Caterpillar Inc. (often shortened to CAT) is an American Fortune 100 corporation that designs, develops, engineers, manufactures, markets, and sells machinery, engines, financial products, and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network. It is the world's largest construction-equipment manufacturer. In 2018, Caterpillar was ranked number 65 on the Fortune 500 list and number 238 on the Global Fortune 500 list. Caterpillar stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
|Predecessor||C. L. Best|
Holt Manufacturing Company
|Founded||April 15, 1925|
|Headquarters||Deerfield, Illinois, U.S.|
|Jim Umpleby (chairman|
|Revenue||US$53.80 billion (2019)|
|US$8.29 billion (2019)|
|US$6.09 billion (2019)|
|Total assets||US$78.45 billion (2019)|
|Total equity||US$14.62 billion (2019)|
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references|
Caterpillar Inc. traces its origins to the 1925 merger of the Holt Manufacturing Company and the C. L. Best Tractor Company, creating a new entity, California-based Caterpillar Tractor Company. In 1986, the company reorganized itself as a Delaware corporation under the current name, Caterpillar Inc. Its headquarters are located in Deerfield, Illinois; it announced in January 2017 that over the course of that year, it would relocate its headquarters from Peoria, Illinois, to Deerfield, Illinois, scrapping plans from 2015 of building an $800 million new headquarters complex in downtown Peoria.
The company also licenses and markets a line of clothing and workwear boots under its Cat / Caterpillar name. Caterpillar machinery is recognizable by its trademark "Caterpillar Yellow" livery and the "CAT" logo.
The steam tractors of the 1890s and early 1900s were extremely heavy, sometimes weighing 1,000 pounds (450 kg) per horsepower, and often sank into the earth of the San Joaquin Valley Delta farmland surrounding Stockton, California. Benjamin Holt attempted to fix the problem by increasing the size and width of the wheels up to 7.5 feet (2.3 m) tall and 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, producing a tractor 46 feet (14 m) wide, but this also made the tractors increasingly complex, expensive, and difficult to maintain.
Another solution considered was to lay a temporary plank road ahead of the steam tractor, but this was time-consuming, expensive, and interfered with earthmoving. Holt thought of wrapping the planks around the wheels. He replaced the wheels on a 40 horsepower (30 kW) Holt steamer, No. 77, with a set of wooden tracks bolted to chains. On Thanksgiving Day, November 24, 1904, he successfully tested the updated machine plowing the soggy delta land of Roberts Island.
Contemporaneously, Richard Hornsby & Sons in Grantham, Lincolnshire, England, developed a steel plate-tracked vehicle, which it patented in 1904. This tractor steered by differential braking of the tracks, and did not require the forward tiller steering wheel for steering, making it the first to do so. Several tractors were made and sold to operate in the Yukon, one example of which was in operation until 1927, and remnants of it still exist. Hornsby found a limited market for their tractor, so they sold their patent to Holt in 1911, the same year Holt trademarked "Caterpillar".
Company photographer Charles Clements was reported to have observed that the tractor crawled like a caterpillar, and Holt seized on the metaphor. "Caterpillar it is. That's the name for it!" Some sources, though, attribute this name to British soldiers who had witnessed trials of the Hornsby tractor in July 1907. Two years later, Holt sold his first steam-powered tractor crawlers for US$5,500, about US$128,000 today. Each side featured a track frame measured 30 inches (760 mm) high by 42 inches (1,100 mm) wide and were 9 feet (2.7 m) long. The tracks were 3 inches (76 mm) by 4 inches (100 mm) redwood slats.
Holt received the first patent for a practical continuous track for use with a tractor on December 7, 1907, for his improved "Traction Engine" ("improvement in vehicles, and especially of the traction engine class; and included endless traveling platform supports upon which the engine is carried").
Initial establishment in Peoria (1910) and headquarters move to Deerfield (2017)Edit
On February 2, 1910, Holt opened up a plant in East Peoria, Illinois, led by his nephew Pliny Holt. There, Pliny met farm implement dealer Murray Baker, who knew of an empty factory that had been recently built to manufacture farm implements and steam traction engines. Baker, who later became the first executive vice president of what became Caterpillar Tractor Company, wrote to Holt headquarters in Stockton and described the plant of the bankrupt Colean Manufacturing Co. of East Peoria. On October 25, 1909, Pliny Holt purchased the factory, and immediately began operations with 12 employees. Holt incorporated it as the Holt Caterpillar Company, although he did not trademark the name Caterpillar until August 2, 1910.
