody battle being fought at Panchalingala near Muttukuru on the coast of river Penna, resulting in a victory for Manumasiddhi's forces. This feud and the consequent battle formed the theme for the popular ballad called "Katamaraju Katha". Manumasiddhi died during or shortly after the battle, resulting in Nellore's loss of significance.[citation needed]

Kakatiyas, Pandyas and Vijayanagara rulersEdit

Under the leadership of Prola, the Kakatiyas, feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani, declared their independence. Ganapati Deva, the first great Kakatiya king, brought most of the Telugu area under his rule, including Nellore in the thirteenth century. Nellore changed hands between the Kakatiyas and Pandyas multiple times until the Kakatiyas emerged victorious under Prataprudra II. After the fall of the Kakatiya Empire, Nellore came under the rule of the Tughlaq Dynasty and then the Reddi Kingdom.[citation needed]

Most parts of the district were annexed by the Sangama dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire in the fourteenth century. The remaining portions of the district, including Udayagiri, were conquered by Krishnadeva Rayalu in 1512. The ruins of a fortress built by the Vijayanagar kings in the fourteenth century can still be seen at Udayagiri.[citation needed]

The Nawabs and the British periodEdit

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, the area was ruled by the Nawabs. During the eighteenth century, Nellore saw wars between Najeebullah, the ruler of the area, and his brother Arcot Nawab, who received support from the British and French. Nawab's army, under the command of colonel Caillaud, took over the Nellore fort in 1762. For the purposes of revenue collection, the town of Nellore and the surrounding district were handed over to the British East India Company in 1781 and 1801, respectively. Nellore was named the revenue unit for the district.[8]

During the British period, the district's jurisdiction did not undergo any major changes except for the transfer of Ongole taluk to the newly-formed Guntur district in 1904.[citation needed]

Post Indian IndependenceEdit

After India gained independence in 1947, Nellore became part of the Madras State until 1 October 1953. On 1 November 1956, when Indian states were reorganised on a linguistic basis, the district became part of the newly-formed Andhra Pradesh state. Potti Sreeramulu, a Nellore-born Telugu activist, died during a hunger strike while advocating for the formation of Andhra Pradesh state.[citation needed]

Nellore has produced two former chief ministers: Bezawada Gopala Reddy and N. Janardhana Reddy. The district's main political parties are YSR Congress Party and Telugu Desam Party. Communist parties in Nellore have more followers compared to those of neighbouring districts like Kadapa and Ongole. Puchalapalli Sundarayya, a founding member of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), attempted to establish communism in Nellore.[citation needed]

In 1970, the northern parts of Nellore district were transferred to the newly-created Prakasam district.[9]

Damaramadugu rice fields in Nellore district

Epigraphical recordsEdit

In Nellore district, there exist a variety of Telugu inscriptions originating from several different kingdoms. Tamil inscriptions also exist near the Mallam Subramanyeshwara Swamy temple, which was constructed by Rajendhra Chola during the fourteenth century.[10][11][12]


Nellore district is bordered by the Bay of Bengal to the east, Tirupati district to the South, Kadapa district to the west, Annamayya district to the south-west, and Prakasam district to the north.[citation needed]

The district's average elevation is 19 metres (62 feet). Eastern Nellore consists of an area of low-lying land extending from the base of the Eastern Ghats range to the Bay of Bengal, while the western side is comparably more mountainous and is separated from neighbouring Cuddapah district by the Velikonda hills, part of the Eastern Ghats.[citation needed]

25.96% of Nellore's land area is cultivated, while 17.75% is cultivable but fallow. The remainder consists of land used for non-agricultural purposes (18.68%), forested land (20.09%) and barren land (10.56%) unsuitable for human cultivation.[13][14] The Pennar, Swarnamukhi and Gundlakamma are the main rivers that flow through the district. These rivers, in addition to the Penna's tributaries, including the Kandaleru and Boggeru rivers, are not navigable and mainly serve to irrigate nearby farmland. Nellore is rich in a particular type of flint known as quartzite, which prehistoric humans used to make weapons and implements.[citation needed]


Maximum temperature occur during the summer at 36 to 46 °C (97 to 115 °F), while the minimum temperature occurs during the winter at 23 to 25 °C (73 to 77 °F). The average annual rainfall of the district is 1,080 mm (43 in), and reaches its peak during the southwest and northeast monsoons. Nellore is subjected to both droughts and floods, depending on the seasons.[14]


Mypadu Beach (14°30′24″N 80°10′44″E / 14.5068°N 80.1790°E / 14.5068; 80.1790) is a Bay of Bengal beach in Nellore district.

Koduru Beach (14°24′48″N 80°10′23″E / 14.413236°N 80.172975°E / 14.413236; 80.172975) is a Bay of Bengal beach in Nellore district.


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.

