M113 armored personnel carrier
The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier (APC) that was developed and produced by the Food Machinery Corp (FMC). The M113 was sent to USAREUR to replace the mechanized infantry's M59 APCs in the 1961/62 time frame. The M113 was first tried out in combat in April 1962 after the United States provided the South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) with heavy weaponry such as the M113, under the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) program. Eventually, the M113 was the most widely used armored vehicle of the U.S. Army in the Vietnam War, earning the nickname 'Green Dragon'[dubious ] by the Viet Cong as it was used to break through heavy thickets in the midst of the jungle to attack and overrun enemy positions. It was largely known as an "APC" or an "ACAV" (armored cavalry assault vehicle) by the allied forces.
|M113 armored personnel carrier|
A U.S. Army M113 of 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment provides overwatch while conducting recon operations during exercise Allied Spirit at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany in 2015.
|Type||Armored personnel carrier|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||See Operators|
|No. built||≈80,000 (all variants)|
|Variants||Numerous, see text|
|Mass||12.3 tonnes (13.6 short tons; 12.1 long tons)|
|Length||4.863 metres (15 ft 11.5 in)|
|Width||2.686 metres (8 ft 9.7 in)|
|Height||2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in)|
|Armor||5083 Aluminium Alloy 28–44 millimetres (1.1–1.7 in)|
|M2 Browning machine gun|
|varies (see text)|
|Engine||Detroit Diesel 6V53T, 6-cylinder diesel engine|
275 hp (205 kW)
|Suspension||torsion bar, 5 road wheels|
|480 km (300 mi)|
|Speed||67.6 km/h (42.0 mph), 5.8 km/h (3.6 mph) swimming|
The M113 introduced new aluminum armor that made the vehicle much lighter than earlier vehicles; it was thick enough to protect the crew and passengers against small arms fire but light enough that the vehicle was air transportable and moderately amphibious. In the U.S. Army, the M113 series have long been replaced as front-line combat vehicles by the M2 and M3 Bradleys, but large numbers are still used in support roles such as armored ambulance, mortar carrier, engineer vehicle, and command vehicle. The U.S. Army's heavy brigade combat teams are equipped with approximately 6,000 M113s and 4,000 Bradleys.
The M113's versatility spawned a wide variety of adaptations that live on worldwide, and in U.S. service. These variants together currently represent about half of U.S. Army armored vehicles. To date, it is estimated that over 80,000 M113s of all types have been produced and used by over 50 countries worldwide, making it one of the most widely used armored fighting vehicles of all time. The Military Channel's Top Ten series named the M113 the most significant infantry vehicle in history.
The U.S. Army planned to retire the M113 family of vehicles by 2018, seeking replacement with the GCV Infantry Fighting Vehicle program, but now replacement of the M113 has fallen to the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) program. Thousands of M113s continue to see combat service in the Israel Defense Forces, although as of 2014 the IDF was seeking to gradually replace many of its 6,000 M113s, with Namer APCs.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 U.S. Army replacement plans
- 5 Basic variants
- 6 Derivatives
- 7 Operators
- 8 See also
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The M113 was developed by Food Machinery Corp. (FMC), which had produced the earlier M59 and M75 Armored personnel carriers. The M113 bears a very strong resemblance to both of these earlier vehicles. The M75 was too heavy and expensive to be useful, as its weight precluded amphibious use and transport by air. The lightened M59 addressed both of these problems, but ended up with too little armor, and was unreliable as a result of efforts to reduce its cost.
The army was looking for a vehicle that combined the best features of both designs, the "airborne armored multi-purpose vehicle family" (AAM-PVF). of all-purpose, all-terrain armored fighting vehicles FMC had been working with Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Co. in the late 1950s to develop suitable aluminum armor. It was known that use of this armor could produce a vehicle that provided the protection of the M75 and the low weight and mobility of the M59.
FMC responded with two proposals; two versions of the aluminum T113—a thickly and a more thinly-armored one, along with the similar but mostly steel T117. The thickly-armored version of the T113 - effectively the prototype of the M113 - was chosen because it weighed less than its steel competitor, whilst offering the same level of protection. An improved T113 design, the T113E1, was adopted by the U.S. Army in 1960 as the "M113". A diesel prototype, T113E2, was put into production in 1964 as the "M113A1", and quickly supplanted the gasoline-engined M113. In 1994, FMC transferred the M113's production over to its newly formed defense subsidiary, United Defense. Then in 2005, United Defense was acquired by BAE Systems.
The M113 was developed to provide a survivable and reliable light tracked vehicle able to be air-lifted and air-dropped by C-130 and C-141 transport planes. The original concept was that the vehicle would be used solely for transportation, bringing the troops forward under armor and then having them dismount for combat, after which the M113 would retreat to the rear. Entering service with the U.S. Army in 1960, the M113 required only two crewmen, a driver and a commander, and carried 11 passengers inside the vehicle. Its main armament was a single .50-caliber (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine gun operated by the commander.
