Military equipment of Israel

The military equipment of Israel includes a wide array of arms, armored vehicles, artillery, missiles, planes, helicopters, and warships. Many of these are purchased overseas and many are indigenous designs. Until the Six-Day War of 1967, the Israel Defense Forces' principal supplier was France; since then, it has been the United States government and defense companies. In the early 21st century, Israeli companies such as Soltam Systems began selling arms to the United States.[1] Much of the military equipment undergoes improvements in Israeli workshops. In addition to weapons purchased overseas and indigenous products, Israel also operates and maintains large stockpiles of Soviet-made equipment captured from Arab armies over the course of the Arab–Israeli conflict.[2]

Current equipment and weapons of the Israel Defense Forces, 2017

History

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the military equipment in the IDF was very diverse and inconsistent. This was due to the severe limitation in obtaining war materiel (the British Mandate and the Arab embargo). During the 1950s, the IDF began the process of standardization, relying primarily on French military equipment.

During the Six-Day War, the military cooperation with France ceased (the French Weapons Embargo of 1967) and Israel began to rely on American weaponry and on local research and development. During the 1980s and 1990s, the IDF increased its supplies of American arms, armor and aircraft, aiming for technological superiority over Arab countries, toward "a smaller, smarter army".

The reliance on locally manufactured military equipment has also greatly increased. Today, the overwhelming majority of Israel's military equipment is either manufactured in the United States (and often modified in Israeli workshops), or is developed and manufactured locally, with an increasing emphasis on advanced technology, including aerospace and electronics.

Local military development

Some of the military equipment developed locally have been:

Ground forces equipment

Small arms

Name Image Type Caliber Origin Notes
Pistols
Jericho 941[4]   Semi-automatic pistol 9×19mm   Israel Used by IDF and IDF Special Forces
Glock 17[5]   Semi-automatic pistol 9×19mm   Austria Used by IDF Special Forces
Glock 19[6]   Semi-automatic pistol 9×19mm   Austria Used by IDF Special Forces
Browning Hi-Power[6]   Semi-automatic pistol 9×19mm   Belgium
SIG Sauer P226[6]   Semi-automatic pistol 9×19mm Parabellum    Switzerland Used by IDF Special Forces.
Beretta M1951[4]   Semi-automatic pistol 9×19mm   Italy
Heckler & Koch P11[4]   Underwater pistol 7.62×36mm   Germany
Submachine guns
IMI Uzi[7]   Submachine gun 9×19mm   Israel Uzi, Mini-Uzi, Micro-Uzi, and Uzi-Pro used.
Ingram MAC-10[4]   Submachine gun 9×19mm   United States
IWI X95[4]   Submachine gun and bullpup assault rifle 9×19mm variant   Israel 9x19mm suppressed variant used by IDF Special Forces
Semi-automatic rifle
Suppressed Ruger 10/22[6][8]  
 
