Naushad Ali (25 December 1919 – 5 May 2006) was an Indian music director for Hindi films. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest and foremost music directors of the Hindi film industry. He is particularly known for popularising the use of classical music in films.
Naushad Ali in 2005
|Born||25 December 1919|
Lucknow, United Provinces, British India (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)
|Died||5 May 2006 (aged 86)|
Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
|Genres||Hindustani classical music • Indian film music|
|Occupation(s)||Composer, music director, film producer, writer, poet, producer|
|Instruments||Harmonium • sitar • piano • tabla • flute • clarinet • accordion • mandolin|
|Associated acts||Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Mohammad Rafi, Mukesh (singer), Shamshad Begum, Shakeel Badayuni, Majrooh Sultanpuri, D. N. Madhok|
His first film as an independent music director was Prem Nagar in 1940. His first musically successful film was Rattan (1944), followed by 35 silver jubilee hits, 12 golden jubilee and 3 diamond jubilee mega successes. Naushad was conferred the Dadasaheb Phalke Award and the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and 1992 respectively for his contribution to the Bollywood film industry.
Early life and educationEdit
Naushad Ali was born on 25 December 1919 in Lucknow and raised there also, a city with a long tradition as a center of Indian Muslim culture. His father, Wahid Ali, was a munshi (court clerk). As a child, Naushad would visit the annual fair at the Deva Sharif in Barabanki, 25 km from Lucknow, where all the great qawwals and musicians of those days would perform before the devotees. He studied Hindustani music there under Ustad Ghurbat Ali, Ustad Yusuf Ali, Ustad Babban Saheb and others. He also repaired harmoniums.
As a lad, he joined a junior theatrical club and was appointed the club's music maestro for their theatrical presentations. He used to watch silent films at the Royal theatre in Lucknow. Theatre owners would hire a team of musicians to play the tabla, harmonium, sitar and violin. The musicians would watch the film first, make notes, finalize the scales required. When the show began in the evening, they would sit in front of the screen and play music for the scenes. This was a great way to be entertained and learn music at the same time. It made him grasp the nuances required in composing a film's background music score.
In time Naushad formed his own Windsor Music Entertainers or just Windsor Entertainers, so named because he had seen the word "Windsor" around Lucknow and liked its ring. It led to the Indian Star Theatrical Company in a theatre at Golaganj colony in Lucknow. He was trained under Laddan Khan until he became capable of working independently as a composer. There he also developed the sense to pick rare musical jewels from the folk tradition of Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Saurashtra during the company's sojourns in those regions. The travelling players got as far as Viramgam in Gujarat, where they discovered penury, even after selling off theatrical props and musical instruments. The company limped back to Lucknow through the kindness of one of Naushad's friends.
Naushad had already become a cinema fan in the silent era and then, in 1931, Indian cinema got voice and music that further fascinated the 13-year-old boy. But his family was strict follower of Islamic diktat of prohibition of music and his father gave him ultimatum to leave music if he wanted to stay at home. He ran away to Mumbai in late 1937 to try his luck as a musician.
In Mumbai, he initially stayed with an acquaintance from Lucknow (U.P.) at Colaba and after a while, shifted to Dadar opposite the Broadway theatre where he would sleep on the footpath. He assisted music director Ustad Jhande Khan who was at the peak of his success those days, at a monthly salary of Rs 40.
Then he worked on a film where the producer was a Russian and the studio was at Chembur. This film could not be completed. Naushad was a piano player so he worked as a pianist in composer Ustad Mushtaq Hussain's orchestra. He then polished off an unfinished film score and got a credit as assistant to Mushtaq Hussain. Then the film company collapsed. Composer Khemchand Prakash took him on as his assistant for the film Kanchan at Ranjit Studios at a salary of Rs 60 per month, for which Naushad remained extremely grateful and in interviews, he had called Khemchand his guru.
His friend, lyricist D. N. Madhok, trusted Naushad's unusual talent for composing music and introduced him to various film producers. Chandulal Shah, the owner of Ranjit Studios, offered to sign Naushad for one of his forthcoming films. Naushad composed a thumri for this film, "Bata de koi kaun gali gaye Shyam", but the film never got on the floors. He was assistant music director for the Punjabi film Mirza Sahib (1939).