The addition of a plant in the Midwest, despite the hefty capital needed to retool the plant, proved so profitable that only two years later, the company employed 625 people and was exporting tractors to Argentina, Canada, and Mexico. Tractors were built in both Stockton and East Peoria.
On January 31, 2017, the company announced plans to move their headquarters from Peoria to Deerfield, Illinois, by the end of 2017. The new location at 500 Lake Cook Road is the former site of a Fiatallis plant that manufactured wheel loaders for many years.
Use in World War IEdit
The first tanks used in WWI were manufactured by William Foster & Co., also in Lincolnshire, England, and were introduced to the battlefield in 1916. That company had collaborated with Hornsby in the development of the vehicles demonstrated to the British military in 1907, providing the paraffin (kerosene) engines.
Holt's track-type tractors played a support role in World War I. Even before the U.S. formally entered WWI, Holt had shipped 1,200 tractors to England, France, and Russia for agricultural purposes. These governments, however, sent the tractors directly to the battlefront, where the military put them to work hauling artillery and supplies. When World War I broke out, the British War Office ordered a Holt tractor and put it through trials at Aldershot. The War Office was suitably impressed and chose it as a gun-tractor. Over the next four years, the Holt tractor became a major artillery tractor, mainly used to haul medium guns such as the 6-inch howitzer, the 60-pounder, and later the 9.2-inch howitzer.
Holt tractors were also the inspiration for the development of the British tank, which profoundly altered ground warfare tactics. Major Ernest Swinton, sent to France as an army war correspondent, very soon saw the potential of a track-laying tractor.:116 Although the British later chose an English firm to build its first tanks, the Holt tractor became "one of the most important military vehicles of all time."
Holt tractors had become well known during World War I. Military contracts formed the major part of the company's production. When the war ended, Holt's planned expansion to meet the military's needs was abruptly terminated. The heavy-duty tractors needed by the military were unsuitable for farmers. The company's situation worsened when artillery tractors were returned from Europe, depressing prices for new equipment and Holt's unsold inventory of military tractors. The company struggled with the transition from wartime boom to peacetime bust. To keep the company afloat, they borrowed heavily.
C. L. Best Gas Tractor Company, formed by Clarence Leo Best in 1910, and Holt's primary competitor, had during the war received government support, enabling it to supply farmers with the smaller agricultural tractors they needed. As a result, Best had gained a considerable market advantage over Holt by war's end. Best also assumed considerable debt to allow it to continue expansion, especially production of its new Best Model 60 "Tracklayer".
Both companies were adversely impacted by the transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy, which contributed to a nationwide depression, further inhibiting sales. On December 5, 1920, 71-year-old Benjamin Holt died after a month-long illness.
Caterpillar company formed (1925)Edit
The banks and bankers who held the company's large debt forced the Holt board of directors to accept their candidate, Thomas A. Baxter, to succeed Benjamin Holt. Baxter initially cut the large tractors from the company's product line and introduced smaller models focused on the agricultural market. When the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 funded a US$1 billion federal highway building program, Baxter began refocusing the company towards building road-construction equipment.:66 Both companies also faced fierce competition from the Fordson company.
Between 1907 and 1918, Best and Holt had spent about US$1.5 million in legal fees fighting each other in a number of contractual, trademark, and patent infringement lawsuits. Harry H. Fair of the bond brokerage house of Pierce, Fair & Company of San Francisco had helped to finance C. L. Best's debt and Holt shareholders approached him about their company's financial difficulty. Fair recommended that the two companies should merge. In April and May 1925, the financially stronger C. L. Best merged with the market leader Holt Caterpillar to form the Caterpillar Tractor Co.
The new company was headquartered in San Leandro until 1930, when under the terms of the merger, it was moved to Peoria. Baxter had been removed as CEO earlier in 1925, and Clarence Leo Best assumed the title of CEO, and remained in that role until October 1951.
The Caterpillar company consolidated its product lines, offering only five track-type tractors: the 2 Ton, 5 Ton, and 10 Ton from the Holt Manufacturing Company's old product line and the Caterpillar 30 and Caterpillar 60 from the C. L. Best Tractor Co.'s former product line. The 10 Ton and 5 Ton models were discontinued in 1926. In 1928, the 2 Ton was discontinued. Sales the first year were US$13 million. By 1929, sales climbed to US$52.8 million, and Caterpillar continued to grow throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Caterpillar adopted the diesel engine to replace gasoline engines. During World War II, Caterpillar products found fame with the Seabees, construction battalions of the United States Navy, which built airfields and other facilities in the Pacific Theater of Operations. Caterpillar ranked 44th among United States corporations in the value of wartime military production contracts. During the postwar construction boom, the company grew at a rapid pace, and launched its first venture outside the U.S. in 1950, marking the beginning of Caterpillar's development into a multinational corporation.