On 30 March 1962, the first batch of 32 M113s arrived in Vietnam, and were sent to two Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) mechanized rifle companies, each equipped with 15 of the APCs. On 11 June 1962, the two mechanized units were fielded for the first time. During the Battle of Ap Bac in January 1963, at least fourteen of the exposed .50 caliber gunners aboard the M113s were killed in action, necessitating modifications to improve crew survivability. Makeshift shields formed from metal salvaged from the hulls of sunken ships were soon fitted to the carriers, affording better protection. However it was found that this material could be penetrated by small arms fire, so subsequent shields were constructed from scrapped armored vehicles.
The ARVN 80th Ordnance Unit in South Vietnam developed the shield idea further and commenced engineering general issue gun shields for the M113. These shields became the predecessor to the standardized armored cavalry assault vehicle (or ACAV) variant and were issued to all ARVN mechanized units during the early 1960s. The ARVNs had modified the M113s to function as "amphibious light tanks" and not as battle taxis as U.S. designers had intended. Instead of an armored personnel carrier, the ARVN used the carried infantry as extra "dismountable soldiers" in "an oversized tank crew". These "ACAV" sets were eventually adapted to U.S. Army M113s with the arrival of the army's conventional forces in 1965. The vehicles continued to operate in the role of a light tank and reconnaissance vehicle, and not as designed in theater. Still, the M113 could carry 11 infantrymen inside, with two crewmen operating it.
The U.S. Army, after berating the South Vietnamese for flouting battle doctrine, came out with their own ACAV version. This more or less standardized ACAV kit included shields and a circular turret for the .50-caliber M2 machine gun in the track commander (TC) position, two M60 machine guns with shields for the left and right rear positions, and "belly armor"—steel armor bolted from the front bottom extending 1/2 to 2/3 of the way towards the bottom rear of the M113. The two rear machine gunners could fire their weapons while standing inside the rectangular open cargo hatch. This transformed the M113 into a fighting vehicle, but the vehicle still suffered from its lightly armored configuration, having never been designed for such a role. Canada also adopted the ACAV kits when employing the M113A2 during peacekeeping operations in the Balkans in the 1990s.
In order to improve the fighting ability of the mounted troops, a number of experiments were carried out in the 1960s under the MICV-65 project, which aimed to develop a true infantry fighting vehicle rather than an armored personnel carrier. Pacific Car and Foundry entered the steel-armored XM701, but this proved to be too slow and too heavy to be airmobile, even in the C-141. FMC entered the XM734, which was largely the ACAV M113, but whereas the M113 seated the troops facing inward on benches along the walls, the XM734 sat them facing outwards on a central bench. Four gun ports and vision blocks were added on each side to allow the seated troops to fire even while under cover. Although neither the XM701 or XM734 were deemed worthwhile to produce, FMC continued development of their version as the XM765 advanced infantry fighting vehicle (AIFV). The AIFV was sold to a number of third party-users in the 1970s, including the Netherlands, the Philippines and Belgium.
Modified versions of the Vietnam War ACAV sets have been deployed to Iraq (formerly referred to as "Southwest Asia" within the U.S. military) to equip the standard M113s still in service. The circular .50 caliber gun shields have been modified, while the rear port and starboard gun stations have been deleted for service in that region. Some of these modified vehicles have been utilized for convoy escort duties.
The M113 has relatively light armor, but it can be augmented with add-on steel plates for improved ballistic protection. Also, reactive armor and slat armor can be added for protection against rocket-propelled grenade. Windowed gunshields developed by an armorer in Iraq is reminiscent of ACAV vehicle modifications so effective in Southeast Asia (Vietnam War).
Band tracks made of rubber are in use by Canadian and other forces to enable stealthy operation, less damage to paved roads, higher speed, less maintenance, access to terrain where operation of wheeled vehicles is impractical and less vibration and rolling resistance.
Most of the 13,000 M113s that are still in U.S. Army service have been upgraded to the A3 variant. The current U.S. Army M113 fleet includes a mix of M113A2 and A3 variants and other derivatives equipped with the most recent RISE (reliability improvements for selected equipment) package. The standard RISE package includes an upgraded propulsion system (turbocharged engine and new transmission), greatly improved driver controls (new power brakes and conventional steering controls), external fuel tanks, and 200-amp alternator with four batteries. Additional A3 improvements include the incorporation of spall liners and provision for mounting external armor.
The future M113A3 fleet is planned to include a number of vehicles that will have high speed digital networks and data transfer systems. The M113A3 digitization program includes applying appliqué hardware, software, and installation kits and hosting them in the M113 FOV.