He composed for his first independent film Prem Nagar in 1940 that had a story set in Kutch for which he did a lot of research into the folk music of the area. With A.R. Kardar's film Nayi Duniya (1942), he got first credit as "music director" and he began to work regularly for Kardar Productions. He, however, had a flexibility that he could work outside Kardar Productions and this arrangement continued throughout his career. He first got noticed with A.R. Kardar's film Sharda (1942) wherein 13-year-old Suraiya debuted with the song "Panchhi Ja" for the playback for heroine Mehtab. It was Rattan (1944) that took Naushad right to the top and enabled him to charge Rs 25,000 a film during those days.
Film expert and author Rajesh Subramanian opines that Kardar productions spent Rupees seventy five thousand in 1944 to make Rattan. The music by Naushad saheb was such a phenomenal hit that the company earned Rs 3 lacs as royalty from gramophone sales in the first year.
But his Lucknow-based family remained against music and Naushad had to hide from his family the fact that he composed music. When Naushad got married, the band was playing the tunes of the super hit songs of Naushad's film 'Rattan'. While Naushad's father and father-in-law were condemning the musician who had composed these songs, Naushad dared not tell them that it was he who had composed the music. Naushad understood Hindu and Muslim culture and the languages of those cultures.
From 1942 until the late 1960s, he was one of the top music directors in Hindi films. While he did 65 films during his lifetime, 26 of those films celebrated Silver jubilees (25 weeks run) – 8 celebrated golden jubilees (50 weeks run) and 4 celebrated diamond jubilees (60 weeks run) – (inclusive count – a diamond jubilee film also celebrates Silver and Golden jubilees).
Five films have been made on his life and work. Biographical books published are Dastaan-E-Naushad (Marathi) by Shashikant Kinikar; Aaj Gaawat Man Mero (Gujarati); Hindi and Urdu biographical sketches in Shama & Sushma Magazines respectively, titled "Naushad Ki Kahani, Naushad Ki Zubani"; the last one was translated into Marathi by Shashikant Kinikar. Kinikar also came up with a book titled "Notes of Naushad" which puts together some interesting anecdotes of Naushad's life.
Naushad also composed background music for the TV serial "Akbar The Great" telecast in 1988 which was directed by Akbar Khan, brother of Hindi film stars Sanjay Khan and Feroze Khan as was also The Sword of Tipu Sultan produced and directed by Sanjay Khan and Akbar Khan which was telecast in 1990 and became very popular.
Death and legacyEdit
He is survived by six daughters Zubeda, Fehmida, Farida, Sayeeda, Rashida, and Waheeda and three sons Rehman Naushad, Raju Naushad & Iqbal Naushad. Rehman Naushad being the eldest of all assisted him in some of his films. Also, Naushad composed music for two movies directed by Rahman Naushad, My Friend (1974) and Teri Payal Mere Geet (1989).
Naushad had requested the Maharashtra State Government to sanction a plot for an institution for promoting Hindustani music. This was sanctioned during his lifetime and the 'Naushad Academy of Hindustani Sangeet' was formed.
Naushad was also a respected and published poet and formally launched his book of Urdu poetry entitled Aathwaan Sur ("The Eighth Note") and the Navras label's album titled "Aathwan Sur – The Other Side of Naushad" having 8 ghazals as part of Hounslow's book fair and festival "Bookmela" in November 1998. The album has lyrics and composition by Naushad, arranged by Uttam Singh.