According to the 2011 census, Nellore district had a population of 2,963,557,[16] which ranked it at 126 out of 640 districts of India.[16] Out of this, the rural population is 21.06 lakhs and urban population is 8.58 lakhs forming 71.06% and 28.94% respectively of total population. The district has a population density of 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (590/sq mi).[16] Its population grew by 11.15% between 2001 to 2011.[16] Nellore district had a sex ratio of 986 females for every 1000 males,[16] and a literacy rate of 69.15%.[16] After bifurcation Anantapur district had a population of 24,69,712. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 5,04,941 (20.45%) and 2,15,452 (8.72%) of the population respectively.[4]: 92–96 

Religions in Nellore district (2011)[17]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated
Distribution of religions

At the time of the 2011 census, 88.34% of the population spoke Telugu, 9.56% Urdu as their first language. Nearly 20,000 people spoke a language registered as 'Others' under Tamil on the census.[18]


The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of Nellore district is 30,482 crore (304.82 billion rupees) and makes up 5.8% of Andhra Pradesh's Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the fiscal year 2013–14, Nellore's per capita income at current prices was 80,782 (US$1,000). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 9,729 crore, 6,320 crore and 14,433 crore (97.29 billion, 63.2 billion and 144.33 billion rupees), respectively.[19] The major agricultural contributors to the district's gross value added (GVA) include: paddy, sugarcane, lemon, tomato, milk, meat and fisheries. The major industrial and service contributors to the district's GVA include: construction, electricity, manufacturing, transport and education.[19]


Nellore district produces most of the crude mica in India.[20] Between 2011 and 2012, Nellore produced 1,784 tonnes of crude mica, the majority of India's total production of 1,899 tonnes.[21]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Nellore district revenue divisions and mandals outline map from April 2022

The district has four revenue divisions which include Kandukuru, Kavali, Atmakur and Nellore each of which is headed by a sub-collector. These revenue divisions are divided into 38 mandals, which consist of 1,177 villages and 12 towns (urban settlements). A total of 940 gram panchayats are in position comprising all notified Gram Panchayats. Nellore's twelve urban settlements include six statutory towns and six census towns. The statutory towns consist of one municipal corporation (Nellore) and Three municipalities (Atmakur ,Kavali and Kandukur).[22][23]


The following table lists the 38 mandals in Nellore district by their revenue division.[24]

# Kandukuru Division Kavali Division Atmakur Division Nellore Division
1 Kandukuru Kavali Atmakur Nellore Rural
2 Lingasamudram Bogole Chejerla Nellore Urban
3 Gudluru Allur Anumasamudrampeta Kovur
4 Ulavapadu Dagadarthi Marripadu Buchireddipalem
5 Voletivaripalem Jaladanki Sangam Indukurpet
6 Kondapuram Kaligiri Ananthasagaram Thotapalli Gudur
7 Varikuntapadu Duttalur Udayagiri Muthukur
8 Vidavalur Seetharamapuram Venkatachalam
9 Kodavalur Kaluvoya Manubolu
10 Vinjamur Podalakur
11 Rapur
12 Sydapuram

Parliament segmentsEdit

Nellore (Lok Sabha constituency), Tirupati (Lok Sabha constituency)

Assembly segmentsEdit

Nellore and Tirupathi Lok Sabha constituency presently comprises the following Legislative Assembly segments:[25]

Constituency number Name Reserved for
119 Sarvepalli None Tirupati Lok Sabha constituency
109 Kandukur None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
114 Kavali None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
115 Atmakur None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
116 Kovuru None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
117 Nellore City None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
118 Nellore Rural None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
123 Udayagiri None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency

Erstwhile TalukasEdit

Before the formation of mandals, administration was done by the taluka system. In 1985, the mandals system was established for the sake of ease in administration.[citation needed]

S.No. Erstwhile

talukas in 1971

Newly formed

talukas in 1978

Newly formed

mandals in 1985

1 Nellore Nellore Nellore, Muthukur, Venkatachalam
Indukurpet [10] Indukurpet, Thotapalli Gudur
Naidupet [12] Ojili, Pellakur
5 Rapur Rapur Rapur, Sydapuram part
Podalakur [13] Podalakur,
6 Atmakur Chejerla, Kaluvoya
Atmakur Atmakur, Anumasamudrampeta, Ananthasagaram
7 Udayagiri Udayagiri Udayagiri, Seetharampuram, Varikuntapadu, Duttalur, Marripadu
Vinjamur [14] Vinjamur,
8 Kavali Kaligiri, Kondapuram
Kavali Kavali, Jaladanki, Bogole
9 Kovur Kovur Kovur, Vidavalur, Kodavalur
Buchireddipalem [15] Buchireddipalem, Dagadarthi, Allur, Sangam


Largest cities or towns in Nellore District
As per the 2011 Census
Rank Division Pop.
1 Nellore Nellore Division 558,548
2 Kavali Kavali Division 90,099
3 Kandukuru Kandukuru Division 57,246
4 Buchireddypalem Kavali Division 33,803
5 Kovur Nellore Division 32,802
6 Atmakur Atmakur Division 30,556
7 Allur Kavali Division 26,392
8 [[{{{city_8}}}]] [[{{{div_8}}}]] {{{pop_8}}}
9 [[{{{city_9}}}]] [[{{{div_9}}}]] {{{pop_9}}}
10 [[{{{city_10}}}]] [[{{{div_10}}}]] {{{pop_10}}}
Municipal bodies[26]
S.No. City / Town Civic Status of Town / City Municipality