Semi-automatic rifle .22 LR   United States Adopted for non-lethal crowd control.
Assault rifles
Tavor X95 (Micro-Tavor Dor Gimel)   Bullpup assault rifle / carbine / service rifle 5.56x45mm   Israel Improved version of the X95 with longer barrel.
IWI X95 (Micro-Tavor)[4]   Bullpup Assault rifle / carbine 5.56x45mm   Israel Compact version of the TAR-21. Standard Issue rifle since 2009 replacing the TAR-21.
IWI Tavor TAR-21[4]   Assault rifle 5.56×45mm   Israel Cut from service as of 2009 and replaced by the X95.
M4A1 Carbine[4]   Carbine / assault rifle / service rifle 5.56×45mm   United States Standard Issue Assault Rifle along with M16, CAR-15, and X95 and used by Special Forces
M16A1[9]   Assault rifle 5.56×45mm   United States Standard Issue Assault Rifle along with the M4, CAR-15, M16A2 and X95. Most of the long-barreled rifles were modified to have short barrel and a telescoping stock, the rest are reserved for basic training and ceremonial issues
M16A2   Assault rifle 5.56×45mm   United States Standard Issue Assault Rifle along with the M4, CAR-15, M16A1 and X95. Most of the M16A2 is firing automatic, some to custom for DMR and rest are ceremonial issues.
CAR-15[6]   Assault rifle 5.56×45mm   United States Standard Issue Assault Rifle along with M4, M16A1, and X95
IMI Galil[4][7]   Assault rifle 5.56×45mm   Israel Used in limited numbers. Variants used are Galil AR and Galil SAR. Most Galil's have been replaced by the improved (Galil) IWI ACE.
IMI Micro Galil   Assault rifle 5.56×45mm   Israel Used in limited numbers. Highly compact version of the Galil. Most Galil's have been replaced by the improved (Galil) IWI ACE.
AKM[4][7][10]   Assault rifle 7.62×39mm   Soviet Union Captured from Arab armies over the course of the Arab–Israeli conflict and was used by Special Forces due to their high reliability.
AK-47[4][7][10]   Assault rifle 7.62×39mm   Soviet Union Captured from Arab armies over the course of the Arab–Israeli conflict and was used by Special Forces due to their high reliability.
Battle rifles
M14[4]   Battle rifle 7.62×51mm   United States Used in limited numbers by the IDF.
Light machine gun
IMI Negev[4]   Light machine gun 5.56×45mm   Israel Capable of firing semi-automatic or full-auto. The 5.56 variant features a unique dual feed system, it can accept 30 round STANAG magazines and an assault-box belt.
FN Minimi   Light machine gun 5.56×45mm NATO   Belgium Limited use in 1990–1997, replaced by Negev.
Medium machine gun
M1919 Browning   Medium machine gun .30-06 Springfield   United States
General-purpose machine guns
FN MAG[11]   General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm   Belgium Former Standard Issue to IDF Since 1960s to 1990s as a Main Machine Gun.
Negev NG7   General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm   Israel Capable of semi-automatic or full-automatic fire.
PKM[6]   General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR   Soviet Union Captured from Arab armies over the course of the Arab–Israeli conflict and used by Special Forces.
M60   General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm NATO   United States Limited use.
Heavy machine guns
Browning M2 (Makach 0.5)[4]   Heavy machine gun 12.7×99mm   United States Upgraded to M2HB-QCB
Shotguns
Remington 870[6]   Shotgun 12 Gauge   United States
Mossberg 500   Shotgun 12 Gauge   United States
Armsel Striker   Revolving Shotgun 12 Gauge   South Africa Used for riot control
Designated marksman rifles
M4A1 Kala Sa'ar   Designated marksman rifle 5.56×45mm   United States Accurized M4A1, used by "kala sa'ar" marksmen.
M16A2-E3[6] Designated marksman rifle 5.56×45mm   United States Accurized M16A2, disbanded.
SR-25[6]   Designated marksman rifle / sniper rifle 7.62×51mm   United States Used by IDF Special Forces. Also employed as a sniper rifle.
IMI Galatz   Designated marksman rifle 7.62×51mm   Israel Sniper variant of the Galil. Disbanded.
M89SR[6] Designated marksman rifle 7.62×51mm   Israel Bullpup accurized M14. Disbanded.
Tavor X-95L "Micro-Tavor Kala'im"   Designated marksman rifle 5.56×45mm   Israel Accurized Micro-Tavor X95 with longer barrel, used by "kala sa'ar" marksmen.
Sniper rifles
M24 SWS[6]   Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm   United States Standard-issued sniper rifle, achieves accuracy of 0.5 MOA with IMI ammo.
Mauser 86SR[6] Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm   Germany Used for counter-terrorism operations.
Barak (HTR 2000)   Long-range sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum   United States An IDF modified H-S Precision Pro Series 2000 HTR rifle
Barrett M82A1   Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×99mm   United States Used mainly by the Combat Engineering Corps and IDF Special Forces
McMillan TAC-50   Long range sniper rifle / anti-materiel rifle 12.7×99mm   United States Used by IDF Special Forces.
Barrett MRAD   Multi-role sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
.338 Lapua Magnum
  United States Used by Special Forces and also by Israeli Police elite CT unit YAMAM.
Hand grenades
M26A2   Fragmentation grenade n/a   Israel Based on the American M26 grenade
IDF M48   Stun grenade n/a   Israel Based on the American M84 stun grenade

Rocket and grenade launchers

Name Image Type Caliber Origin Notes
B-300   Shoulder-launched rocket 82 mm   Israel
Shipon   Shoulder-launched rocket 83 mm   Israel
M72 LAW   Shoulder-launched rocket 66 mm   United States
MATADOR   Shoulder-launched rocket 90 mm   Israel
  Singapore
M79[4]   Stand-alone grenade launcher 40 mm   United States Out of service
M203[4]   Under-barrel grenade launcher 40 mm   United States Usually mounted under an M16, M4, CAR-15, or X95. Mounted on X95's with longer barrels and large trigger guard instead of the standard pistol grip guard.
Mk 19[4]   Automatic grenade launcher 40 mm   United States
Mk 47 Striker   Automatic grenade launcher 40 mm   United States