- Aabadiyon Mein Dasht Ka Munzar Bhi Aayega – A. Hariharan – 7:08
- Aaj Ki Baat Kal Pay Kyun Taalo – A. Hariharan & Preeti Uttam Singh – 6:17
- Ghata Chhaayi Thi Saawan Khul Ke Barsa – Preeti Uttam Singh – 7:19
- Kabhi Meri Yaad Unko Aati To Hogi – A. Hariharan & Preeti Uttam Singh – 6:18
- Mujh Ko Muaff Kijiye – A. Hariharan – 5:35
- Peenay Waalay Bekhudi Say Kaam Lay – A. Hariharan & Preeti Uttam Singh – 8:13
- Saawan Kay Jab Baadal Chhaaye – A. Hariharan – 6:50
- Tanhaa Khud Say Baat Karoon – Preeti Uttam Singh – 7:49
Naushad gave a new trend to popular film music by basing his tunes on classical music ragas and folk music. Naushad was known for his skillful adaptation of the classical musical tradition for movie songs. For some movies like Baiju Bawra, he composed all scores in classical raga modes and arranged for the well-known vocalist Amir Khan to be a music consultant for this film. Naushad could easily work with Western instruments, including the clarinet, the mandolin and the accordion. He could incorporate Western musical idioms in his compositions and compose for Western-style orchestras.
During the early 1940s, recordings were done in quiet parks and gardens after midnight because the studios did not have sound-proof recording rooms. In the gardens, there would be no echo and disturbances, unlike the studios where the sound reverberated because of the tin roofs.
For films like 'Uran Khatola' and 'Amar', he recorded the voice of a particular artiste on a scale of 90, then recorded it on 70, then on 50 and so on. After the complete recording, it was played for the scene and the impact it created was terrific.
He was one of the first to introduce sound mixing and the separate recording of voice and music tracks in playback singing. He was the first to combine the flute and the clarinet, the sitar and mandolin. He also introduced the accordion to Hindi film music and was among the first to focus on background music to extend characters' moods and dialogue through music. But perhaps his greatest contribution was to bring Indian classical music into the film medium. Many of his compositions were inspired by ragas and he even used distinguished classical artistes like Amir Khan and D.V. Paluskar in Baiju Bawra (1952) and Bade Ghulam Ali Khan in Mughal-e-Azam (1960). Baiju Bawra (1952) demonstrated Naushad's grasp of classical music and his ability to bring it to the masses, for which he won the first Filmfare Best Music Director Award in 1954.
Naushad commented on a pre-release meeting about "Baiju Bawra": “When people heard that the film would be full of classical music and ragas, they protested, ‘People will get a headache and they will run away.’ I was adamant. I wanted to change public taste. Why should people be fed what they like all the time? We presented them with music from our culture and it worked.”
For Aan (1952), he was the first to use a 100-piece orchestra. He was the first composer to have developed the system of western notation in India. The notation for the music of the film 'Aan' was published in book form in London.
In Uran Khatola (1955), he recorded an entire song without the use of orchestra, having replaced the sound of musical instruments with choral sound of humming.
For Mughal-e-Azam (1960) song Ae Mohabbat Zindabad, he used a chorus of 100 persons. He asked Lata Mangeshkar to render a part of the song "Pyaar Kiya To Darna Kya" in a bathroom that had glazed tiles and then recorded the music to get the echo effect.
He used just six instruments in the title song of Mere Mehboob (1963).
In 2004, a colorized version of the classic Mughal-e-Azam (1960) was released, for which Naushad had the orchestral music specially re-created (in Dolby Digital) by today’s industry musicians, while maintaining all the solo vocals from the original soundtrack. To elaborate, the playback vocals (though not the chorus) recorded four decades ago are mixed with orchestra tracks created in the present millennium.
As Indian film music gradually assumed a Western bend starting in the late 1960s, Naushad came to be considered old-fashioned. Composers who could compose rock-and-roll and disco-inflected music started getting increasingly popular. Naushad was still esteemed as a maestro, but his talents were sought mostly for historical movies where traditional scores were appropriate.