The M113 has also been adopted to replace the aging fleet of visually modified M551s being used to simulate Russian-made combat vehicles at the U.S. Army's National Training Center in Fort Irwin, California. These M113s, like the M551s they replaced, have also been modified to resemble enemy tanks and APCs, such as the T-80 and BMP-2. One of the advantages of the M113 being used to simulate the latter is that the infantry squad can now ride inside the simulated BMP instead of in a truck accompanying a tank masquerading as one, as was often the case with the M551s.
The M113 has received a variety of nicknames over the years. The South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) called it the "green dragon". United States troops tended to refer to the M113 simply as a "113" (spoken as "one-one-three"), a "track" or an "ACAV". The Israel Defense Forces employ the M113 in many different variants, all designed in Israel, and has given each of them official names, from the baseline "Bardelas" (lit. Cheetah) to the "Nagmash" (Hebrew acronym equivalent to "APC"), "Nagman", and "Kasman" variants for urban combat up to the "Zelda" and "Zelda 2", which are fitted with ERA-suites. The Australian Army refers to its M113A1s as "buckets", "bush taxis" and modified M113A1s fitted with 76 mm turrets as "beasts". The German Army has various nicknames, depending on location and branch of service, including "elephant shoe", "Tank Wedge" and "bathtub".
While some claim that the M113 has been nicknamed the "Gavin" (after General James M. Gavin), this is not an official designation. Rather it was a private effort by many leading individuals like retired General David Grange to have the name adopted. One observer said
In more than 30 years working in the defense industry, I have never, never heard anybody use the name "Gavin" for the M-113. Not in the U.S. nor in any of the many countries that use the vehicle. Not in the military forces, not in the companies that build and equip it, not in the groups that retrofit and repair it. This usage appears not only to be "unofficial", it is entirely fictional and I believe that you may have been the victim of a hoax or deliberate disinformation.
The basic M113 armored personnel carrier can be fitted with a number of weapon systems. The most common weapon fit is a single .50 caliber M2 machine gun. However, the mount can also be fitted with a 40 mm Mk 19 automatic grenade launcher. A number of anti-tank weapons could be fitted to the standard variant: the U.S. Army developed kits that allowed the M47 Dragon and BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missile systems to be mounted. In the case of the M47, the system mated to the existing machine gun mount, without having to remove the machine gun. This allowed the commander to use both weapons. A large array of turrets and fixed mounts are available to mount high explosive cannon ranging from 20 mm to 105 mm on to the M113 series, making them function as assault guns and fire support; while in many cases still having room inside to carry dismounted infantry or cavalry scouts.
The M113 is built of 5083 aircraft-quality aluminum alloy. Aluminium alloy is fairly durable, but it still requires nearly three times the thickness of steel for an equivalent level of protection, meaning it was only designed for all-around 7.62mm and shell splinter protection. The M113A3 could also equip applique armor that would give it protection from 14.5mm threats and landmines. In comparison, a modern APC such as the Stryker has all-around 7.62mm armor-piercing protection, plus 14.5 mm protection on the front, sides, and rear and a protection against antipersonnel mines.
Its weight allows the use of a relatively small engine to power the vehicle, a Detroit 6V53 V6 two-stroke diesel engine of 318 cubic inches (5,210 cc) with an Allison TX-100-1 three-speed automatic transmission. This allows the vehicle to carry a large payload cross-country and to be transported by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. Original production M113s can swim without deploying flotation curtains, using only a front-mounted trim vane; they are propelled in the water by their tracks.
The Vietnam War was the first combat opportunity for "mechanized" infantry, a technically new type of infantry with its roots in the armored infantry of World War II, now using the M113 armored personnel carrier. In addition, armored cavalry squadrons in Vietnam consisted largely of M113s, after replacing the intended M114 in a variety of roles, and armor battalions contained M113s within their headquarters companies, such as the maintenance section, medical section, vehicle recovery section, mortar section, and the scout (reconnaissance) section. United States Army mechanized infantry units in Vietnam were fully equipped with the M113 APC/ACAV, which consisted of one headquarters company and three line companies, normally with an authorized strength of approximately 900 men. Ten U.S. mechanized infantry battalions were deployed to Vietnam from 1965 until their departure in 1972.[Notes 1]
Company D, 16th Armor, 173rd Airborne Brigade was the first U.S. Army armor unit deployed to Vietnam. It originally consisted of three platoons of M113s and a platoon of 90mm M56 Scorpion self-propelled anti-tank guns (SPAT). It was the only independent armor company in the history of the U.S. Army. Upon the company's arrival in Vietnam, a fourth line platoon was added; this was equipped with M106 4.2 in. mortar carriers (modified M113s). The mortar platoon often operated with Brigade infantry units to provide indirect fire support. It also deployed at times as a dismounted infantry unit. The remaining SPATS platoon was reequipped with M113s in late 1966 and the mortar platoon was deactivated in early 1967. From early 1967, D/16th had three line platoons equipped with M113s and eventually, its diesel version, the M113A1. It also standardized in late 1968 with three machine guns per track, one M2 .50 caliber and two M60 machine guns mounted on each side. After several years, the machine gun array varied considerably from APC to APC. The company conducted search and destroy missions, road and firebase security. Twenty-five D/16th paratroopers were killed in action and many more were wounded during the course of the war. Sixteenth Division's largest battle took place on 4 March 1968 at North Tuy Hoa. "During the day, the company lost 5 men killed, 16 wounded, and 3 missing (who are believed dead as two unrecogizable [sic] bodies were found). The enemy took a much greater loss. An estimated 2 enemy battalions, 85th Main Force (VC) and the 95th NVA Regiment, were rendered ineffective as they had 297 KIAs, with d-16 Armor receiving credit for killing 218." The revised official count for D/16 was 8 KIA and 21 WIA. The company commander, Captain Robert Helmick, was awarded the DSC, and many D/16th soldiers earned awards for valor. Sixteenth Division was awarded a Meritorious Unit Award for its actions in Vietnam. It was deactivated in 1969 and the company's M113s were distributed to E Company, 17th Cavalry, 173rd Airborne Brigade.
