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Example of a modern combat helmet (British Mk 6 with cloth cover)

A combat helmet or battle helmet is a type of helmet, a piece of personal armor designed specifically to protect the head during combat.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Helmets are among the oldest forms of personal protective equipment and are known to have been worn by the Akkadians/Sumerians in the 23rd century BC, Mycenaean Greeks since the 17th century BC,[1][2] the Assyrians around 900 BC, ancient Greeks and Romans, throughout the Middle Ages, and up to the end of the 17th century by many combatants.[3] Their materials and construction became more advanced as weapons became more and more powerful. Initially constructed from leather and brass, and then bronze and iron during the Bronze and Iron Ages, they soon came to be made entirely from forged steel in many societies after about 950 AD. At that time, they were purely military equipment, protecting the head from cutting blows with swords, flying arrows, and low-velocity musketry.

Military use of helmets declined after 1670, and rifled firearms ended their use by foot soldiers after 1700[3] but the Napoleonic era saw ornate cavalry helmets reintroduced for cuirassiers and dragoons in some armies which continued to be used by French forces during World War I as late as 1915.[4]

World War I and its increased use of artillery renewed the need for steel helmets, with the French Adrian helmet and the British Brodie helmet being the first modern steel helmets used on the battlefield,[5][6] soon followed by the adoption of similar steel helmets, such as the Stahlhelm[7][8][9] by the other warring nations. Such helmets offered protection for the head from shrapnel and fragments.

Today's militaries often use high quality helmets made of ballistic materials such as Kevlar and Twaron[10], which offer improved protection. Some helmets also have good non-ballistic protective qualities, against threats such as concussive shock waves from explosions.[11][12]

Many of today’s combat helmets have been adapted for modern warfare requirements and upgraded with STANAG rails to act as a platform for mounting cameras, video cameras and VAS Shrouds for the mounting of Night Vision Goggles (NVG) and monocular Night Vision Devices (NVD).

Beginning in the early 20th century, combat helmets have often been equipped with helmet covers to offer greater camouflage. There have been two main types of covers, mesh nets were earlier widely used, but most modern combat helmets use camouflage cloth covers instead.

By the late 20th century, starting in the 1970s and 1980s, new materials such as Kevlar and Twaron began replacing steel as the primary material for combat helmets, in an effort to improve weight, ballistics protection, and protection against head injuries caused by blasts. This practice still continues into the 21st century, with further advancement and refinements in the fibers used, design and shape of the helmet, and increased modularity. Early helmet systems of this new design are the American PASGT, the Spanish MARTE, the Italian SEPT-2 PLUS, and British Mk6.

