Kadapa district

Kadapa district (officially: YSR District[4] formerly: Cuddapah[1]:19) is one of the thirteen districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is also one of the four districts in the Rayalaseema region of the state. Kadapa is the seat of administration for the district.[5] The district was renamed as YSR District in honour of Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, commemorating former Chief Minister of combined Andhra Pradesh.[6]

Kadapa district

Cuddapah
YSR district
Paddy fields, Kalasipadu
Paddy fields, Kalasipadu
Nickname(s): 
Gadapa
Location of Kadapa district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Kadapa district in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.467°N 78.817°E / 14.467; 78.817Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.467°N 78.817°E / 14.467; 78.817
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
HeadquartersKadapa
Administrative Divisions
Government
 • District collectorCh. Hari Kiran
 • Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha list
 • Assembly
Area
 • District of Andhra Pradesh15,359 km2 (5,930 sq mi)
 • Urban
[1]:14
482.25 km2 (186.20 sq mi)
 • Rural
[1]:14
14,876.75 km2 (5,743.95 sq mi)
Area rank7th
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • District of Andhra Pradesh2,882,469
 • Rank18th
 • Density188/km2 (490/sq mi)
 • Density rank21st
 • Urban
[1]:14
979,132
 • Rural
[1]:14
1,903,337
 • Households
706,204
 • Sex ratio
985 (females per 1,000 males)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
Literacy
 • Literates1716766
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Postal Index Number
516xxx
Area codes+91–8562
ISO 3166 codeIN-AP
Vehicle registrationAP-04 (former) AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[3]
Websitekadapa.ap.gov.in
Kadapa district is a part of Rayalaseema region (highlighted in blue) in Andhra Pradesh
Pylon commemorative of 200 years, kadapa

HistoryEdit

Rock paintingsEdit

Paleolithic rock paintings found at Chintakunta caves[7] near Muddanuru in Kadapa district are said to be the second largest group of paintings in India after Bhimbetika rock art paintings. The rock paintings with mystic figures are also found at Dappalle village[8] near Mylavaram Dam in Jammalamadugu Taluk of the district.

Prehistoric cultureEdit

Many Paleolithic sites were found in Kadapa district, as the surroundings of Jammalamadugu, Mailavaram Dam[8] and Gandikota.

Some megalithic burial sites were explored near Porumamilla, Sankhavaram and at Yellatur[9] village near Kadapa. The surroundings of Vontimitta are also noted as Megalithic cultural sites.

The section of Rayachoti consists of many documented and undocumented Megalithic sites and stone circles. A noted megalithic site is at Devandlapalli[10] in Tsundupalle taluk of the district.

Buddhism & JainismEdit

Kadapa has historical importance since BC era. It was ruled by the Mauryan Empire and the Satavahana Empire (Andhras).[11] Buddhism must have flourished here for many years along the banks of rivers Cheyyeru and Penna. Nandalur[12] is an important Buddhist site in the district along with Tallapaka, Rajampeta, Konduru, Khazipeta in the district. Jainism also had a place in Kadapa district history; the remnants of a buried Jain temple were found at Danavulapadu[13] village on the banks of river Penna.

Medieval historyEdit

 
Gandikota fort view

It was part of the area ceded to the British by Nizam. The district was formed by splitting the ceded districts into two in 1808 during the British rule, the other district being Bellary.[14] The British spelt the district as Cuddapah.

The district is part of Rayalaseema, commemorating the name of Rayulu (Kings) of the Vijayanagar Empire, who ruled the area in the 16th century. Gandikota fort located on the bank of the Penna river was the citadel of Pemmasani Nayaks, commanders of Vijayanagar army and who won the battles of Raichur and Gulbarga for the Vijayanagar kings.

The old records of the district reveal that Kadapa previously called Gadapa which translated in Telugu to threshold. The ancient village of Kadapa with its large tank and temple of Lord Venkateswara at Devuni Kadapa was convenient camping place for the myriads of pilgrims travelling to the holy shrine of Tirupathi. There was a belief that the pilgrims have to first visit Devuni Kadapa, before going to Tirupathi to pray to Saint Annamacharya and Saint Potuluri Veera Brahmam who foretold the future and advocated a classless society. The ancient temple at Vontimitta which inspired Pothana to compose Andhra Maha Bhagavatham is also in the district. In the olden days Kadapa was also called "Hiranyanagaram".