|Prem Nagar||1940||Mohan Dayaram Bhavnani||Ramanand, Bimla Kumari, Husn Banu, Rai Mohan, Nagendra, Salu, Gulzar||Naushad was assistant for Baaghbaan (1938) and Kanchan (1941). According to him, he had composed one song in each film.|
|Darshan||1941||Chimanlal Muljibhoy Luhar||Prem Adib, Jyoti, Kaushalya, Bhudo Advani, Miradevi, M. Nazir, Shakir, Amirbai Karnataki, Madhusudan|
|Mala||1941||Balwant Bhatt||Jayant, Rose, Jairaj, Nazir, Daya Devi, Heera|
|Nai Duniya||1942||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Jairaj, Shobhna Samarth, Wasti, Azurie, Mazhar Khan. Hari Shivdasani, Jeevan||Debut of Singer Surayya in the song "Boot Karoon main Polish"|
|Sharda||1942||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Ulhas, Mehtab. Wasti, Nirmala, Badri Prasad||Silver Jubilee|
|Station Master||1941||Chimanlal Muljibhoy Luhar||Prem Adib, Pratima Devi, Gulab|
|Kanoon||1943||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Mehtaab, Shahu Modak||Silver Jubilee|
|Namaste||1943||Mohammed Sadiq Sani||Wasti, Protima Das, Jagdish Sethi, Misra||Silver Jubilee|
|Sanjog||1943||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Charlie, Anwar Hussain, Mehtab||Silver Jubilee|
|Geet||1944||S. U. Sunny||Shahu Modak, Nirmala, Amir Ali|
|Jeevan||1944||Mohammed Sadiq||Wasti, Mehtab, Badri Prasad, Anwar, Shyam Kumar|
|Pehle Aap||1944||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Shamim, Wasti, Anwar Hussain, Jeevan, Dixit||Rafi's first song for Naushad "Hindustan Ke Hum Hain" in a chorus|
|Rattan||1944||S Sadiq||Amir Banu, Karan Dewan, Swarnalata||Diamond Jubilee|
|Sanyasi||1945||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Shamim, Amar, Misra, Shyam Kumar, Naseem Jr., Gulam Mohamad||Silver Jubilee|
|Anmol Ghadi||1946||Mehboob Khan||Noorjehan, Surinder, Suraiya||Diamond Jubilee|
|Keemat||1946||Nazir Ajmeri||Amar, Sulochana Chatterjee, A Shah, Sharda, Badri Prasad, Sofia, Anwari, Nawab|
|Shahjehan||1946||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Kundan Lal Saigal, Ragini||Silver Jubilee|
|Dard||1947||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Uma Devi, Suraiya||Debut of Singer Uma Devi (Comedy Actress Tuntun) in the song "Afsana Likh Rahi Hoon"|
|Elaan||1947||Mehboob Khan||Himalaywala, Leela Mishra, Shah Nawaz|
|Natak||1947||S. U. Sunny||Suraiya, Amar, Sofiya, Kanwar, Sham Kumar, Pratima Devi||Silver Jubilee|
|Anokhi Ada||1948||Mehboob Khan||Surendra, Naseem Bano, Murad, Cuckoo||Golden Jubilee|
|Mela||1948||S. U. Sunny||Dilip Kumar, Nargis, Jeevan||Golden Jubilee|
|Andaz||1949||Mehboob Khan||Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Nargis||Golden Jubilee|
|Chandni Raat||1949||Mohammed Ehsan||Shyam, Naseem Bano|
|Dillagi||1949||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Shyam, Suraiyya, Sharda, Amir Banu, Amar||Silver Jubilee|
|Dulari||1949||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Suresh, Madhubala, Geeta Bali||Silver Jubilee|
|Babul||1950||S. U. Sunny||Dilip Kumar, Nargis||Also as Producer|
|Dastan||1950||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Raj Kapoor, Suraiya, Veena, Suresh||Also as Co-producer|
|Deedar||1951||Nitin Bose||Dilip Kumar, Nimmi, Nargis, Ashok Kumar||Golden Jubilee|
|Jadoo||1951||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Suresh, Nalini Jaywant||Also as Co-producer|
|Aan||1952||Mehboob Khan||Dilip Kumar, Nimmi, Nadira||Golden Jubilee|
|Baiju Bawra||1952||Vijay Bhatt||Bharat Bhushan, Meena Kumari||Also as Co-producer Film debut of singers Amir Khan and D. V. Paluskar in the song "Aaj gaavat man mero jhoomke"|