The M113s were instrumental in conducting Reconnaissance in force (RIFs), search and destroy missions, and large invasions (incursions) such as the U.S. invasion of Cambodia on 1 May 1970 and later Laos (Operation Lam Son 719) in 1971; all of which used the M113 as the primary work horse for moving the ground armies. While operating with cavalry and armor units, the M113s often worked in conjunction with U.S. M48 Patton and M551 Sheridan tanks. During the Vietnam War, U.S. Army gun trucks, along with V-100 armored cars, conducted convoy escorts for military traffic.
The USAF used M113 and M113A1 ACAV vehicles in USAF security police squadrons, which provided air base ground defense support in Vietnam. Also, M113s were supplied to the ARVN. One notable ARVN unit equipped with the M113 APC, the 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron, earned the Presidential Unit Citation. Additional M113s were supplied to the Cambodian Khmer National Armed Forces, equipped with a turret for the machine gun and a M40 recoilless rifle mounted on the roof.
The Australian Army also used the M113 in Vietnam. After initial experiences showed that the crew commander was too vulnerable to fire, the Australians tried a number of different gun shields and turrets, eventually standardizing with the Cadillac-Cage T-50 turret fitted with two .30 cal Browning machine guns, or a single .30-single .50 combination. Other turrets were tried as were various gun shields, the main design of which was similar to the gun shield used on the U.S. M113 ACAV version.
In addition, the Australians operated an M113 variant fitted with a Saladin armored car turret, with a 76 mm gun as a fire support vehicle, or FSV, for infantry fire support. This has now also been removed from service.
Subsequent to Vietnam all Australian M113 troop carriers were fitted with the T50 turret. The FSV was eventually phased out and replaced with a modernized version known as an "MRV" (medium reconnaissance vehicle). The MRV featured a Scorpion turret with 76 mm gun, improved fire control, and passive night vision equipment.
Regiments using the M113 included former Citizens' Military Forces (CMF) units like the 4/19th Prince of Wales Light Horse Regiment (Armoured Reconnaissance) and Regular units such as 2ns Cavalry regiment (Armoured Reconnaisdsance) and 3/4th Cavalry Regiment (APC Regiment) An Armoured Reconnaissance Troop consisted of Alpha Track - Charlie Track (M113 LRV) Bravo - Delta Track (M113 MRV) Echo Track (M113 APC) with Assault Section (Armoured Infantry) later known as Scouts... Light Reconnaissance Vehicle (LRV) - 50/30 cal MG in Cadillac-Cage T-50 turret Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) - 30/30 cal MG in Cadillac-Cage T-50 turret Medium Reconnaissance Vehicle (MRV) - Saladin Turret (later Scorpion turret) - formerly known as a Fire Support Vehicle
The Israel Defense Forces are the second largest user of the M113 after the United States, with over 6000 of the vehicles in service.
In 1967 some Jordanian M113 were captured in the West Bank during the Six-Day War and were integrated into the Israeli Army. In 1970 Israel started to receive the better armored M113A1 to replace the antiquated half-tracks. The IDF M-113s were armed with M2 HB machine guns, and two MAG 7.62 mm machine guns on either side of the upper crew compartment door.
The M113 took part in the Yom Kippur War in October 1973, when the IDF was equipped with 448 M113s that saw action on the Sinai and Golan fronts. They proved inadequate for direct fighting due to their poor armor protection. In the Battle of Buq'atta most of the 7th Recon Company was wiped out while trying to assault Syrian commandos with their M-113s. They were used by the IDF in the 1978 South Lebanon conflict. In the 1982 Lebanon War, they saw heavy action. PLO ambushes with RPGs caused extensive casualties because of the tendency of the M113's aluminum armor to catch on fire after being hit by anti-tank weapons. Israeli infantrymen being ferried by M113s learned to quickly dismount and fight on foot when engaged. By the time of the Siege of Beirut, M113s were only used to carry supplies to the front line, always stopping at least 100 meters from enemy lines. M113s were subsequently used by both the IDF and the South Lebanon Army during the South Lebanon conflict.