Recent historical records reveal that in Jyothi village located in Siddavatam mandal has 108 Shiva lingas on the bank of Penna river.

Modern historyEdit

After the Treaty of Seringapatam, Nizam of Hyderabad acquired the district. He ceded it to the British in 1800 and eight years later they created the present-day administrative entity. The district headquarters were situated in Siddavatam but moved to Kadapa in 1812.[15]

GeographyEdit

 
Districts of Andhra Pradesh

Kadapa district occupies an area of 15,938 square kilometres (6,154 sq mi),[16] comparatively equivalent to Canada's Prince Patrick Island.[17] The main rivers in this district are Penna, Chitravathi, Kunderu, Papagni, Sagileru, Bahuda and Cheyyeru.

ReservoirsEdit

 
Brahmam Sagar reservoir

Kadapa district has several reservoirs, some of which are Brahmamsagar Reservoir, Mylavaram Dam Reservoir, Annamayya Project, Gandikota Reservoir.[18]

Volcanogenic bedded BarytesEdit

Volcanogenic bedded Barytes located at Mangampet in Obulavaripalle mandal has been declared the National Geological Monuments of India by the Geological Survey of India (GSI), for their protection, maintenance, promotion and enhancement of geotourism.[19][20][21]

DemographicsEdit

Population Growth of Kadapa district 
CensusPopulation
18711,351,194
18811,121,038−17.0%
18911,272,07213.5%
19011,291,2671.5%
20012,601,797
20112,884,52410.9%
source:1871-1901[22]

As of 2011 census, Kadapa district has a population of 2,884,524. This gives it a ranking of 132nd in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 188 inhabitants per square kilometre (490/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 10.87%. It has a sex ratio of 984 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 67.88%.

EconomyEdit

Besides its historical importance, the district has occupied an important place in the industrial map of Andhra Pradesh with its valuable mineral resources.

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the district is 26,342 crore (US$3.7 billion) and contributes 5% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 70,821 (US$990). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 6,204 crore (US$870 million), 6,935 crore (US$970 million) and 13,203 crore (US$1.9 billion) respectively.[23]

Black corson soil lands are 24%, black soil 19%, sandy soil lands 4%, red soil lands 25%. The first variety lands are very fertile, sand soil lands less so. 'Korra', orange, lime and betel leaf are the special crops. They are cultivated near river beds. Starting at Sunkesula Dam on Tungabadra river K. C. Canal flows through Kadapa and Kurnool districts providing water to 40 km2 (15 sq mi) of cultivable land. The main source of drinking water to this district is Galeru Nagari Sujala Sravanthi Project Canal.

This district is the repository of mineral wealth. As per the 1983 survey of geological survey of India 3 million tons of lead, 74,000,000 tons of barytes, and 27000 tons of asbestos deposits are there. It is estimated that 70 million tons of barytes deposits might be in Mangampet. There are clay deposits in Rajampet. This is used to make stone implements. Limestone is available in Yerraguntla. National Mineral Development Corporation is extracting asbestos in Brahman palli and barytes in Mangampet. Kadapa is also famous for its stone called "kadapa stone" used in building construction and for slabs especially in south India. In Tummalapalle, there are 49,000 tonnes of confirmed uranium deposits which are mined and processed locally.[24][25] Apart from these minerals and industries Agriculture also forms a part district economy.

 
Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station

IndustriesEdit

In 2006 the Indian government named Kadapa district as one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[26] It is one of the thirteen districts in Andhra Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[26]

AdministrationEdit

The present district collector is Ch. Hari Kiran.[27]

DivisionsEdit

 
Kadapa district Collectorate Complex

Kadapa district has three Revenue Divisions viz., Kadapa, Rajampeta and Jammalamadugu divisions.[28] The district has 51 mandals under these revenue divisions.[29] It also has a Municipal Corporation of Kadapa and seven municipalities namely Badvel, Mydukur, Proddatur, Pulivendula, Rayachoti, Jammalamadugu, Rajampet.