Missiles

Name Image Type Origin Notes
Spike   Anti-tank missile   Israel
BGM-71 TOW   Anti-tank missile   United States
LAHAT   Anti-tank missile   Israel
MAPATS   Anti-tank missile   Israel
Nimrod   Long-range anti-tank missile   Israel
M47 Dragon   Anti-tank missile   United States Out of service

Vehicles

Name Image Type Number in service[12][13] Origin Notes
Main battle tanks
Merkava Mark IV   Main battle tank 330 active[12]
220 in storage[12]
  Israel
Merkava Mark III   Main battle tank 160 active[12]
570 in storage[12]
  Israel
Merkava Mark II   Main battle tank 370 in storage[12]   Israel
Guided missile carrier
Pereh   Guided missile carrier   United States
  Israel
Tank destroyer, retired from service in 2017
Armoured personnel carriers
M113   Armored personnel carrier 500 active[12]
5,000 in storage[12]
  United States
  Israel
Was used until the Battle of Shuja'iyya incident
IDF Achzarit   Heavy armored personnel carrier 215   Israel Based on the T-54 tank
Nagmachon   Heavy armored personnel carrier N/A   United Kingdom
  Israel
Based on the Centurion tank
Nakpadon   Heavy armored personnel carrier N/A   United Kingdom
  Israel
Based on the Centurion tank
Nakpuma Heavy combat engineering / armored personnel carrier N/A   United Kingdom
  Israel
Based on the Centurion tank
Namer   Heavy armored personnel carrier 120   Israel 531 planned to be in service by 2027. Based on the Merkava chassis.
Utility vehicles
Wolf   Armored vehicle 300   Israel
AIL Storm   Utility vehicle 700   Israel
HMMWV   Utility vehicle 2,000+   United States
MDT David   Utility vehicle 400   United Kingdom
  Israel
Based on the Land Rover Defender
Plasan Sand Cat   Utility Vehicle 79   Israel
Otokar Akrep Armored Vehicle 30   Turkey [14]
Trucks
AIL Abir   4×4 truck N/A   Israel
M35   8×12 truck N/A   United States
Unimog 437   Heavy truck N/A   Germany
HEMTT   8×8 heavy truck N/A   United States
Engineering vehicles
Puma   Heavy combat engineering vehicle N/A   United Kingdom
  Israel
Based on the Centurion Tank
Namer CEV   Heavy combat engineering vehicle N/A   Israel Based on the Merkava Tank
IDF Caterpillar D9   Combat armored bulldozer 175+   United States
  Israel
Bulldozer manufactured by Caterpillar Inc., military conversion and armor by Israel.
IDF Caterpillar Excavators   Armored tracked excavator N/A   United States
  Israel
Excavators manufactured by Caterpillar Inc., military conversion and armor by Israel.
IDF Caterpillar 966 Wheeled Loader   Armored wheeled loader N/A   United States
  Israel
Loaders manufactured by Caterpillar Inc., military conversion and armor by Israel.
M548 Alfa   Cargo and ammunition carrier N/A   United States
  Israel
Based on the M113
M60 AVLB   Armored bridge layer 10   United States
Nemmera Armored Recovery Vehicle N/A   Israel Based on the Merkava
M88   Armored recovery vehicle 25   United States
Nagmapop   Command and surveillance vehicle N/A   United Kingdom
  Israel
Based on the Centurion tank
AIL Desert Raider Dune Buggy N/A   Israel
VIPeR Unmanned Ground Vehicle N/A   Israel
Guardium   Unmanned ground vehicle N/A   Israel
Dawn Thunder / Black Thunder   Unmanned Armored Bulldozer N/A   United States
  Israel
Based on the IDF Caterpillar D9N[15]

Artillery

Name Image Type Number in service[13] Origin Notes
M109 Doher   155 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 600   United States
  Israel
Upgraded as the M109 Doher. Based on the M109A5. Replacement program initiated,[16] candidates include ATMOS 2000 and the Artillery Gun Module.[17] Used in limited numbers
Soltam M-71   155 mm towed howitzer 300   Israel
Soltam M-68   155 mm self-propelled howitzer 50   Israel In reserve
Pereh   Guided missile carrier / tank destroyer N/A   Israel Declassified June 2015, to be retired by the end of 2017.
M270 "Menatetz"   Multiple rocket launcher 48   United States
  Israel
Armed with several types of Israeli rockets: RAMAM, Ra'am Eithan (Strong Thunder) and Romach ("Lance", a guided rocket).
Cardom SP   120 mm self-propelled mortar 64   Israel
Soltam M-65   120 mm mortar 250   Israel
M113 Tamuz   Missile launching vehicle N/A   Israel Spike Missiles launched from an M113 chassis[18]
LAR-160   160 mm artillery rocket   Israel
Romach M270 MLRS Menatetz GPS-guided artillery rocket   Israel
Extended Range Artillery Rocket (EXTRA) Long-range artillery rocket   Israel 150 km range[19]
LORA   Ballistic missile   Israel