|Deewana||1952||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Suraiya, Suresh, Sumitra Devi, Shyam Kumar||Silver Jubilee|
|Amar||1954||Mehboob Khan||Dilip Kumar, Nimmi, Madhubala|
|Shabaab||1954||Mohammed Sadiq||Bharat Bhushan, Nutan||Silver Jubilee|
|Uran Khatola||1955||S. U. Sunny||Dilip Kumar, Nimmi.||Also as Producer|
|Mother India||1957||Mehboob Khan||Nargis, Raj Kumar, Rajendra Kumar, Sunil Dutt, Kanhaiyalal||Diamond Jubilee|
|Sohni Mahiwal||1958||Raja Nawathe||Bharat Bhushan, Nimmi||Debut of singer Mahendra Kapoor in the song "Chaand Chhupa Aur Taarey Doobey"|
|Kohinoor||1960||S. U. Sunny||Dilip Kumar, Meena Kumari, Kumkum, Jeevan||Golden Jubilee|
|Mughal-e-Azam||1960||Karim Asif||Dilip Kumar, Madhubala, Prithviraj Kapoor, Durga Khote, Ajit||Film debut of singer Bade Ghulam Ali Khan in the songs "Shubh din aayo" and "Prem jogan ban ke"|
|Gunga Jumna||1961||Nitin Bose||Dilip Kumar, Vyjayantimala Bali||Lyrics of several songs were in Bhojpuri dialect|
|Son of India||1962||Mehboob Khan||Kamaljit, Kumkum, Sajid, Simi Garewal, Jayant|
|Mere Mehboob||1963||Harnam Singh Rawail||Rajendra Kumar, Sadhana, Ameeta, Ashok Kumar, Nimmi||Silver Jubilee|
|Leader||1964||Ram Mukherjee||Dilip Kumar, Vyjayantimala Bali|
|Dil Diya Dard Liya||1966||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Dilip Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Pran|
|Saaz Aur Awaaz||1966||Subodh Mukherji||Saira Banu, Kanhaiyalal, Joy Mukherjee|
|Palki||1967||S. U. Sunny||Rajendra Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Rehman, Johnny Walker||Also as Writer|
|Ram Aur Shyam||1967||Tapi Chanakya||Dilip Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Mumtaz, Pran, Nirupa Roy, Leela Mishra||Golden Jubilee|
|Aadmi||1968||A. Bhimsingh||Dilip Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Manoj Kumar|
|Saathi||1968||C. V. Sridhar||Rajendra Kumar, Vyjayantimala Bali, Simi Garewal|
|Sunghursh||1968||Harnam Singh Rawail||Dilip Kumar, Vyjayanthimala, Balraj Sahni|
|Ganwaar||1970||Naresh Kumar||Rajendra Kumar, Vyjayantimala Bali, Nishi|
|Pakeezah||1972||Kamal Amrohi||Raj Kumar, Meena Kumari, Ashok Kumar||Background Score and a few songs|
|Tangewala||1972||Naresh Kumar||Rajendra Kumar, Mumtaz, Sujit Kumar|
|My Friend||1974||M Rehman||Rajeev, Prema Narayan, Utpal Dutt, Jagdeep, Asit Sen, Tuntun|
|Sunehra Sansar||1975||Adurti Subba Rao||Rajendra Kumar, Hema, Mala Sinha|
|Aaina||1977||Kailasham Balachander||Mumtaz, Rajesh Khanna|
|Chambal Ki Rani||1979||Radhakant||Mahendra Sandhu, Dara Singh, Chand Usmani|
|Dharam Kanta||1982||Sultan Ahmed||Raj Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Jeetendra, Reena Roy, Rajesh Khanna, Sulakhshana Pandit|
|Paan Khaae Sainyyan Humaar||1985||Sujit Kumar||Sujit Kumar, Bandini, S. N. Tripathi||Bhojpuri film|
|Love and God||1986||K. Asif||Sanjeev Kumar, Nimmi, Pran|
|Dhwani||1988||A. T. Abu||Prem Nazir, Jayaram, Shobana||Malayalam film|
|Teri Payal Mere Geet||1989||Rehman Naushad||Govinda, Meenakshi Seshadri|
|Awaaz De Kahan Hai||1990||Sibte Hassan Rizvi||Bindu, Annu Kapoor, Satyendra Kapoor|
|Guddu||1995||Prem Lalwani||Shah Rukh Khan, Manisha Koirala, Mukesh Khanna|
|Taj Mahal: An Eternal Love Story||2005||Akbar Khan||Kabir Bedi, Sonia, Monisha Koirala|
|Hubba Khatoon||Unreleased||B. R. Chopra||Sanjay Khan, Zeenat Aman||"Jis Raat Ke Khwaab Aaye", sung by Rafi is released|
- Aathwan Sur - The Other Side of Naushad : This was a Ghazal album released in 1998 and had all its songs composed by Naushad and sung by Hariharan.