In 2018, Caterpillar was in the process of restructuring, closing a demonstration center in Panama and a engine-manufacturing facility in Illinois.
Expansion in developing marketsEdit
Caterpillar built its first Russian facility in the town of Tosno, located near St. Petersburg, Russia. It was completed in 16 months, occupied in November 1999, and began fabricating machine components in 2000. It had the first electrical substation built in the Leningrad Oblast since the Communist government was dissolved on December 26, 1991. The facility was built under harsh winter conditions, where the temperature was below −13°F (−25°C). The facility construction was managed by the Lemminkäinen Group in Helsinki, Finland.
The $125M Caterpillar Suzhou, People's Republic of China facility, manufactures medium-wheel loaders and motor graders, primarily for the Asian market. The first machine was scheduled for production in March 2009. URS Ausino, in San Francisco, California, manages facility construction.
Caterpillar has been manufacturing machines, engines, and generator sets in India, as well. Caterpillar has three facilities in India, which are in Tamil Nadu (Thiruvallur and Hosur) and Maharastra (Aurangabad).
In addition to increasing sales of its core products, much of Caterpillar's growth has been through acquisitions, including:
|Company or asset acquired||Location||Date||Acquired from||Products||Notes|
|Trackson||Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States||1951||Traxcavators (tracked loaders) and pipelayers||"Traxcavator" became a Cat brand|
|Towmotor Corporation||Mentor, Ohio, United States||1965||Forklifts||In 1992 became Mitsubishi Caterpillar Forklifts, a joint venture 80% owned by Mitsubishi|
|Solar Division and Turbomach Division||San Diego, California, United States||1981||International Harvester Company||Industrial gas turbines||Became Solar Turbines Incorporated, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc.|
|Balderson, Inc.||Wamego, Kansas, United States||1990||Balderson, Inc.||Work Tools for Construction and Mining Equipment, e.g. buckets, blades, forks||The name of Balderson, Inc., was changed to Caterpillar Work Tools, Inc. in 1998 and remains a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc.|
|Barber-Greene Co. Inc.||Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States||1991||Paving products||Renamed Caterpillar Paving Products|
|Krupp MaK Maschinenbau GmbH||Kiel, Germany||1997||Fried. Krupp GmbH||Marine diesel engines||Renamed MaK Motoren GmbH, a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc. and will continue to use the MaK brand name.|
|Perkins Engines||Peterborough, United Kingdom||1998||LucasVarity||Small diesel engines||Produces both Cat- and Perkins-branded engines|
|Kato Engineering||Mankato, Minnesota, United States||1998||Rockwell Automation, Inc.||Large electrical generators|
|F.G. Wilson||Larne, Northern Ireland||1999||Emerson Electric Company||Generators, produces both Cat- and Olympian-branded generators||Asset swap, Emerson acquired Kato Engineering from Caterpillar as part of transaction.|
|Earthmoving Equipment Division||Chennai, India||2000||Hindustan Motors Ltd.||Construction equipment||Renamed Caterpillar India, and the service and maintenance are provided by Birla Group's GMMCO Ltd.|
|Caterpillar Elphinstone||Burnie, Australia||2000||Elphinstone||Underground mining equipment||Acquired 50% interest in joint venture from partner Elphinstone, renamed Caterpillar Underground Mining|
|Sabre Engines Ltd.||Wimborne, United Kingdom||2000||Sabre Group Ltd.||Marine diesel engines||Renamed Caterpillar Marine Power UK, produces both Cat- and Perkins-Sabre-branded engines|
|Bitelli SpA||Minerbio, Italy||2000||Asphalt pavers, cold planers, compactors and other road maintenance products||Merged into Caterpillar Paving Products|
|Wealdstone Engineering Ltd.||Rushden, United Kingdom||2004||Remanufacturer of gasoline and diesel engines||Organized under Caterpillar Remanufacturing Services|
|Williams Technologies, Inc.||Summerville, South Carolina, United States||2004||Delco Remy International Inc.||Remanufacturer of automatic transmissions, torque converters and engines||Organized under Caterpillar Remanufacturing Services|
|Turbomach SA||Riazzino, Switzerland||2004||Babcock Borsig AG||Packager of industrial gas turbines and related systems|
|Progress Rail||Albertville, Alabama||2006||One Equity Partners||Supplier of railroad and transit system products and services, owner of Electro-Motive Diesel|
|Hindustan PowerPlus Ltd.||Mathagondapalli, Tamil Nadu, India||2006||Hindustan Motors||Engine components and heavy-duty diesel engines||Buyout of joint venture formed in 1988, renamed Caterpillar Power India Private Ltd., merged into Caterpillar India in 2008|
|Eurenov S.A.S.||Chaumont, France||2007||Automotive component remanufacturing||Organized under Caterpillar Remanufacturing Services|
|Forestry Division of Blount International, Inc.||Portland, Oregon, United States||2007||Blount International, Inc.||Timber harvesting and processing equipment, loaders and attachments|
|Shandong Engineering Machinery (SEM)||China||2008||Wheel loaders|
|Lovat Inc.||Toronto, Ontario, Canada||2008||Tunnel boring machines||2 April 2008: "This acquisition is Caterpillar's entry into the rapidly expanding tunnel boring machine business, and it represents an excellent strategic fit for our companies and the customers we serve around the world," – Stu Levenick, Caterpillar group president.