No. of


2011 Census


2001 Census


1991 Census


1981 Census


1971 Census


1961 Census


1951 Census


1 Nellore Municipal Corporation 1866 54 558,548 404,775 3,16,606 2,37,065 1,33,590 1,06,776 81,480
2 Kavali Municipality Grade - 1 1967 40 90,099 85,616 65,910 48,119 29,616 20,544 15,516
3 Buchireddypalem Nagar Panchayat 2020 20 33,803 30,893 - - - - -
4 Atmakur Municipality Grade - 3 2012 23 30,556 29,462 - - - - -
5 Alluru Nagar Panchayat 2020 20 26,392 22,262 - - - - -
Erstwhile taluka headquarters
S.No. Town Civic status of town 2011 census


2001 Census


1991 Census


1981 Census


1971 Census


1 Kovur Grama Panchayat 32,802 28,782 27,191 20,413 16,846
2 Vinjamur Grama Panchayat 20,639 17,759 - - -
3 Podalakur Grama Panchayat 16,662 13,782 - - -
4 Udayagiri Grama Panchayat 15,870 14,006 - - -
5 Indukurpet Grama Panchayat 14,388 13,449 - - -
6 Rapur Grama Panchayat 13,154 13,176 - - -
- - -
- - -
9 Muthukur Grama Panchayat 8,062 9,712 - - -
10 Manubolu Grama Panchayat 7,921 8,750 - - -
- - -
12 Bitragunta Grama Panchayat 7,651 3,382 - - -
Census towns
S.No. Town Civic status of town 2011 census


2 Venkatachala Sathram(Venkatachalam) Census Town 6,012
4 Sydapuram Census Town 5,213
5 Anuma Samudram Peta Census Town 5,121
6 Doravari Sathram Census Town 5,081
7 Ananthasagaram Census Town 4,972
8 Pellakuru Census Town 4,968
9 Chillakuru Census Town 4,956
10 Balayapalli Census Town 4,923
11 Mallam Census Town 4,902
12 Chittamur Census Town 4,751
13 Daghadharthi Census Town 4,521
14 Sangam Census Town 4,496
15 Vidavaluru Census Town 4,385
16 Kodavaluru Census Town 4,296


The total road length of state highways in the district is 1,226 km (762 mi).[27] National Highway 16 passes through the city.

Krishnapatnam Port is an important port situated in the district on the Bay of Bengal.[28]


Art and literatureEdit

The Nellore region has produced several notable Telugu artists. Ancient Telugu poets include Tikkana, Molla, Marana, and Ketana, who laid the foundations for Telugu literature. Tikkana, the second of the Kavitrayam, a trio of Telugu poets, translated the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu. Molla, the second Telugu poetess, translated Ramayana into Telugu. Ketana, a disciple of Tikkana, dedicated his work called Dasakumara Charitram to Tikkana. Ketana also wrote Andhrabashabushanam, a Telugu grammar book. Marana, another poet, and disciple of Tikkana wrote Markandeya Puranam. Ramarajabhushanudu from this region was patronised by Krishnadevaraya. Poet Gunturu Seshendra Sarma is also from this region.

The popular entertainment in the region are movies and related activities. S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, one of India's top singers, was born in Nellore. Telugu lyricist Aatreya is from this region. Tikkavarapu Pattabhirama Reddy, a poet and director from Nellore, wrote Ragala Dozen (A Dozen Melodies), a collection that recorded his observations in Madras and Nellore. He also produced the Telugu film, Pellinaati Pramanalu, and directed films Samskara, Chandamarutha, Sringaramasa, and Devara Kaadu.[29] Nellore also is the origin of many Telugu actors including Rajanala, Ramana Reddy, and Vanisri, playback singers like S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. P. Sailaja.

Notable personalitiesEdit

Notable politicians include, N. Janardhana Reddy, chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh from 1990 to 1992; Bezawada Gopala Reddy, chief minister of Andhra State from 1954 to 1956; Puchalapalli Sundarayya, founding member of the CPI (M), Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Panabaka Lakshmi, former Union Minister; Venkaiah Naidu, vice president of India; film industry include, Singeetam Srinivasa Rao, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, A. Kodandarami Reddy, S. Thaman, M. S. Reddy, A. M. Rathnam; Vanisri; Ponaka Kanakamma, social worker and activist; Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, a poet; Malli Mastan Babu, a mountaineer.


The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[30][31] As per the school information report for the academic year 2017–18, there are a total of 4,489 schools. These include: 21 government, 3,140 mandal and zilla parishads, 2 residential, 1,077 private, 10 model, 10 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 106 municipal and 123 other types of schools.[32] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 3,95,092.[33]

Notable peopleEdit


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  33. ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit