Mk 19 grenade launcher
The Mk 19 grenade launcher (pronounced Mark 19) is an American 40 mm belt-fed automatic grenade launcher that was first developed during the Vietnam War. The first model (Mod 0) in 1966 was determined to be unreliable and unsafe, but a total of six Mod 1 launchers were successfully tested on U.S. Navy riverine patrol craft in the Mekong Delta in 1972. The Navy made further improvements to the weapon, resulting in the Mod 3 in 1976. The Mod 3 was adopted by the U.S. Army in 1983 and remains in service to the present day.
|Mk 19 grenade launcher|
A Mk 19 40 mm grenade launcher mounted on an M3 tripod
|Type||Automatic grenade launcher|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||See Users|
|Designer||Naval Ordnance Station Louisville|
|Manufacturer||Saco Defense Industries (now a division of General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems), Combined Service Forces, MKEK|
|Variants||Mk 19 Mod 0, Mk 19 Mod 1, Mk 19 Mod 2, Mk 19 Mod 3, Mk 19 Mod 4|
|Weight||77.6 pounds (35.2 kg) (empty, without accessories)|
|Length||43.1 inches (1,090 mm)|
|Barrel length||16.25 inches (413 mm)|
|Width||9.46 inches (240.4 mm)|
|Height||7.8 inches (199 mm)|
|Action||Blowback (Advanced primer ignition)|
|Rate of fire||40 rpm (sustained)
60 rpm (rapid)
360–390 rpm (cyclic)
|Muzzle velocity||750–790 feet per second (230–240 m/s) (average)|
|Effective firing range||1,500 m (1,600 yd)|
|Maximum firing range||2,212 m (2,419 yd)|
|Feed system||32- or 48-grenade belt|
The Mk 19 is a belt-fed, blowback-operated, air-cooled, crew-served, fully automatic weapon that is designed not to cook off. It fires 40 mm grenades at a cyclic rate of 325 to 375 rounds per minute, giving a practical rate of fire of 60 rounds per minute (rapid) and 40 rounds per minute (sustained). The weapon operates on the blowback principle, which uses the chamber pressure from each fired round to load and re-cock the weapon. The Mk 19 can launch its grenade at a maximum distance of 2,212 meters (2,419 yd), though its effective range to a point target is about 1,500 meters (1,600 yd), since the large rear leaf sight is only graduated as far. The nearest safe distance to launch the grenade is 310 meters in training and 75 meters in combat. Though the Mk 19 has a flash suppressor, it serves only to save the eyesight of its operator, not concealing the weapon's position. For night operation, a picatinny rail quadrant sight can be added for thermal and night vision optics.
The Mk 19A is a man-portable crew-served weapon that can fire from a tripod-mounted position or from a vehicle mount, with the latter being the preferred method, as the weapon alone weighs 77.6 pounds (35.2 kg). The primary ammunition for it is the high-explosive dual-purpose M430 grenade. On impact, the grenade can kill anyone within a radius of five meters, and wound them within a radius of 15 meters. It can also punch through 2 inches (5.1 cm) of rolled homogeneous armor with a direct hit (0-degree obliquity), which means it can penetrate most infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers. It is especially effective when used against enemy infantry formations. The ammunition comes in cans that hold a 32- or 48-grenade belt weighing 42 and 60 pounds (19 and 27 kg), respectively. Due to its low recoil and comparatively light weight, it has been adapted for use on many different platforms, including small attack boats, fast attack vehicles such as the Humvee (HMMWV), AAV and Stryker, military jeeps, and a large variety of naval mounts.
The Mk 19 automatic grenade launcher replaced the earlier Mk 18 hand-cranked multiple grenade launcher. The 40 mm ammunition used (40×53 mm) is not interchangeable with that used in the M203 (40×46 mm). The M203 ammunition develops a lower chamber pressure, and resultant lower muzzle velocity and range, compared to ammunition loaded for the Mk 19. The Mk 19 fires from an open bolt. The rounds are mechanically fed onto the bolt face with the pull of the charging handles. When the trigger is pressed, the bolt closes, and the firing pin is released. The recoil blows back the bolt, feeds a new round onto the bolt face, which pushes the expended casing off the bolt face.
Production of the Mk 19 is managed by Saco Defense Industries (now a division of General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems).
In November 2014, General Dynamics entered into an agreement with Advanced Material Engineering Pte Ltd, a subsidiary of Singapore Technologies Kinetics, to manufacture 40 mm high-velocity airburst ammunition for the U.S. military. The 40 mm airburst grenade uses a programmable, time-based fuse that computes and programs the detonation time into it, which counts down once fired to zero to detonate at the intended target point. The airburst ammunition is compatible with the Mk 19, which would give it greater effectiveness and lethality, particularly against concealed and defilade targets.
