Lithuanian Armed Forces
The Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lithuanian: Lietuvos ginkluotosios pajėgos) is the military of Lithuania, acting as the principal deterrent against any security threat to the nation. It currently consists of 20,565 active personnel. Conscription was ended in September 2008 but reintroduced in 2015 due to concerns about the geopolitical environment in light of the Russo-Ukrainian War.
|Lithuanian Armed Forces|
|Lietuvos ginkluotosios pajėgos|
|Founded||23 November 1918 (first armed formations circa 12th century)|
|Current form||25 April 1990|
|Service branches|| Land Force|
|Commander-in-Chief||President Gitanas Nausėda|
|Minister of National Defence||Arvydas Anušauskas|
|Chief of Defence||Lieutenant general Valdemaras Rupšys|
|890,074 males, age 16–49 (2016 est.),|
875,780 females, age 16–49 (2016 est.)
|669,111 males, age 16–49 (2016 est.),|
724,803 females, age 16–49 (2016 est.)
|20,425 males (2016 est.),|
19,527 females (2016 est.)
|Active personnel||20,521 (2020)|
14,400 paramilitary (2018)
|Reserve personnel||90,000 (2020)|
|Budget||€1.028 billion (2020)|
|Percent of GDP||2.13% (2020)|
|Foreign suppliers|| Denmark|
|History||1918–20 Lithuanian Wars of Independence|
1944–45 World War II
1944–53 Lithuanian partisans
1994 Bosnian War
2001–2021 War in Afghanistan (2001–2021)
2003–Present Invasion of Iraq
2004–Present Kosovo Force
2013–Present EUTM Mali
2013–Present Operation Atalanta
2014 Operation Sangaris
2015–present EU Navfor Med
|Ranks||Lithuanian military ranks|
Lithuania's defence system is based on the concept of "total and unconditional defence" mandated by Lithuania's National Security Strategy. The goal of Lithuania's defence policy is to prepare their society for general defence and to integrate Lithuania into Western security and defence structures. The defence ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue, and intelligence operations.
The 4,800 border guards fall under the Interior Ministry's supervision and are responsible for border protection, passport and customs duties, and share responsibility with the navy for smuggling / drug trafficking interdiction. The staff of border police is not officially part of the defence system but would assist the army in case of invasion. A special security department handles VIP protection and communications security.
Grand Ducal Lithuanian ArmyEdit
The Lithuanian military originates in the Grand Ducal Lithuanian Army, active from the 13th century to 1795. The Grand Ducal Lithuanian Army fought in many major battles, such as the Battle of Blue Waters (1362/63), Battle of Grunwald (1410), Battle of Orsha (1514) and Battle of Kircholm (1605).
From the 12th century's end and into the 13th century, Lithuania frequently went to war against the Western and Southwestern Rus' states, Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia and Duchy of Masovia, while also devastating lands along the Daugava and elsewhere. From the early 1200s, Lithuanians fought against the Swordbrothers, from 1237 against the Livonian Order, and from the 13th century's second half against the State of the Teutonic Order. While fighting on Lithuania's northern and western frontiers was unceasing, the Lithuanian state expanded southwards and eastwards during the Late Middle Ages. The Lithuanian army was mobile as it had to fight on many fronts, like with the State of the Teutonic Order to the west, the Livonian Order to the north, the Golden Horde and it's vassal Muscovy to the east, and the Tatar khanates to the south. According to 13th-century sources, Lithuanian soldiers were mounted when going on military expeditions but fought on foot, arranged in three rows during battles. The best-armed and most experienced fought in the front, while the least experienced and lightly-armed were in the last row. Furthermore, the Lithuanians were skilled at fighting using spears, especially on horseback, and the earliest written mention of such tactics dates to 1208 when Lithuanians, riding on horses, threw spears into their enemies.
Although the Germans initially had superior weaponry during the 13th century, the Lithuanians won the Battles of Saule (1236), Durbe (1260), Karuse (1270), Aizkraukle (1279) and many others. However, Lithuanians were less successful against enemy fortifications, especially brick castles. Eventually, the battle front lines stabilised over time, with the one against the Livonian Order more or less following the modern Latvia–Lithuania border, while the one against the Teutonic Order being close to the Nemunas. The Lithuanian side of the border had a castle system along the river.