Air defense

Name Image Type Number in service[13] Origin Notes
FIM-43 Redeye   Shoulder-launched surface-to-air missile N/A   United States Out of service
FIM-92 Stinger   Shoulder-launched surface-to-air missile 500   United States
ZSU-23-4   Air defense vehicle 60[20]   Soviet Union
Captured from the Arab–Israeli conflict and out of service
Bofors L/70   40 mm Anti-aircraft gun N/A   Sweden Out of service
ZU-23-2   23 mm Anti-aircraft gun N/A   Soviet Union Captured from the Arab–Israeli conflict and out of service
TCM-20   20 mm Anti-aircraft gun N/A   France
   Switzerland
  Israel
Out of service
MIM-23 Hawk   Surface-to-air missile N/A   United States Out of service
MIM-104 Patriot Surface-to-air missile N/A   United States was upgraded to the GM+ "Yahalom" standard
Iron Dome   Air Defense Missile Battery / Anti-Rockets Missile 9+   Israel Intercepted hundreds of artillery records since declared operational in 2011.
David's Sling Medium- to long-range ABM/SAM N/A   Israel Medium- to long-range ABM with SAM capability
Arrow (Israeli missile) Anti-ballistic missile N/A   Israel Out of the atmosphere Anti-ballistic missile missile series

Air forces equipment

Note there are multiple sources and these provide different figures:
Aircraft Origin Type Versions
In Service
By INSS By FlightGlobal By IISS
Fighter aircraft
Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II   United States stealth multirole fighter F-35I "Adir" 9 50 order 75 total.[21]
Boeing F-15 Eagle   United States air superiority fighter F-15A "Baz"   52[22]   42[23] 16[24]
F-15C "Baz" 17[24]
F-15B "Baz"   16[23] 6[24]
F-15D "Baz" 11[24]
Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle   United States strike fighter F-15I "Ra'am" 25[22] 25[23] 25[24]
General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon   United States multirole fighter F-16A "Netz"   107[22]   63[23][25] 77[24]
F-16B "Netz" 16[24]
F-16C "Barak"   136[22] 77[23][25] 78[24]
F-16D "Barak" 49[23][25] 49[24]
F-16I "Sufa" 100[22] 99[23] 99[24]
Trainer aircraft
Grob G-120   Germany trainer aircraft G-120AI "Snunit" 27[22] 17[23] 17[24]
Beechcraft T-6 Texan II   United States trainer aircraft T-6A "Efroni" 19[22] 20[23] 20[24]
McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk   United States ground attack / trainer A-4N, TA-4H/J "Ayit" 20[22] 20[26] 46[24]
Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master   Italy transonic jet trainer M-346 "Lavi" 2 (30)[27]
Transport / Aerial refueling / Aerial firefighting / Utility / Signals intelligence / Maritime patrol / Airborne early warning (AEW)
Air Tractor AT-802   United States aerial firefighting AT-802F 8[22] 7[23] 3[24]
Beechcraft Bonanza   United States utility A-36 "Khofit" 22[22] 22[24]
Beechcraft Super King Air (C-12 Huron)   United States utility / transport / trainer B-200/T/CT "Tzofit"   29[22]   29[23] 22[24]
EW / ELINT / SIGINT RC-12D/K "Kookiya" 6[24]
IAI SeaScan   Israel maritime patrol 1124N "Shahaf" 3[22] 3[23] 3[24]
Gulfstream G550   United States SEMA G500 "Nahshon-Shavit" 3[22] 3[23] 3[24]
CAEW G550 "Nahshon-Eitam" 2[22] 2[23] 2[24]
Lockheed C-130 Hercules   United States tactical transport C-130E "Qarnaf"   12[22]   12[23] 5[24]
C-130H "Qarnaf" 6[24]
aerial refueling KC-130H "Qarnaf" 3[22] 4[23] 4[24]
Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules   United States tactical transport C-130J "Shimshon" - 1 (4)[28] -
Boeing 707   United States heavy transport / EW 707 "Re'em" 8[22] 1[23] 3[24]
aerial refueling KC-707 "Saknai" 5[22] 8[23] 7[24]
Helicopters
Bell AH-1 Cobra   United States attack helicopter AH-1"Tzefa" 33[22] 49[23] 47[24]
Eurocopter Panther   France maritime patrol AS-565SA "Atalef" 5[22] 6[23] 7[24]
Boeing AH-64 Apache   United States attack helicopter AH-64A "Peten" 30[22] 26[29] 27[24]
AH-64D "Saraph" 17[22] 22[29] 17[24]
Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion   United States heavy transport CH-53 "Yas'ur 2000"   37[22] 18[30]   26[24]
CH-53 "Yas'ur 2025" 5[30]
Sikorsky S-70 (UH-60 Black Hawk)   United States tactical transport S-70A / UH-60A/L "Yanshuf" 49[22] 48[23] 49[24]
Bell 206 (OH-58 Kiowa)   United States light transport / trainer 206B "Saifan" 18[23] 6[24]