The U.S. Army plans to introduce several new features to the Mk 19 in an upgrade package that could be introduced by late 2017. Initiatives include: increased muzzle velocity through a less resistant barrel; increased cyclic rate from an improved profile for the vertical cam to reduce the force needed to charge the weapon; enhancing reliability with a redesigned round-positioning block to decrease the chance of misfires; increased durability and shortened re-assembly time after maintenance from a new cocking cam and lever; and an updated mechanical sight utilizing up-to-date ammunition ballistic data to aid accuracy.
- Argentina: Argentine Marines.
- Morocco:Moroccan Army.
- Brazil: Used by the Brazilian Marine Corps.
- Croatia: MATAV armored vehicles armed with Mk 19 grenade launcher, first seen in public at recent Croatian Army Parade. Initially Croatia purchased 32 weapons and kits, the number has since gone up.
- Egypt: Manufactured locally.
- Israel: Adopted by the Israeli Defence Forces (under the name "Maklar", for mikla rimonim or "grenade machinegun"), to be fielded in infantry and mechanized units. The Mk 19 was formerly manufactured locally.
- Mexico: Used extensively by the Mexican Army in the Mexican drug war.
- Pakistan: Used by the Pakistan Army.
- Saudi Arabia
- Sweden: Designated Grsp 92. Used by Kustjägarna and Amfibiebataljonen and also by the 31st Airborne Battalion
- Thailand: Used by Royal Thai Marines (Mounted on AAV-7A1).
- Turkey: Produced under licence by MKEK. Used by Turkish Land Forces.
- United States: Currently in widespread use throughout the U.S. Armed Forces.
- "Report: Profiling the Small Arms Industry - World Policy Institute - Research Project". World Policy Institute. November 2000. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- #Devon (12 August 2017). "kurds attack mountain top Turkish positions pt 2 Daring close quarters battle against regime" – via YouTube.
- "Özel birlikler Kato'yu PKK'ya dar etti (Special troops deny the Kato [Mountain] to the PKK)". Gundem.milliyet.com.tr. Milliyet. 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
- Kênh Tổng Hợp (27 February 2017). "CHIẾN SỰ MOSUL. ĐỈNH ĐIỂM KHỐC LIỆT 02 2017" – via YouTube.
- "SDF Preparing 'Security Forces' To Keep Control Over Raqqa". southfront.org. 25 May 2017.
- "MKEK - Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi Kurumu". mkek.gov.tr. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- "Weapons: Mk19 Gets A Brain". Strategypage.com. 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
- "Field Manual 3-22.27 (FM 23.27) MK 19, 40-mm GRENADE MACHINE GUN, MOD 3" (PDF). Department of the Army. November 2003. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- Tucker, Spencer C. (20 May 2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 431. ISBN 978-1-85109-961-0.
- General Dynamics to manufacture ST Kinetics' 40mm High Velocity Air Burst Ammunition - Armyrecognition.com, 20 November 2014
- Army building a better grenade machine gun - Armytimes.com, 2 July 2016
-  Archived July 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Armada Argentina - official site". Estado Mayor General de la Armada. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12.
- Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
- "EDA - Morocco". Defense Security Cooperation Agency.
- "Bangladesh Navy Special Warfare Diving And Salvage (SWADS)". Bdmilitary.com. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
- "Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais adquire 23 novos CLAnfs - Noticias Infodefensa América". infodefensa.com. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- http://www.hrvatski-vojnik.hr/cache/fdgallery/5b2eef04df_mimohod-b-tehnika-4_750x550.jpg[permanent dead link]
- "A new generation of AGLs". Thefreelibrary.com. 2002-04-01. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
- "Greece Land Forces". Armyrecognition.com. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
- See https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of_Honduras
- "Great Prophet 5 Maneuvers (5)". uskowioniran.com. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- Miles, Donna (April 8, 2009). "Gates, Lebanese Defense Minister Explore Expanding Bilateral Relationship". American Forces Press Service - DefenseLink News. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- "Pakistan Army".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-11. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
- Army (24 January 2012). "U.S. Army Weapons Systems 2013-2014". Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 17 March 2018 – via Google Books.
- Janq Designs. "Special Operations.Com". Special Operations.Com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-31. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
- Svensk, Henrik. "Granatspruta 40mm Grsp" (in Swedish). Soldf.com. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
- "Bu Silah Kato'yu PKK'ya Dar Etti". anahaberyorum.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. Retrieved 5 November 2016.