The IDF utilized M113s during the First Intifada and the Second Intifada. In May 2004, two fully laden IDF M113s were destroyed by IEDs in the Gaza Strip, killing 11 soldiers, all those inside the vehicles on both occasions. This became known in Israel as the "APC disaster." The vulnerability of the M113 armored personnel carrier to IEDs and RPGs led the IDF to later begin to develop the Namer APC. M113s were used again in the 2006 Lebanon War and Operation Cast Lead.
In 2014, during the first wave of the IDF's ground incursion into Gaza in Operation Protective Edge, a Hamas RPG-29 destroyed a fully loaded M113 in Gaza during the Battle of Shuja'iyya, killing all seven Golani Brigade soldiers inside the vehicle. As a result, the IDF faced calls from the Israeli public to build more Namer APCs over the next decade and to gradually reduce the number of M113s used in its future combat operations. A group of 30 Israeli reserve soldiers subsequently notified their commanders that they would refuse to enter the Gaza Strip in M113s.
The Israel Defense Forces still operates large numbers of the M113, maintaining a fleet of 6,000 of the vehicles. On numerous occasions since their introduction in the late 1960s, the IDF's M113s have proven vulnerable to modern anti-tank missiles, IEDs, and RPGs, resulting in the deaths of many Israeli soldiers riding inside the vehicles. The IDF has nonetheless been unable to replace the use of them in combat operations, due to budget constraints in equipping its large mechanized infantry regiments. Israel is also prototyping the Eitan (Hebrew for steadfast), an eight-wheeled armored fighting vehicle to replace their M113s. Designed to serve alongside the tracked Namer, the Eitan is planned to be cheaper and lighter, at 35 tons, incorporating an active protection system and a turret. They are expected to begin replacing the M113 starting in 2020. However, due to the slow rate of production of replacement APCs, the IDF is expected to be dependent on the M113 well into the 2020s. The IDF has also increased production of Namer APCs to replace the M113.
M113s have been adopted by numerous law enforcement agencies. An M113 belonging to the Midland County Sheriff's Department was used in the 2008 raid of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints compound. The Osceola County, FL Sheriff's Office also uses one for its SWAT team.
U.S. Army replacement plansEdit
The U.S. Army stopped buying M113s in 2007, with 6,000 vehicles remaining in the inventory.
The M113 will now be replaced by the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) program. Some 2,897 vehicles in five mission roles are set to take its place at the brigade level and below within armored brigades. However, the AMPV program is not developing a vehicle to replace the M113 in supporting echelons above brigade level, which will have different requirements. BAE Systems submitted a version of the Bradley fighting vehicle for the AMPV, while General Dynamics has offered the Stryker for filling the M113's roles in rear-echelon units outside of armored brigades removed from frontline fighting, and Navistar Defense has offered an upgraded version of the Maxxpro MRAP for units above brigade level as well.
The AMPVs are to be produced at a rate of around 180 vehicles per year, enough to equip 1.3 armored brigades. With 12 brigades to modernize, the M113 is not planned be entirely replaced in armored brigades until the late 2020s. With studies on what vehicle to replace M113s with in rear-echelon units ongoing, the M113 is not likely to be phased out of U.S. Army service until after 2030, over 70 years after entering service.
The Army plans to convert four M113s into unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) by late 2019 to serve in experimentation roles to test unmanned movement and combat concepts prior to the fielding of purpose-built robotic combat vehicles, planned by 2028.
Starting in 1964, the gasoline engine was replaced with a 215 hp (160 kW) 6V-53 Detroit Diesel engine, to take advantage of the better fuel economy and the reduced fire hazard of the diesel engine. The suffix A1 was used on all variants to denote a diesel engine, i.e. an M106A1 was an M106 mortar carrier equipped with a diesel engine.
In 1979, further upgrades were introduced. Engine cooling was improved by switching the locations of the fan and radiator. Higher-strength torsion bars increased ground clearance, and shock absorbers reduced the effects of ground strikes. Armored fuel tanks were added externally on both sides of the rear ramp, freeing up 0.45 cubic metres (16 cu ft) of internal space. The weight of the M113A2 was increased to 11,740 kilograms (25,880 lb). Because the added weight affected its freeboard when afloat, it was no longer required to be amphibious. Four-tube smoke grenade launchers were also added. The suffix A2 is used on all variants to denote upgrade to A2 standard.
In 1987, further improvements for "enhanced (battlefield) survival" were introduced. This included a yoke for steering instead of laterals, a more powerful engine (the turbocharged 6V-53T Detroit Diesel), external fuel tanks and internal spall liners for improved protection. The suffix A3 is used on all variants to denote upgrade to A3 standard.