MandalsEdit

The mandals are listed with respect to their revenue divisions in the following table:[28][30]

# Kadapa Division Rajampeta Division Jammalamadugu Division
1 Chakrayapet Atlur Chapadu
2 Chennur B Matham Duvvur
3 Chinnamandem B.Kodur Jammalamadugu
4 Chinthakommadinne Badvel Kondapuram
5 Kadapa Chitvel Lingala
6 Galiveedu Gopavaram Muddanur
7 Kamalapuram Kalasapadu Mydukur
8 Khajipet Kodur Mylavaram
9 Lakkireddipalle Nandalur Peddamudium
10 Pendlimarri Obulavaripalle Proddatur
11 Ramapuram Penagalur Pulivendula
12 Rayachoti Porumamilla Rajupalem
13 Sambepalle Pullampeta Simhadripuram
14 T Sundupalle Rajampet Thondur
15 Vallur Siddavatam Vempalle
16 Veeraballi Sri Avadhuth Kasinayana Vemula
17 Veerapunayunipalle Vontimitta
18 Yerraguntla

Before the formation of mandals, Administration was done through Taluka system.

Erstwhile Talukas in Kadapa district were

S.No. Erstwhile Talukas in 1971 Newly Formed Talukas in 1978 New Mandals formed in 1985
1. Kadapa Kadapa Kadapa, Vallur, Chennur, Khajipeta, Chinthakommadinne, Pendlimarri,
2 Kamalapuram Kamalapuram Kamalapuram, Yerraguntla, Veerapunayunipalle
3 Jammalamadugu Jammalamadugu Jammalamadugu [part], Mylavaram, Peddamudium
Muddanur [10] Muddanur, Kondapuram, Jammalamadugu [part]
4 Proddutur Proddutur Proddutur, Mydukur, Chapad, Rajupalem, Duvvur,
5 Badvel Badvel Badvel, Kalasapadu, Sri Avadutha kasinayana, Porumamilla, B.Kodur, Brahmamgari mattam, Gopavaram [part]
6 Sidhout Sidhout Sidhout, Atlur, Gopavaram, Vontimitta, Gopavaram [part]
7 Rajampeta Rajampeta Rajampeta, Nandalur, Penagalur
Kodur [11] Kodur, Pullampeta, Chitvel, Obulavaripalle,
8 Rayachoty Rayachoty Rayachoty, Veeraballe, Sambepalle, Chinnamandem, T sundupalle
Lakkireddipalli[12] Lakkireddipalle, Chakrayapeta, Ramapuram, Galiveedu
9 Pulivendula Pulivendula Pulivendula, Vempalle, Lingala, Thondur, Simhadripuram, Vemula

Assembly constituenciesEdit

Towns in Kadapa DistrictEdit

The Population of Towns in Kadapa district is as follows[31]

Municipal Bodies in Kadapa District
S.No. Town Name Civic Status of Town Municipality

Formation

Year

No. of

Wards[32]

2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1. Kadapa Municipal Corporation 1868 50 344,893 278,039 215,866 103,125 66,195
2 Proddutur Municipality Special Grade 1915 41 194,850 165,216 133,914 107,070 70,822
3 Rayachoty Municipality Grade-1 2005 34 98,299 72,297 51,931 35,257 16,721
4 Badvel Municipality Grade-2 2006 35 70,626 47,954 13,679 11,460 9,083
5 Pulivendula Municipality Grade-2 2005 33 65,706 38,566 28,317 21,104 11,704
6 Jammalamadugu Nagar Panchayat 2005 20 61,218 54,218 46,133 33,729 20,008
7 Rajampeta Municipality Grade-2 2005 29 54,050 45,957 26,181 19,927 13,345
8 Mydukur Municipality Grade-3 2011 24 45,790 31,838 24,222 16,405 10,982
9 Yerraguntla Nagar Panchayat 2012 20 32,574 26,838 19,361 11,784 6,191
10 Kamalapuram Nagar Panchayat 2020 20 20,623 17,540 12,364 9,873 8,443
Erstwhile Talukas Population
S.No. Town Civic status of Town 2011 Census

Population

1. Railway Kodur Census Town 39,408
2 Lakkireddipalli Grama Panchayat 10,303
3 Muddanur Census Town 9,775
4 Sidhout Grama Panchayat 4,787
Census Towns in Kadapa District
S.No. Town Civic Status of Towns 2011 Census

Population

1 Nagireddipalle [Nandalur] Census Town 12,318
2 Veparala [Mylavaram] Census Town 6,712
3 Mangampeta [Obulavaripalle] Census Town 5,175

TransportEdit

 
Pulivendula-Kadapa 4 lane road near pulivendula
 
Kadapa Airport Terminal

Kadapa district is well-connected by road, rail and airways with neighbouring districts of Andhra Pradesh.