Over the 14th century, the Teutonic and Livonian orders organised raids into Lithuania. Lithuanians responded by raiding their respective territories, however, the Lithuanian raids were numerically fewer. The Lithuanians won the Battle of Medininkai (1320), but lost the Battle of Strėva (1348). More and more, the Teutonic Order destroyed the Lithuanian castle system along the Nemunas and built their castles near the Lithuanian ones. As the German and Livonian orders were constantly reinforced by Christian European countries, it became increasingly difficult to defend Lithuania solely by military means. Hence, the new generation of the Lithuanian Grand Dukes Jogaila and Vytautas the Great used not only military, but also diplomatic and political means, e.g. Lithuanian baptism in 1387, to protect Lithuania.
Simultaneously, on the other side of the Lithuanian state, the Golden Horde's army was destroyed in the Battle of Blue Waters (1362-1363). In 1368, 1370, and 1372, the Lithuanian Grand Duke Algirdas led the Grand Ducal Lithuanian Army into military expeditions against Muscovy. However, the Battle of the Vorksla River (1399) was a decisive victory for the Golden Horde.
Finally, the German Teutonic Order was crushed in the Battle of Žalgiris (1410), which was one of the largest Middle Age battles in Central and Eastern Europe. In this key battle, the Lithuanian Army was led by Vytautas the Great. Under him, the Lithuanian Army attacked the lands of the Pskov Republic, in 1426, and the Novgorod Republic, in 1428.
Similarly to other medieval European states, the army was raised by the nobility during the Late Middle Ages. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Lithuanian Army remained equal to the Polish Crown army in the military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the Third Partition in 1795. By the 17th century, it was mostly outclassed by professional forces and a standing army was instituted.
Interwar and post-war periodsEdit
After Lithuania's restoration on 16 February 1918, the country immediately began creating their army. The Ministry of Defence's first order was issued on 23 November 1918 and this date is considered the establishment day of the modern Lithuanian Armed Forces. The newly formed army almost immediately fought three wars of independence. Having won the Lithuanian–Soviet War and the war against the Bermontians, it was defeated in the Polish–Lithuanian War. By the end of 1920, the Lithuanian army had over 41 thousand troops. In interwar, the armour equipment primarily consisted of light tanks and tankettes: British Carden Loyd tankette, French Renault FT-17, Swedish Landsverk-182, German Ehrhardt E-V/4. In 1940, Lithuania had a considerable Air Force, consisting of 118 aircraft with about half of them designed and produced locally. During the World War II, Lithuania was invaded by both Nazis and Soviets, which eventually concluded in Soviet occupation. Despite Soviet repressions, there was a considerable armed Lithuanian resistance which lasted until the 1950s.
Lithuanian Renault FT-17 tanks in 1924
Restoration and NATOEdit
Following the restoration of independence, the modern armed forces were formally restored on 25 April 1990 with the establishment of the Department of National Defence. After the January Events, the Voluntary National Defence Service was formed from lightly armed volunteers. The Lithuanian Armed Forces were officially restored on 19 November 1992. Western European countries, especially Sweden, helped to form the initial force by selling or donating excess equipment. However, soon Lithuania started modernising its military, becoming the first European country to acquire US-made FGM-148 Javelin systems in 2001, followed by the FIM-92 Stinger purchase in 2002.
Lithuania applied for NATO membership in 1994 and eventually joined the alliance in 2004. It has since modernised its Armed Forces and has participated in many international missions, including the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and others.
The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of the Lithuanian Land Force, Lithuanian Air Force, Lithuanian Naval Force, Lithuanian Special Operations Force and other units: Logistics Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Headquarters Battalion, Military Police. Directly subordinated to the Chief of Defence are the Special Operations Forces and Military Police. The Reserve Forces are under command of the Lithuanian National Defence Volunteer Forces.
Lithuanian Riflemen's Union is a paramilitary organization that cooperates with the Armed Forces, but it is not part of them. However, during the state of war, its armed formations fall under the command of the Armed Forces. The same applies to the State Border Guard Service and the Public Security Service.