List of military helmetsEdit

1980-presentEdit

Model Image Origins First Issued Users Notes
6B26     Russia Part of Ratnik infantry system
6B27     Russia Part of Ratnik infantry system
6B28     Russia Part of Ratnik infantry system
6B7     Russia Part of Ratnik infantry system, this helmet and its variants are the standard-issue headgear of the Russian army, they also are replacing older helmets like the SSh-68
6B7-1L     Russia Kevlar helmet Russian army and Naval Infantry Russia part of Ratnik infantry system
Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH)     United States 2002 Developed from the Modular Integrated Communications Helmet, the ACH is now the standard issue helmet of the US Army.[13][14][15]
BK-3 Helmet     Croatia Bulgaria, Croatia Further updated version of the BK-6.
BK-3 Helmet     Bulgaria Kevlar helmet worn by the Bulgarian Land Forces. Replacing the older steel M36 type C Helmet. - Similar to the Gefechshelm B826.
BK-6 Helmet     Croatia Croatian Army, Swedish Army, German Army, Kuwaiti Army, French Army, Singapore Army, Israel Army, Saudi Arabian Army, Polish Armed Forces, Australian Army, Turkish Armed Forces, Czech Army, Bulgarian Army, United Arab Emirates Army, Lithuanian Armed Forces, Mexican Army, Spanish Army, Pakistan Army, Malaysian Army, Saudi Arabian Army, Finnish Army, National Army of Colombia, Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Indonesian Army, Italian Army, Military of Hungary, Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, People's Liberation Army and by the police forces of the following countries: Croatia, Turkey, UK, Spain, Republic of Macedonia, Egypt, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Colombia, Italy, Ukraine, by Argentina and by the UN demining committee.[16]
BK-6     Mexico Kevlar helmet, adopted in the 2000s (decade). used in conjunction supplementation role with the PASGT. - Imported helmet.
BK-9 Helmet     Croatia Croatian Army Updated version of the BK-6.
CABAL II     Argentina Ballistic Helmet M-6 for Argentine Infantry Approved by CITEFA NIJ Level II according to the standards currently in stage R3B certified to MIL-Std 662 E.[17] However it wasn´t issued in large scales.
CCB     Brazil Used by the Brazilian Armed Forces in two versions: Polymer and Kevlar.[18]
CG634     Canada 1997 Canadian Forces since 1998 - license-built SPECTRA variant with superior ballistic protection.[19][20]
Enhanced Combat Helmet (RBH 303 AU)     Israel MICH 2000 style helmet made by Rabintex, Israel[21] The RBH 303AU model was made specially for the Australian Defence Force and adopted in 2004, replacing the M91 PASGT helmet. Also in service with the New Zealand Defence Force since 2009.
Enhanced Combat Helmet (ECH)     United States
Gefechtshelm Schuberth B826 (M92)     Germany Used by the Bundeswehr, Swiss Armed Forces, Dutch Army, Estonian Defence Forces, Czech Army, Denmark, Norway - PASGT type helmet.
Gefechtshelm Schuberth B828 Airborne and B828 Tactical Cut     Germany Limitedly used by the paratroops in Bundeswehr like Fallschirmjäger, Spezialisierte Kräfte des Heeres mit Erweiterter Grundbefähigung für Spezielle Operationen and Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK) - MICH 2000 and MICH 2001 type helmets.
GK80     People's Republic of China People's Liberation Army
GOLFO     Chile Military of Chile, Similar to the PASGT.
Helm wz. 2005     Poland Newer kevlar helmet used by the Polish Armed Forces. Supplementing the older Helm wz. 93 currently in use. Similar in size to the American Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), similar look to the PASGT.
Helm wz. 93     Poland Kevlar helmet Used by the Polish Armed Forces. - Being replaced by the Helm wz. 2005.[22]
Hjälm 90     Sweden Kevlar helmet used by the Swedish Armed Forces
Hjelm Cato     Norway Proprietary kevlar helmet adopted by the Norwegian Armed Forces in the early 2000s (decade). - Similar to the Swedish Hjalm 90.
K/92 Helmet   Finland Finnish Defense Forces. Replaced in the early 2000s (decade) by the M/02. - PASGT-Hjelm style blend helmet.
KASDA     Israel Kevlar helmet Israel Defense Forces, Guatemalan Army
Kyung Chang Industry (KCI)     South Korea Kevlar helmet worn by the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. - PASGT type helmet.
Kolpak 2   Russia Russian army
Lightweight Helmet (LWH)   United States United States Marine Corps[23]
M02 Composite Helmet   Finland Finnish Defence Forces
M76 paratrooper helmet   United Kingdom British Armed forces Paratroopers and Airborne forces.
M80 Helmet     Iraq Plastic and cloth copy of the M1 Helmet, Developed during Saddam Hussein's Iraq, Limited use on the modern Iraqi army.
M80/03 Helmet     Iraq Improved and stronger variant of the M80 helmet, this version has a distinct cover.
M83 helmet     South Africa Variant of the OR-201 helmet used by Paratroopers of the South African Army
M87   South Africa South African Army
M90 Helmet     Iraq Another Iraqi copy of the M1 helmet, unlike the M80 helmet the M90 helmet is composed purely of plastic.
M91 helmet   Australia PASGT kevlar helmet used by the Australian Defense Force. Was made by RBR Armour Systems Pty Ltd (Australia.) Also made by Gentex USA. The Australian PASGT helmet was identical to the USA PASGT helmet with the exception of a 3-point chin strap, much like the chin strap of the German B826 Gefechsthelm. Was replaced in 2004.
MARTE     Spain Versions I to IV, MARTE IV Kevlar helmet currently used by the Spanish Armed Forces. - Similar to the PASGT. - Protec type helmet replacing it in the Spanish Navy Marines.
Mile Dragić M-05     Serbia Used by Serbian Special Forces—MICH type helmet[24]
Mile Dragić M-97     Serbia Used by the Serbian Army - PASGT type helmet[25]
Mk. 6 Helmet     United Kingdom Used by British Armed Forces.[26] being replaced by the Mk. 7 Helmet
Mk. 7 Helmet     United Kingdom British Armed forces
MKH/PA-1     India Kevlar helmet worn by the Indian Armed Forces.- PASGT type helmet.
Modular Integrated Communications Helmet (MICH)   United States Developed for special operations use by the United States Army, it became the basis for the Advanced Combat Helmet
MPC-1     Slovenia Variant of OR-201 helmet
NP Aerospace AC200/650   Greece Kevlar helmet used by the Greek Special Forces. - Gefechshelm type helmet. - Hellenic Army, Navy and Air Force primarily use the PASGT.
Ops-Core FAST     United States Used by the United States special operations, United States SWAT and Law Enforcement, German Bundeswehr, Norwegian Armed Forces and others.
Ops-Core FAST High Cut Helmet     United States Used by Australian and New Zealand Military and Law Enforcement personnel[27]
OR-201     Israel Kevlar helmet used by the Israel Defense Forces, Some units of Special forces of Indian Army, Irish Defence Force, Lebanon (Lebanese Forces, South Lebanon Army, Hezbollah, Lebanese Army), Honduran Army, Guatemalan Army, Peruvian Army, Romanian Army, Nicaragua (National Guard and Police), Portugal (Portuguese Marine Corps), South African Defence Force, Chilean Army (1st Parachutists Battalion "Pelantaru" (1º Batallón de Paracaidistas "Pelantaru")), Sri Lanka, and other countries.
PATKA     India Indian Armed Forces. Indigenously built helmet. It can prevent 7.62mm AKM round.
PASGT helmet     United States First issued in 1983 to replace the M1 helmet. Former kevlar helmet used by the United States Army, Marine Corps, Navy. Used by the USAF, but is being phased out by the ACH[28] US Air Force.[29] Adopted by the Mexican Armed Forces in the 1990s to replace the M1 helmet. Replaced the M1 helmet of the Argentine army and modified with padded interiors. US-made PASGT helmets (by UNICOR and Gentex) replaced the New Zealand M1 helmet and were in use until the adoption of the Australian ECH.[30]
QGF02     People's Republic of China People's Liberation Army
QGF03     People's Republic of China People's Liberation Army
QGF11     People's Republic of China People's Liberation Army
RBH303IE     Ireland Variant of the Enhanced Combat Helmet (Australia) helmet used by the Irish Defence Force
Savar SVRH01     Turkey Used by the Turkish Armed Forces and General Directorate of Security
Savar SVRH02     Turkey Used by the Police Special Operation Department of the General Directorate of Security
Sistema Compositi SEPT-2 PLUS     Italy Kevlar helmet used by the Italian Armed Forces[31]
Sistema Compositi SUPERUBOTT     Italy Used by Special Units (particularly GIS) of the Italian Law Enforcement community[32]
SPECTRA helmet     France French Army, Austrian Army, Bangladesh Army, Danish Army, Malta Army, Royal Moroccan Army, Ukrainian Ground Forces, and United Nations peacekeeping forces[33]
SSh-68     Soviet Union} Steel helmet, being withdrawn from the Russian army, used in many other countries.
STSh-81     Soviet Union Titanium helmet, used in some countries.
Type 88 Helmet     Japan Used by the JSDF - PASGT type helmet
Vz.53 helmet     Czechoslovakia