RoadwaysEdit

The total road length of state highways in the district is 1,088 km (676 mi).[33] National Highway 40, National Highway 716 and National Highway 67 pass through the district.

RailwaysEdit

The district has railway administration under Guntakal railway division. Kadapa, Rajampet, Yerraguntla Junction, Proddatur, Jammalamadugu are some of the main railway stations in the district.

AirwaysEdit

Kadapa Airport is located north west to Kadapa city.

EducationEdit

 
JNTUACEP Entrance, Pulivendula
 
RIMS Medical College Block, Kadapa

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[34][35] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, there are a total of 4,488 schools. They include, 22 government, 3,094 mandal and zilla parishads, 1 residential, 1,181 private, 10 model, 29 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 88 municipal and 63 other types of schools.[36] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 416,782.[37]

There are junior colleges for (10+2) education, among which 25 are under government, 13 are social welfare, 26 private aided, 83 are private unaided and also there are a few incentive, co-operative, government model colleges. For the purpose of imparting and the students sit for the certificate of Board of Intermediate Education.[38] The government colleges of Kadapa, Proddatur, Pulivendula, Rayachoti, Jammalamadugu, and Rajampet are the oldest government colleges of the district, established in 1969.[38]

The higher education colleges have various fields of study like medical, nursing, degree, post graduate, polytechnic, law, teaching, pharmacy, engineering, veterinary, etc. The Yogi Vemana University is a state university which has one autonomous college as per the Universities Grant Commission.[39] Sri Venkateswara College of Veterinary Sciences. The engineering colleges of the district are, KSRM College of Engineering, Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, etc.[39]

Notable personalitiesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "District Census Hand Book –" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  2. ^ "Population". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  3. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  4. ^ "YSR District".
  5. ^ "Six districts in Andhra reel under drinking water crisis". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 13 May 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  6. ^ "Ex-Andhra Pradesh CM YSR's native district Kadapa to be named after him". The Times of India. 18 June 2010. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  7. ^ Subramanyam, M.V. (25 July 2012). "Second largest rock art painting site explored". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
  8. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Murty, M. L. K. (2003). Comprehensive History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh: Pre- and protohistoric ... google.co.in. ISBN 9788125024750.
  10. ^ "Megalithic burial site found in Kadapa". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 June 2012.
  11. ^ Lakshmi, V. Swarajya (1982). A Descriptive Grammar of Cuddapah Dialect. Telugu Akademi. p. 2.
  12. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Archaeological Survey of India". ap.nic.in. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  14. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 7. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1908. pp. 158–176.
  15. ^ "district news".
  16. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  17. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Prince Patrick Island 15,848
  18. ^ Correspondent, Special. "Krishna water released into Gandikota reservoir". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  19. ^ "National Geological Monument, from Geological Survey of India website". Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  20. ^ "Geo-Heritage Sites". pib.nic.in. Press Information Bureau. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  21. ^ national geo-heritage of India, INTACH
  22. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 11, page 62 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library".
  23. ^ "Economy of Kadapa District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  24. ^ "Tummalapalle uranium mill to start operation by March 2011". Article from the Times of India. WISE Uranium Project. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  25. ^ "India: 'Massive' uranium find in Andhra Pradesh". BBC News – South Asia. BBC. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  26. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  27. ^ "Ch Hari Kiran takes charge as Kadapa Collector". www.thehansindia.com. Kadapa. 11 May 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  28. ^ a b "Revenue Divisions". National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  29. ^ "Mandals in Kadapa district" (PDF). AP State Portal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  30. ^ "District Revenue Divisions and Mandals". Y.S.R.-District Panchayat. National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  31. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  32. ^ "Nagarpanchayats | Commissioner and Director of Municipal Administration". cdma.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  33. ^ "Existing State Highways" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  34. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  35. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  36. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  37. ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  38. ^ a b "List of colleges in Kadapa district" (PDF). Board of Intermediate Education. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  39. ^ a b "Autonomous colleges" (PDF). University Grants Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016.

External linksEdit