Unmanned aerial vehicles

Weaponry

Naval forces equipment

Below are the IDF's active service watercraft. The year of service, speed, full load displacement, and crew members, are in parentheses.

Missile boats

Corvettes

Patrol boats

Support ships

Unmanned naval vehicles

Submarines

  •   Dolphin (1992; 11 kt, 20 kt underwater; 1,640 tons, 1,900 tons underwater; 30 crew members)

Commando boats

  •   Dolphin type underwater craft
  •   Maiale type underwater craft
  •   Snunit boat
  •   Zaharon boat
  •   Moulit boat
  •   Morena rigid-hull inflatable boat

Remote weapon systems

Space systems

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2010-08-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Matthew M. Aid (10 September 2013). "Exclusive: Does Israel Have Chemical Weapons Too?". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017. Its sensitivities were galvanized by the capture of large quantities of Soviet CW-related equipment during both the 1967 Arab-Israeli and the 1973 Yom Kippur wars.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2015-07-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009–2010. Jane's Information Group. pp. 36, 380, 897. ISBN 0-7106-2869-2.
  5. ^ Valpolini, Paolo (June 2009). "There are Two Types of Men in this World..." (PDF). Armada International (Online). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Israeli Special Forces Weapons Guide". Retrieved 2010-10-13.
  7. ^ a b c d Katz, Sam (1986). Israeli Defence Forces since 1973. Osprey Publishing. pp. 22, 56, 49. ISBN 0-85045-687-8.
  8. ^ "Ruger 10/22 Suppressed Sniper Rifle Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine" at ruger1022.com
  9. ^ John Pike (2003-12-17). "Israel's army phases out country's iconic Uzi submachine gun". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
  10. ^ a b Sweeney, Patrick (2005). The Gun Digest Book of the AR-15. Gun Digest Books. p. 131. ISBN 0-87349-947-6.
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  12. ^ a b c d e f g h IISS 2020, p. 356.
  13. ^ a b c "The Institute for National Security Studies", chapter Israel, 2010, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2015-08-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) September 20, 2010.
  14. ^ "Israel", Studies (PDF), The Institute for National Security, November 20, 2014, archived from the original (PDF) on November 24, 2015.
  15. ^ Page, Lewis (31 March 2009). "Israelis' invulnerable, 60-tonne robot bulldozer force to double". The Register. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  16. ^ BARBARA OPALL-ROME. "Gun Makers Gear Up for $1B Israeli Contest" DefenseNews, October 19, 2013. Accessed: 20 October 2013.
  17. ^ Israel Army wants to replace old 155 mm howitzer M109 with Soltam or AGM artillery system Archived 2015-07-26 at the Wayback Machine – Armyrecognition.com, 30 October 2013
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-02. Retrieved 2011-08-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-23. Retrieved 2016-08-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ "Jane's". IHS (Global) Limited. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  21. ^ "Three more F-35 fighter jets touch down in Israel". The times of israel. Archived from the original on 2017-05-28. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Israel", Studies (PDF), The Institute for National Security, May 8, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on September 7, 2012.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "World Air Forces 2014". Flight International. Flight global. December 5, 2013. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af The Military Balance 2014, International Institute for Strategic Studies, February 5, 2014, p. 326.
  25. ^ a b c "MiliCAS". Flight International (database). Flight global. July 27, 2012. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2012. Shows the Israeli air force has an active fleet of 325 F-16s, including 126 General Electric F110-100-powered C/D examples.
  26. ^ Arie Egozi (March 12, 2012). "Israel's M-346 selection fires up TOR joint venture". Flight International. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
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  28. ^ "Israel welcomes arrival of first C-130J transport - 4/9/2014 - Flight Global". Archived from the original on 2014-04-11. Retrieved 2014-11-08.
  29. ^ a b "Israeli Apache upgrade adds avionics pod". October 8, 2013. Archived from the original on October 8, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  30. ^ a b "Israel acquires surplus CH-53 helicopters for spares". January 25, 2013. Archived from the original on January 28, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2013.

Sources