1914-1980Edit

Model Image Origins First issued Users Notes
1935/38 M. rohamsisak   Hungary 1935   Hungary,   Finland
1950 M rohamsisak   Hungary 1950   Hungary
1970 M rohamsisak   Hungary 1970   Hungary
Adrian helmet     France 1915 [4] used in   France,   Belgium,   Japan,   Serbia,   Yugoslavia,   United States,   Soviet Union, Irish Free State,   Italy,   Republic of China,   Manchukuo,   Peru,   Romania,   Mexico,   Greece,   Uruguay,   Thailand,  Brazil
Belgian M26/32   Belgium 1926   Belgium,   Luxembourg
Brodie helmet     United Kingdom 1915 used in   United Kingdom,   Canada,   United States (1917-1942),   Australia,[34]   Republic of China,   Estonia,   Belgium,   New Zealand,   South Africa,   India,   the Netherlands,   Portugal,  Luxembourg,   Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1944)
Bulgarian M36 Helmet     Bulgaria 1936   Bulgaria[35]
Czechoslovakian Model 1932 Steel Helmet   Czechoslovakia 1932   Czechoslovakia
Danish M1923 Helmet     Denmark 1923   Denmark
Dutch M-28 helmet   Netherlands 1928   Netherlands,   Romania
Greek M1934/39 (helmet)     Italy 1939   Greece
Hełm radziecki wz. 40   Poland 1940   Poland
Hełm wz. 31     Poland 1931   Poland
Hełm wz. 50   Poland 1950   Poland
Hełm wz. 67   Poland 1967   Poland
Helmet Steel Airborne Troop     UK 1941 used in   CAN,   BEL,   Rhodesia,   UK
Irish M1928   Ireland 1928   Ireland
M1 helmet     United States 1941   USA,   Mexico,   Canada,[36]