- M113 armored cavalry assault vehicle (ACAV) variant
The "armored cavalry assault vehicle" or "ACAV", was a concept and field modification pioneered by the ARVN in 1963 during the Vietnam War. The ARVN troops utilized the M113 armored personnel carrier as an infantry fighting vehicle, and more often than not, as a light tank by fighting mounted rather than as a "battle taxi" as dictated by U.S. Army doctrine.
After it was found that the commander and cargo hatch positions were extremely exposed, and hence the commander and troops were vulnerable to enemy fire, South Vietnamese engineers thought out a simple and cheap remedy to this problem: Initially, field expedient shields and mounts were made from sunken ships, but this was soft metal and could be penetrated by small arms fire. Then armor plate from scrapped armored vehicles was used; this worked well, and by the end of 1964 all ARVN ACAVs were equipped with gun shields. For the U.S. Army, ACAV sets were produced industrially in Okinawa for the 12.7 millimetres (0.50 in) machine gun, and rear aft and starboard M60 machine gun positions. Finally, the ARVN's ACAV modifications were adopted by the U.S. Army in Vietnam, and by 1965 the full ACAV set was mass-produced in the U.S. The kit included shields and circular turret armor for the commander's M2 12.7 mm machine gun, and two additional 7.62 mm M60 machine guns, again with shields, fitted on either side of the top cargo hatch. This kit could be retrofitted to any M113. ACAV sets were sometimes fitted to the M106 mortar carrier, but the different rear hatch found on this vehicle required the left M60 machine gun to be fitted to the extreme rear instead of the side. Many kits were added in the field, but at least in the case of the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, the vehicles had their ACAV sets installed in the U.S. prior to their deployment to Vietnam in 1966 from Fort Meade, Maryland. Additional armor in the form of a mine protective kit under the hull was also frequently fitted.
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A huge number of M113 variants have been created, ranging from infantry carriers to nuclear missile carriers. The M113 has become one of the most prolific armored vehicles of the second half of the 20th century, and continues to serve with armies around the world into the 21st century. Not without its faults, the otherwise versatile chassis of the M113 has been used to create almost every type of vehicle imaginable. Few vehicles ever created can claim the application to such a wide range of roles.
- M58 Wolf system
A smoke screen generator vehicle
A mortar carrier armed with an M30 mortar 106.7mm (4.2 inch, or "Four-deuce") mounted on a turntable in the rear troop compartment. On this variant, the single hatch over the rear troop compartment was exchanged for a three-part circular hatch. The mortar could be fired from the vehicle, but could also be fired dismounted. Currently, the U.S. Army mortar carrier is the M106 upgraded to A3 standard and armed with an M121 120mm mortar, a variant of the M120 mortar
Armed with an M121 120mm mortar, a variant of the M120 mortar.
Another mortar carrier, basically an M106 armed with an M29 81mm mortar
Variant equipped with a turret armed with a flamethrower and a .50 caliber machine gun. These vehicles are no longer used by the U.S. Army. Vehicles upgraded to A1 standard were known as "M132A1s".
Anti-tank variant equipped with a TOW ATGM launcher
Anti-aircraft variant equipped with a turret armed with a variant of the 20mm M61 Vulcan cannon
Anti-aircraft variant equipped with a launcher armed with four MIM-72A/M48 Chaparral missiles
Unarmored cargo carrier equipped with a rear cargo bed
Command variant, the roof over the rear troop compartment is higher. The vehicle also carries additional radios and a generator. A variant of this is the M1068 standard integrated command post system carrier, equipped with the newest U.S. Army automated command and control system.
A fitter and repair vehicle equipped with a crane. This vehicle was not taken into U.S. Army service.
Repair and recovery vehicle equipped with an internal winch and two earth anchors mounted on the rear hull
- M901 ITV (improved TOW vehicle)
Equipped with a launcher armed with two TOW missiles.
- M113 "MBT" (NTC)
A variant of the M113 fitted with a modified Bradley turret as part of a vismod package specifically for training. This version also features MILES gear, a MGSS/TWGSS system, and fake ERA around the turret.
- M113 "C&R" (command and reconnaissance)
A lowered and shortened version of the M113 developed for the Netherlands. It was used for reconnaissance duties with cavalry battalions and armoured engineer companies. It had four road wheels on either side. The engine was moved to the rear of the vehicle although the drive sprockets were maintained at the front. Armament was a 25mm cannon in a remotely operated turret. Crew consisted of commander, driver and gunner. It has also been used by the Canadian Army as 'Lynx reconnaissance vehicle'.
A development of the M113A1 APC, upgraded with an enclosed turret and firing ports.
In 1994, a stretched version of the M113 was presented by its manufacturer, also known as "mobile tactical vehicle light" (MTVL). Its hull is lengthened by 34 inches and equipped with an additional road wheel (six on each side) to sustain the added dry weight and payload. The vehicle was developed as a "production-tooled demonstrator" with private-industry funding from United Defense. Although the U.S. Army did not buy it, it was acquired by other nations, and is copied today by Pakistan, Turkey and Egypt in their local M113-producing plants. Some nations, like Canada and Australia, also stretched existing M113-hulls.