Lithuanian Land ForceEdit
The core of the Lithuanian Land Force structure is the Iron Wolf Mechanised Infantry Brigade (MIB "Iron Wolf") consisting of four mechanized infantry battalions and an artillery battalion. It is supported by the Žemaitija Motorized infantry Brigade which has three battalions and one artillery battalion as well. The third, Aukštaitija Light Infantry Brigade, is a reserve formation with active training. Its command, signal and logistic units are manned by professional soldiers. Volunteer Forces form another brigade-size force, consisting of six territorial units. Other auxiliary units include Juozas Vitkus Engineer Battalion and Juozas Lukša Land Force Training Center.
The Lithuanian Land forces use equipment compatible with the NATO standards. Since 2007, the standard assault rifle is German Heckler & Koch G36. Units are supplied with modern variants of anti-tank weapons (M72 LAW, Carl Gustaf, AT4, FGM-148 Javelin) as well as man-portable air-defense systems (PZR Grom, RBS-70, FIM-92 Stinger). Modern armoured equipment includes: Oshkosh L-ATV armoured cars, Boxer infantry fighting vehicles (local designation IVF "Vilkas") armed with Spike-LR anti-tank missiles and PzH 2000 self-propelled howitzers. The Lithuanian Land forces have been carrying out major modernization with more new weapons and heavier armour being acquired.
Lithuania has been restructuring the armed forces so that one-tenth of the Land Forces could at any given time be deployed for international operations, while half of the Land Forces would be prepared to be deployed outside Lithuania's borders. The volunteers have already successfully participated in international operations in the Balkans, Afghanistan and Iraq.
Lithuanian Air ForceEdit
The Lithuanian Air Force (LAF) is an integral part of the Lithuanian Armed Forces. The LAF is formed by professional military servicemen and non-military personnel. Units are located at various bases across Lithuania:
- Kaunas (Headquarters and the Airspace Surveillance and Control Command);
- Karmėlava (Air Space Control Centre);
- Nemirseta (providing basing for sea search and rescue detachment);
- Šiauliai (LAF Air Base, Air Force Armament and Equipment Repair Depot);
- Radviliškis (Air Defence Battalion).
The initial formation of the LAF was the 2nd transport squadron with the transfer of 20 An-2 aircraft from civilian to military use, with initial basing at the Barysiai Airport on 27 April 1992. These were joined by four L-39C Albatros aircraft to be used by the 1st fighter (training) squadron. These were in addition to Mil Mi-8 helicopters and a short-range transport aircraft L-410, all of which went through a capital overhaul, upgrade and modernisation in the 2000s.
Following the initial acquisitions, the LAF began its aircraft's modernisation by ordering three C-27J Spartan transporters in 2006. In 2013, three Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin helicopters were acquired from France and, in 2020, Lithuania announced an order or four Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters from the USA. Simultaneously, new medium-range and long-range radars were acquired for the Airspace Surveillance and Control Command.
Air space is patrolled by jet fighters from other NATO members, which are based out of the city Šiauliai (Zokniai Airport, known as the Aviation base) (see Baltic Air Policing). The European Union's External border (with Kaliningrad and Belarus) is patrolled by Aviation Unit of the Lithuanian State Border Guard Service which acquired new helicopters EC-120, EC-135 and EC-145 in the 2000s.
The Navy has over 600 personnel. The Navy consists of the Warship Flotilla, the Sea Coastal Surveillance System, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Divers Team, the Naval Logistic Service, Training Center and Maritime Rescue Coordination Center. The flotilla is the core component of the Navy and consists of the Mine Countermeasures Squadron, the Patrol Ships Squadron, and the Harbour Boats Group. The current Commander in Chief of the Lithuanian Navy is Rear Admiral Kęstutis Macijauskas. The Naval base and Headquarters are located in the city of Klaipėda. The Navy uses patrol ships for coastal surveillance.
Special Operations ForceEdit
The Lithuanian Special Operations Force of Lithuanian Armed Forces has been in operation de facto since 2002 and it was established de jure on 3 April 2008, when amendments of National Defence System organisation and military service law came into force. The Special Operations Force is formed from the Special Operations Unit.