  Austria,   Belgium,   Czechoslovakia,   Denmark,   West Germany (1956-1992),   Greece,   Netherlands,   Norway,   Poland,   Spain,   Turkey,   Republic of China,   Egypt,   Iran,   Iraq,   South Korea,   Philippines (1944-1991),   Singapore,   Saudi Arabia,   Thailand,   Australia,   New Zealand (1960-2000),   Guatemala,   Argentina,  Brazil,   Chile,   Peru,   Venezuela,   Uruguay

M33 helmet     Italy 1934   Italy,   Finland
M42 Duperite helmet     AUS 1942 Paratrooper helmet
M63 Staaldak   South Africa 1963   Rhodesia,   South Africa
Mk III Turtle helmet     United Kingdom 1944   United Kingdom,   Canada
Mº 44 E.T.A. de Paracaidista   Argentina 1944 used by Argentine Paratroopers
Modèle 1951     France 1951   France,   South Vietnam,   South Africa,   Cambodia,  ,   Lebanon,   Israel,   Portugal,   Rhodesia
Norwegian M31   Norway 1931   Norway
Portuguese M1940     Portugal 1940   Portugal
RAC helmet   United Kingdom   United Kingdom,   Belgium
Soviet helmets during World War II   Soviet Union   Soviet Union,   People's Republic of China,   North Korea,   North Vietnam,   Finland, Warsaw Pact
Spanish M1926, M1942 Modelo Z   Spain 1926   Spain
Stahlhelm[7][8][9]     German Empire 1916   Weimar Republic,   Nazi Germany,   Turkey,   Chile,   Republic of China,   China,   Colombia,   Argentina,   Bolivia,   Mexico,   Irish Free State,   Italy,   Poland,   Estonia,   Finland,   Latvia,   Lithuania,   Portugal,   Spain,   Afghanistan
Swedish M1926   Sweden 1926   Sweden
Swedish M1937     Sweden 1937   Sweden
Swiss M1918/40    Switzerland 1918    Switzerland,   Argentina
Type 66 Helmet   Japan 1966 Variant of M1 Helmet used by some elements of the JSDF Ground Forces
Type 90   Japan   Japan,   Thailand,   China

Medieval and early ModernEdit

Model Origin Users
Armet 15th century Western Europeans.
Barbute 15th century Italian states.
Bascinet c. 1300 Europeans during the Hundred Years' War(1337 to 1453) amid the kingdoms of   France,   Aquitaine,   Burgundy and   England
Burgonet[37] c. 1600 Europeans, especially by militias of   Poland &    Switzerland
Capeline late 16th century Europeans during the 17th century, including the English Civil War in   England & Thirty Years' War across the   Holy Roman Empire
Cervelliere late 13th century Christian Europeans in Crusades during the 14th century
Close helmet late 15th century Western Europeans.
Dragoon helmet late 18th century   France .
Enclosed helmet late 12th century Western Europeans.
Frog-mouth helm c. 1600 Western Europeans.
Great helm[38] 1189 Christian Europeans in Third Crusade; other Europeans until 1540
Hounskull 14th century Western Europeans.
Kabuto c. 1600 Samurai especially during the 17th century of the Edo Period Tokugawa shogunate in Medieval   Japan.
Kettle hat 12th century Common all over medieval Europe.
Morion 16th and early 17th centuries Europeans (esp. associated with Spanish Conquistadores)
Nasal helmet Early Middle Ages Byzantine Empire, later common all over Europe.
Pickelhaube[7][8][9] 1842 especially by   Prussia &   German Empire and other Europeans until 1918; revived for 2006 FIFA World Cup in   Germany
Raupenhelm c. 1800-1870 High crested leather helmet used primarily by   Kingdom of Bavaria and   Württemberg
Sallet c. 1450 used in Northern Europe &   Hungary until the mid-16th century
Secrete 17th century Western Europeans
Spangenhelm[39] 5th century Central Asia, Near East & Europe; espec. by Scythians, Sarmatians, Persians, & Germans until 1000
Tarleton c. 1770-1800 Crested, peaked leather helmet used by cavalry and light infantry by   Great Britain,   France and   USA in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Qing parade helmet after 1655 till 1911 China
Zischagge c. 1600-1780 Originated in Ottoman Empire, used by the most of the Europe.

See also headgear listing within Components of medieval armour.