- M113 copies
Several countries acquired M113s and later copied the design and proceeded to produce clones or evolved models (post-M113A3-standard) in their own indigenous factories. Pakistan produces an armored personnel carrier known as Talha which has a number of mechanical and automotive parts in common with the M113. Turkey produces the ACV-300 based on the AIFV. Egypt produces many variants of the M113A4 including the Egyptian infantry fighting vehicle (EIFV), which features a combination of an M113A3-base and the fully functional and stabilized two-man turret of the M2 Bradley. Iran is also producing its own M113s.
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- Afghanistan: 173 M113A2.
- Albania: (Albanian Armed Forces) 130
- Argentina: (Argentine Army) 400 M113A1/A2.
- Australia (Australian Army): 340 M113AS4 and 91 M113AS3 upgraded in service from 840 M113A1 
- Bahrain: 239 (est.) US-origin M113A2, 15 US-origin M577A2, 3 Netherlands-origin M577A1
- Bolivia: (Bolivian Army): 50
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 80
- Brazil: Brazilian Army: 590; Brazilian Marine Corps: 29. Received deliveries of both new and second-hand M113 and M113A2. M113 upgraded locally with Scania diesel engines.
- Canada: 289 (Canadian Army) – 1,143 Purchased from the mid-1960s through the 1990s. Mostly declared surplus. 289 to be upgraded to various configurations and retained until 2020.
- Chile (Chilean Army): 369. Received deliveries of both new and second-hand M113A1 and M113A2.
- Colombia: 54.
- Denmark: 632 Locally designated PMV, Pansret Mandskabsvogn, literally translated to APC. All heavily modified. The M113 is slowly being replaced in the mechanized infantry by the MK35DK.
- Ecuador: 20.
- Egypt: 2,447 M113A2, both new and second-hand.
- Germany: initially 4,000 units.
- Greece: 1399 M113A1 and M113A2 delivered, mostly second-hand.
- Iran (Iranian Army): 400 M113A1 delivered, 200 remaining in service.
- Iraq (Iraqi Army): 173, plus an order for 440 refurbished M113A2s. Iraq bought 1,026 M113A2s in June 2013. Some of these have been captured by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant in the 2014 uprising.
- Indonesia: Initial 2 ex-Belgium M113A1-B-FUS and 1 x M113A1-B-Gn (combat engineer version) acquired from Flanders Technical Supply nv in 2014. delivered 50 on 30 May 2016. Up to 150 may eventually be acquired.Currently 155 units in service.
- Israel (Israeli Defence Forces): 6,131 delivered (all variants). 500 remain in active service with an additional 5000 in storage.
- Jordan: 1,124 M113A1 and M113A2 versions received, some second-hand. 370 remaining in service.
- Kataib Hezbollah: Unknown number Additional 150 M577 Command Post variants received in February 2018.
- Kuwait: 126 M113A1 and M113A2.
- Lebanon (Lebanese Army): 1,300+
- Lithuania (Lithuanian Land Force): 238 (as of 2008). Overall 361 M113A1/A2's were transferred from Germany between 2000 and 2006. Lithuanian Armed Forces and the Ministry of Defence of Germany signed a contract on acquiring 168 M577's (a specialized command variant) on November 30 (2016) to be delivered between 2017 and 2018.
- Morocco: 1,200
- Republic of Macedonia: Received 30 second-hand M113A1s.
- Norway (Norwegian Army): 288 upgraded M113s, including at least 97 M113F3s. Furthermore, a new variant, the M113F4, has been developed, but it was ultimately set aside in favor of FFG's ACSV, which is based on the PMMC G5.
- Pakistan: 1,600 M113 APCs in Service of the Pakistan Army.
- Peru: 140 M113A1. 120 remaining in service.
- Philippines (Philippine Army): 120 M113A1 units were acquired from 1967 onwards. Some of which were converted into fire support vehicles (FSV) and mortar carriers. 114 M113A2 units were acquired from the U.S. Army and another 28 M113A2 units are bought to be upgraded by Elbit Systems as fire support vehicles (FSV) and armoured recovery vehicles (ARV). Livraison December 2015.
- Poland (Polish Land Forces): 35 (command and medical evacuation variants)
- Portugal (Portuguese Army): 180 M113A1/A2 APC (150 in service), 4 M901 ITV, 30 M48A3 Chaparral (25 in service), 47 M577A2 (36 in service as command vehicles and three in service as ambulance vehicles)
- Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabian Army), (Saudi National Guard): 1,190 remain in service.
- Singapore (Singapore Armed Forces): 1,000 M113A1 and M113A2 delivered. 720 remaining in service.