2 May 2013: "We continuously evaluate our strategic portfolio to ensure alignment with our long-term strategy and have concluded the tunneling business no longer fits that strategy," – Stu Levenick. Caterpillar Tunneling Canada Corporation (CTCC) have notified employees that it will exit the business and cease production at its facilities by mid-2014.
|Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd.||Sagami & Akashi, Japan||2008||Mitsubishi Heavy Industries||Construction equipment||Joint venture since 1963, after purchase of majority renamed Caterpillar Japan Ltd.|
|MGE Equipamentos & Serviços Ferroviários||Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil||2008||Railroad equipment remanufacturing||Subsidiary of Progress Rail|
|Gremada Industries, Inc.||West Fargo, North Dakota, United States||2008||Gremada Industries, Inc.||Remanufacturing transmissions, torque converters, and final drives||Organized under Caterpillar Remanufacturing Services|
|Twin City Signal Inc.||Hudson, Wisconsin, United States||2008||Signaling, traffic control||Division of Progress Rail|
|JCS Co., Ltd.||Yangsan City, Kyungnam, South Korea||2009||Jinsung T.E.C. Co., Ltd.||Seal technology|
|GE Inspection Products||Erie, Pennsylvania, United States||2010||GE Transportation||Rail inspection products||Division of Progress Rail|
|FCM Rail Ltd.||Fenton, Michigan, United States||2010||Rail maintenance equipment leasing||Division of Progress Rail|
|Zeit Comercio e Montagem de Equipamentos Ltda||Curitiba, Parana, Brazil||2010||Automation and electrical equipment for locomotives and other industries||Acquired by MGE, a division of Progress Rail|
|Electro-Motive Diesel||La Grange, Illinois, United States||2010||Greenbriar Equity Group LLC, Berkshire Partners LLC, et al.||Railroad locomotives and large diesel engines||Wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail|
|Underground Imaging Technologies, Inc. (UIT)||Latham, New York, United States||2010||Geophysical services, specializing in providing three-dimensional representations of underground utilities||Organized under Cat Advanced Systems Division|
|Caterpillar Xuzhou Ltd||Xuzhou, China||2010||XCMG Group||Construction equipment||Joint venture since 1995, will become wholly owned subsidiary Caterpillar Xuzhou|
|CleanAIR Systems, Inc.||Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States||2010||Customized stationary aftertreatment solutions for internal combustion engines||Wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc. organized under Customer Services Support Division|
|MWM Holding GmbH||Mannheim, Germany||2010||3i Group Plc||Gas and diesel powered generator sets||will become part of Caterpillar's Electric Power division (formerly Deutz Power Systems division of Deutz-Fahr)|
|Bucyrus International, Inc.||South Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States||2011||Surface and underground mining equipment||Transaction closed without issuing new equity on July 8, 2011, in firm's largest acquisition ever, valued at $8.8 billion.|
|Pyroban Group Ltd||Shoreham, UK||2011||Fire and explosion prevention solutions for engines and equipment|
|Berg Propulsion||Hönö, Gothenburg, Sweden||2013||Controllable-pitch propellers for the marine industry|
|Marble Robot, Inc.||San Francisco, California, USA||2020||Robotics, machinery for groceries, prescriptions, and package delivery|
Caterpillar occasionally divests assets that do not align with its core competencies.