The Special Operations Force is responsible for special reconnaissance, direct actions, and military support. It is also in charge of other tasks, e.g., protection of VIPs in peacetime. Its core is based on the Special Purpose Service, Vytautas the Great Jaeger Battalion and Combat Divers Service. Lithuanian Air Force Special Operations Element is subordinate to the Unit at the level of operations management. Its structure is flexible which makes it easy to form squadrons intended for concrete operations and missions from its elements. The Special Operations Force can be called upon inside the territory of Lithuania when law enforcement agencies lack or do not have the necessary capabilities to react to terrorist attacks. The capabilities of special forces make them the main national response force responsible for counter-terrorism operations and operations to prevent violations of sovereignty.
Lithuania is a member of NATO military alliance since 2004. In the European Union, Lithuanian Armed Forces are taking part in Nordic Battle Group since 2008. Lithuanian Armed Forces also participate in the UK Joint Expeditionary Force formed in 2014.
In 2009, to encourage regional cooperation, Lithuania joined the initiative to form the Lithuanian–Polish–Ukrainian Brigade.
Soon after the restoration of independence, Lithuania applied for NATO membership in January 1994. Together with another six Central and Eastern European countries, Lithuania was invited to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the 2002 Prague summit and became a member of the Alliance in March 2004. Lithuania entered NATO on full-fledged rights immediately after the procedures of joining the North Atlantic Treaty were completed and acquired rights to participate in the political decision-making process of the Alliance. Integration into the military structures of NATO became a long-term task of the Lithuanian Armed Forces. Mechanised Infantry Brigade "Iron Wolf" was affiliated to the Danish Division based on agreements signed by Denmark and Lithuania in August 2006. Lithuanian Armed Forces started to boost the Brigade's ability to cooperate with the forces of other NATO members.
Baltic Air Policing was established by NATO allies since Lithuania and the other Baltic states do not have capabilities to secure their airspace. Fighter jets of NATO members are permanently deployed in Zokniai airport near the city Šiauliai to provide cover for the Baltic states airspace. In 2013, NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence was established in Vilnius.
Cooperation between the Baltic StatesEdit
- Baltic Battalion (BALTBAT) – infantry battalion for participation in international peace support operations, headquartered near Riga, Latvia;
- Baltic Naval Squadron (BALTRON) – naval force with mine countermeasures capabilities, headquartered near Tallinn, Estonia;
- Baltic Air Surveillance Network (BALTNET) – air surveillance information system, headquartered near Kaunas, Lithuania;
- Joint military educational institutions: Baltic Defence College (BALTDEFCOL) in Tartu, Estonia, Baltic Diving Training Centre in Liepāja, Latvia and Baltic Naval Communications Training Centre in Tallinn, Estonia.
In January 2011, the Baltic states were invited to join NORDEFCO, the defence framework of the Nordic countries. In November 2012, the three countries agreed to create a joint military staff in 2013. Future co-operation will include sharing of national infrastructures for training purposes and specialisation of training areas (BALTTRAIN) and collective formation of battalion-sized contingents for use in the NATO rapid-response force.
Foreign missions and operationsEdit
Lithuanian soldiers have taken part in international operations since 1993. Since the summer of 2005 Lithuania has been part of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (ISAF), leading a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in the town of Chaghcharan in the province of Ghor. The PRT includes personnel from Denmark, Iceland and the US. There have also been special operation forces units in Afghanistan. They were placed in Kandahar province.
|Afghanistan||NATO||Operation Resolute Support||29|
|Libya||EU||EU Navfor Med||3|
|Iraq||CJTF||Operation Inherent Resolve||6|
|Central African Republic||EU||EUFOR RCA||1|
List of military equipmentEdit
The President of Lithuania is the commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian Armed Forces according to the Constitution of Lithuania. Ministry of National Defence is directly responsible for the organisation of the defence system. Chief of Defence (Lithuanian: Kariuomenės vadas) is subordinate to the Minister of National Defence. Defence Staff (Lithuanian: Gynybos štabas) of the Armed Forces is responsible for the preparation of defence and mobilisation plans.
In May 2015 the Lithuanian parliament voted to return the conscription and the conscripts started their training in August 2015. This was after the Crimean Crisis, which heightened international tensions and thus ended the brief respite of seven years when Lithuania abolished its conscription in 2008.
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As of this edit, this article uses content from "Lithuanian Armed Forces", authored by Ministry of National Defence Republic of Lithuania, which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed.
- The Military Strategy of the Republic of Lithuania
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