- Maalik (1958) Music Director for this film was Ghulam Mohammed (composer)
- Uran Khatola (1955)
- Babul (1950)
- Palki (1967)
- Teri Payal Mere Geet (1989)
Awards and recognitionEdit
- 1954: Filmfare Best Music Director Award – Baiju Bawra
- 1961: Bengal Film Journalists' Association's 'Best Music Director Award' for film Gunga Jumna (1961)
- 1975: "Naushad Ali", a 30-minute documentary film produced by Television Centre, Mumbai
- 1981: Dadasaheb Phalke Award
- 1984: Lata Mangeshkar Award (Madhya Pradesh State Government's Award)
- 1987: Amir Khusrow Award
- 1990: Best Music for The Sword of Tipu Sultan TV series
- 1992: Sangeet Natak Akademi Award
- 1992: Padma Bhushan Award for his lifetime contributions to Indian cinema
- 1993: Awadh Ratna Award by Government of Uttar Pradesh
- 1994: Maharashtra Gaurav Puruskar Award
- 2000: Screen Lifetime Achievement Award
- 2008: The Carter Road situated at Bandra, was renamed as Sangeet Samrat Naushad Ali Marg in his memory
- President of Cine Music Directors Association
- Chairman of Indian Performing Rights Society
- President of Maharashtra State Angling Association
- President of Alam-E-Urdu Conference (Delhi)
- The title of Special Executive Magistrate, Mumbai
- Profile of Naushad Ali on Encyclopedia Britannica website Retrieved 13 September 2019
- Karan Bali. "Profile and filmography of Naushad". upperstall.com website. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Bharatan, Raju (2013). Naushadnama: The Life and Music of Naushad. Hay House. p. 352. ISBN 9789381398630.
- "Naushad Ali: India's foremost music director". Arab News. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- Raju Bharatan (1 August 2013). "Preface". Naushadnama: The Life and Music of Naushad. Hay House, Inc. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-93-81398-63-0. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- Raju Bharatan (8 May 2006). "Naushad: Composer of the century". rediff.com website. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- Ganesh Anantharaman (January 2008). Bollywood Melodies: A History of the Hindi Film Song. Penguin Books India. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-0-14-306340-7. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- CHOPRA, SATISH. "The man, his music (Naushad)". The Hindu (newspaper). Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Lalit Mohan Joshi (8 June 2006). "Naushad Ali: Master of Bollywood film music magic". The Guardian (newspaper). Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- Jaisinghani, Bella (11 February 2010). "Rafi, Madhubala don't rest in peace here". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- M. A. Siddiqqi (27 March 2018). "Naushad: The musical journey of a musical man". Herald (Dawn newspaper). Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- Bharatan 2019.
- "Carter Rd becomes history, now Naushad Ali Rd". DNA (newspaper). 5 May 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Naushad.|
- Dr. Amjad Parvez (28 April 2011). "Naushad Ali – Music composer with rich melodies". Daily Times.
- Khayyam remembers Naushad
- Glowing tribute to Naushad: The Hindu (newspaper)
- Pandit Jasraj on Naushad: The Hindu (newspaper)
- Naushad on IMDb
- Naushad Ali Naushad Ali's Relationship with Mohammed Rafi
- Fan Site of Naushad
- Naushad's book Aathwan Sur
- Read a ghazal by Naushad
- Naushad's Letterhead