|Turbomach Division of Solar Turbines Incorporated||San Diego, California, United States||1985||Sunstrand Corporation||Auxiliary power units||Caterpillar's only aerospace asset, not a core competency, sold to longtime partner|
|Kato Engineering||Mankato, Minnesota, United States||1999||Emerson Electric Company||Large electrical generators||Asset swap. Caterpillar acquired F.G. Wilson from Emerson as part of transaction.|
|Agricultural equipment assets||DeKalb, Illinois, United States||2002||AGCO Corporation||Design, assembly and marketing of Challenger track tractors||Although founded as an agricultural equipment manufacturer, Caterpillar exited the business with this sale.|
|Preferred Group of Mutual Funds||not applicable||2006||T. Rowe Price Group Inc.||Mutual funds||Caterpillar Investment Management Ltd. decided to exit the investment management business.|
|Pioneer Machinery||West Columbia, South Carolina, United States||2007||Consortium of six Caterpillar dealers||Distributor of forestry equipment|
|ASV, Inc.||Grand Rapids, Minnesota, United States||2008||Terex Minnesota, Inc.||Rubber track machines||Caterpillar formerly held 23.5% of ASV outstanding shares before supporting the purchase by Terex|
|Caterpillar Logistics Services||Morton, IL, United States||2012||Platinum Equity, LLC||Logistics Services & Warehousing Solutions||Caterpillar retains a 35% equity stake. Business renamed Neovia Logistics Services LLC|
Through fiscal year 2010, Caterpillar divided its products, services, and technologies into three principal lines of business: machinery, engines, and financial products for sale to private and governmental entities. Starting in 2011, Caterpillar reports its financials using five business segments: construction industries, resource industries, power systems, financial products, and all other segments.
Caterpillar has a list of some 400 products for purchase through its dealer network. Caterpillar's line of machines range from tracked tractors to hydraulic excavators, backhoe loaders, motor graders, off-highway trucks, wheel loaders, agricultural tractors, and locomotives. Caterpillar machinery is used in the construction, road-building, mining, forestry, energy, transportation, and material-handling industries.
Caterpillar is the world's largest manufacturer of wheel loaders. The small size wheel loaders (SWL) are designed and manufactured at facilities in Clayton, North Carolina. The medium size (MWL) and large size (LWL) are designed at their Aurora, Illinois facility. Medium wheel loaders are manufactured at: Aurora, Illinois; Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; Gosselies, Charleroi, Belgium; Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil; India; and the People's Republic of China. Large wheel loaders are manufactured exclusively in the United States on three separate assembly lines at Aurora, Illinois.
Caterpillar began selling a line of on-road trucks in 2011, the Cat CT660, a Class 8 vocational truck. As of March 2016, Caterpillar has ceased production of on-highway vocational trucks stating that “Remaining a viable competitor in this market would require significant additional investment to develop and launch a complete portfolio of trucks, and upon an updated review, we determined there was not a sufficient market opportunity to justify the investment,” said Ramin Younessi, vice president with responsibility for Caterpillar's Industrial Power Systems Division. “We have not yet started truck production in Victoria, and this decision allows us to exit this business before the transition occurs.”
Engines and gas turbinesEdit
A portion of Caterpillar's business is in the manufacturing of diesel and natural gas engines and gas turbines which, in addition to their use in the company's own vehicles, are used as the prime movers in locomotives, semi trucks, marine vessels, and ships, as well as providing the power source for peak-load power plants and emergency generators.
Caterpillar 3116 engine was used up until 1997, when Caterpillar introduced the inline 6 cylinder 7.2 litre Caterpillar 3126 engine as its first electronic diesel engine for light trucks and buses. Caterpillar decreased emissions and noise the next year in the 3126B version of the engine, and improved emissions further in 2002 with the 3126E which had an improved high-pressure oil pump and improved electronics. In 2003 Caterpillar started selling a new version of this engine called the C-7 to meet increased United States emission standards that came into effect in 2004; it had the same overall design as the 3126 version, but with improved fuel injectors and electronics which included its new Advanced Combustion Emissions Reduction Technology (ACERT) system. In 2007, as ultra-low-sulfur diesel became required in North America, Caterpillar updated the C7 to use common rail fuel injectors and improved ACERT electronics.
In 1998 Caterpillar purchased Perkins Engines Company Limited of Peterborough, England, a maker of small diesel and gasoline engines. Perkins engines are used are used in various applications. Perkins engine products are dual branded with the Perkins nameplate for both loose and OEM engines, and the CAT nameplate for captive engines within Caterpillar products.