Ancient militariesEdit

Model Origin Users
Attic helmet ancient Greeks
Boar's tusk helmet 17th century BCE Mycenaean Greeks until 10th century BCE
Boeotian helmet ancient Greek cavalry
Chalcidian helmet ancient Greeks
Corinthian helmet[40] ancient Greeks
Disc and stud helmet c. 400 BCE ancient Illyrians & Adriatic Veneti until 167 BCE
Galea (helmet) ancient Romans
Horned helmet c. 1000 BCE Celtic Europeans until 700 CE
Illyrian type helmet ancient Greeks
Kegelhelm ancient Greeks
Negau helmet ancient Etruscans in Negau, Slovenia
Montefortino helmet ancient Romans
Pilos ancient Greeks
Pot helmet ancient Illyrians
Phrygian/Thracian helmet 5th century BCE ancient Greeks in Thrace, Dacia, Italia & Hellenistic Europe until c. 200 CE

PaddingEdit

Cushioning is used to negate concussive injuries. Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory published a study in 2011 that concluded that the addition of an eighth of an inch of cushion decreased the impact force to the skull by 24%.[41]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shaft Graves, Mycenae
  2. ^ Nobuo Komita, The Grave Circles at Mycenae and the Early Indo-Europeans[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ a b http://www.nps.gov/archive/colo/Jthanout/HisArmur.html
  4. ^ a b Heaumes Page Archived 30 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "The first modern steel combat helmet: the French 'Adrian' - Military Trader". 2 February 2009. 
  6. ^ Military headgears Archived 27 May 2012 at Archive.is
  7. ^ a b c "German-Helmets.com". 
  8. ^ a b c "88. SS-Standarte Stedingen". www.axishistory.com. 
  9. ^ a b c "German Pickelhaube Spiked Helmet Evolution Guide". www.kaisersbunker.com. 
  10. ^ "Differences Between Kevlar and Twaron | Difference Between". www.differencebetween.net. Retrieved 2018-03-30. 
  11. ^ "Kevlar PASGT Helmet". 
  12. ^ "combat helmet upgrade,tbi,brain injury,military,charity". Operation Helmet. 
  13. ^ Pike, John. "Advanced Combat Helmet ( ACH )". www.globalsecurity.org. 
  14. ^ "Advanced Combat Helmet ACH". 
  15. ^ "US Military Taking Delivery of Advanced Combat Helmets". 
  16. ^ "Šestan - Busch d.o.o. (Ltd)". 
  17. ^ motos, cascos para. "Cascos para Motos Cascos Nahelmets Cascos Policia". www.nahelmets.com.ar. 
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 February 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  19. ^ "Canadian Military Police Virtual Museum". www.mpmuseum.org. 
  20. ^ "combat helmet upgrade,tbi,brain injury,military,charity". Operation Helmet. Archived from the original on 2006-10-09. 
  21. ^ "Rabintex". www.rabintex.com. 
  22. ^ pl:Hełm wz. 2005
  23. ^ "The Warrior". www.natick.army.mil. 
  24. ^ www.orangeteam.biz. "Mile Dragic - Production - Helmet M-05". www.armyequipment.com. 
  25. ^ www.orangeteam.biz. "Mile Dragic - Production - Helmet M-97". www.armyequipment.com. 
  26. ^ PLCE and Body Armour Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Online, Spearpoint. "Ops-Core FAST Ballistic High Cut Helmet". Spearpoint Online. 
  28. ^ "USAF". Operation Helmet. 
  29. ^ "Department Of The Air Force" (PDF). 
  30. ^ "Composite Helmet, Ballistic helmets, Military helmets NEW ZEALAND helmet, Kevlar helmet". www.gostak.co.uk. 
  31. ^ "Sistema Compositi SEPT-2 PLUS helmet". Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. 
  32. ^ "Sistema Compositi SUPERUBOTT helmet". Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. 
  33. ^ "MSA - The Safety Company - Global". www.gallet.fr. 
  34. ^ "Index CEF Helmets". www.kaisersbunker.com. 
  35. ^ Българските Военни Каски Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ "Home of the M-1 Helmet". Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. 
  37. ^ Flynt, Sean A. "The Burgonet". myArmoury.com. 
  38. ^ "75years - Great Helms". 
  39. ^ Simon Coupland, "Carolingian Arms and Armor in the Ninth Century", (accessed 10 March 2006).
  40. ^ "lookup=Hdt.+4.180.1 Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley)". 
  41. ^ Regg Zoroya (17 April 2011). "Larger helmet could guard against brain injury to troops". USA TODAY. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 

External linksEdit