- South Korea (South Korean Army): 420
- Spain: 1,214 M113A1 and second-hand M113A2 received with 453 remaining in service.
- Switzerland: 1,475 delivered (all variants) with 238 remaining in service.
- Republic of China (Taiwan) (Republic of China Army): 675
- Thailand: Received deliveries of 465 M113A1 and M113A2, both new and second-hand. 430 (all variants) remain in service.
- Tunisia: 140 M113A2s in service.
- Turkey: 3,068 M113A1 and M113A2s delivered, both new and second-hand, with 2,813 remaining in service.
- United States: Over 32,000 delivered (all variants) with 8,000 preserved in storage and 5,000 remaining in service.
- Uruguay: 24 M113A2.
- Vietnam: 1,635 M113A1s delivered, mostly second-hand, with 200 remaining in service.
- Yemen: 107 M113A1. Dozens are still operated by the Yemeni national army against the Houthis.
- Al-Mourabitoun: Some captured from the Lebanese Army
- Amal Movement: some captured from the Lebanese Army, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), and the South Lebanon Army
- Army of Free Lebanon: seized from Lebanese Army stocks
- Belgium (Belgian Land Component): 525 M113A1-B delivered (all variants), replaced by KMW Dingo II
- Cambodia (Khmer National Armed Forces, Forces Armées Nationales Khmères – FANK), (Khmer Rouge), (Royal Cambodian Army): 210, only 20 are known to be fully operational.
- Cyprus: 1 (one captured example marked "239943").
- East Germany: Vehicles captured by North Vietnam from ARVN; later passed on to the Federal Republic of Germany.
- Ethiopia: 90 M113A1.
- Guardians of the Cedars: some captured from the Lebanese Army
- Hezbollah: some captured from the IDF and the South Lebanon Army
- Italy (Italian Army), (Carabinieri): 3,697 delivered (all variants). 115 remain in storage.
- Iraq acquired M113s during Iran–Iraq War
- Kataeb Regulatory Forces: some captured from the Lebanese Army
- Kingdom of Laos: 20 M113, probably second-hand, formerly in service with the Royal Lao Army (RLA)
- Lebanese Arab Army: seized from Lebanese Army stocks
- Lebanese Forces: captured from the Lebanese Army or supplied as aid by Israel and Iraq
- Zgharta Liberation Army (a.k.a. Marada Brigade): some captured from the Lebanese Army
- Netherlands (Royal Netherlands Army), (Royal Marechaussee): replaced with YPR-765
- New Zealand (New Zealand Army): 120 (replaced with NZLAV lll)
- Progressive Socialist Party/People's Liberation Army (PLA): some captured from the Lebanese Army
- South Lebanon Army: Captured from the Lebanese Army or supplied as aid by Israel
- South Vietnam: Used by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN); captured by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) after the unifacation of Vietnam on July 2 1976
- Tigers Militia: Some captured from the Lebanese Army
- India (Indian Army)
- Zaire: 12.
- France: 2 M113 are in service with the Haute-Corse firefighters
- United States (NASA): 4 M113s are in service as emergency crew evacuation vehicles at the Kennedy Space Center.
- MICV-65 – a failed project to introduce an improved APC
- Lynx reconnaissance vehicle - The same manufacturers, uses M113A1 components.
- AIFV – FMC's "Product Improved M113A1" from MICV-65, which saw sales to NATO countries and production under license by FNSS for the Turkish Army
- ACV-300 – Turkey's replacement for the M113
- FV432 – a contemporary British APC with similar appearance
- MT-LB – a contemporary Russian APC
- MLVM – a contemporary Romanian APC
- Pbv 302 – Swedish APC
- Boxer MRAV – Germany's replacement for the M113
- G-numbers (SNL G294)
- List of U.S. military vehicles by model number
- Type 63 – a Chinese APC
- 2/2nd Mechanized Infantry, 1/5th Mechanized Infantry, 2/8th Mechanized Infantry, 1/16th Mechanized Infantry, 2/22nd Mechanized Infantry, 4/23rd Mechanized Infantry, 2/47th Mechanized Infantry, 1/50th Mechanized Infantry, 5/60th Mechanized Infantry, 1/61st Mechanized Infantry, and the 1st Brigade, 5th Infantry Division (Mechanized). The U.S. Army 1st Brigade, 5th (Mech) Infantry Division in Vietnam was not composed of strictly mechanized infantry battalions. The 5th (M) ID (1st Bde), consisted of: the 5/4th Field Artillery, 1/11th Light Infantry (straight leg-no armored vehicles), 1/77th Armor (M48 Patton tanks), 1/61st Mechanized Infantry, A Troop 4/12th Armored Cavalry (only one troop of cavalry), and the 3/5th Armored Cavalry OPCON (operationally controlled) /attached from the 9th Infantry Division. The one troop of the 12th Armored Cavalry and the full squadron of the 5th Armored Cavalry were M551 Sheridan and M113 ACAV equipped.
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