In June 2008, Caterpillar announced it would be exiting the on-highway diesel engine market in the United States before updated 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards took effect, as costly changes to the engines, which only constituted a small percentage of Caterpillar's total engine sales, would be likely.
Caterpillar Defense ProductsEdit
The Caterpillar Defence Products subsidiary, headquartered in Shrewsbury, United Kingdom, provides diesel engines, automatic transmissions, and other parts for the UK's Titan armored bridge layer, Trojan combat engineering tank, Terrier combat engineering vehicles, and tank transporters; the Romanian MLI-84 armored personnel carrier; and the Swiss Piranha III light armored vehicle, which is currently being developed for use by American light armored formations; large fleets of military trucks in both the U.S. and UK; and the CV90 family of infantry fighting vehicles used by the armies of Sweden, Norway, Finland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Denmark.
This division also provides both propulsion engines and power generation systems to the naval shipbuilding industry, such as the Series 3512B turbocharged V-12 diesel engine for American Virginia class nuclear submarines. Caterpillar diesel engines are also used in San Antonio class amphibious transport docks, Spanish Alvaro de Bazán class frigates, British River class patrol vessels, Mexican Sierra class patrol boats, and Malaysian Kedah class MEKO A-100 offshore patrol vessels. The poor network security of the Caterpillar engines puts America's submarine force at risk for cyberattack. In a recent interview on cybersecurity, the Navy clarified that Caterpillar actually has some of the most secure control systems and will be used as a model of how the Navy will design cyber protections into its control systems.
Israel buys bulldozers for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) from Caterpillar through the U.S. government foreign aid money in their civilian configuration. The military modifications and the installment of vehicle armor are done entirely in Israel by the IDF and Israeli security contractors (Israel Military Industries and Israel Aerospace Industries). The IDF uses many Caterpillar machines such as bulldozers, excavators, wheel loaders, and graders mainly for engineering, earthworks, and building projects. The most famous machine in use by the IDF's Combat Engineering Corps is the heavy IDF Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer, which is being used also for combat engineering and combat missions under fire.
The Israel Defense Forces' use of highly modified Caterpillar D9 bulldozers has led to Caterpillar being criticized by activists and some shareholders. In particular, the IDF Caterpillar D9 was involved in an incident in 2003, in which the American activist Rachel Corrie was killed by a bulldozer. A lawsuit against Caterpillar by her family and families of Palestinians, who were also killed by Caterpillar equipment, was unsuccessful. A lawsuit against Israel and Israeli Defense Ministry was rejected by the court, ruling that her death was an accident, caused by restricted field of view from the heavily armored operators' cabin. In 2014 Presbyterian Church (USA) sold its shares in Caterpillar citing the use of Caterpillar bulldozers involved in demolition and surveillance activities in the West Bank.
The Caterpillar Electronics business unit has formed Caterpillar Trimble Control Technologies LLC (CTCT), a 50:50 joint venture with Trimble Inc. CTCT develops positioning and control products for earthmoving and paving machines in the construction and mining industries, using technologies such as GNSS, optical total stations, lasers, and sonics. The products are used in a range of applications where the operator of the machine benefits from having accurate horizontal and vertical guidance. CTCT is based in Dayton, Ohio, and started its operations on April 1, 2002.
Caterpillar introduced the Challenger range of agricultural tractors as the result of several development programs over a long period of time. The program started in the 1970s and involved both D6-based units and Grader power units. A parallel program was also developing wheeled high hp tractors based on using the articulated loading shovel chassis was later merged with the crawler team. The result was the Challenger Tractor and the "Mobi-Trac" system.
The Challenger has been marketed in Europe as Claas machines since 1997, with Caterpillar marketing the Claas-built Lexion combine range in the USA. Claas and Caterpillar formed a joint venture, Claas Omaha, to build combine harvesters in Omaha, Nebraska, USA under the CAT brand. In 2002, Cat sold its stake to Claas, and licensed the use of CAT and the CAT yellow livery to Claas. They are marketed as Lexion combines now.
Also in 2002, Caterpillar sold the Challenger tracked tractor business to AGCO and licensed the use of the Challenger and CAT names and livery to them. This ended Cat's venture into agriculture.
Financial products and brand licensingEdit
Caterpillar provides financing and insurance to customers via its worldwide dealer network  and generates income through the licensing of the Caterpillar and CAT trademarks and logos.
Caterpillar sells the right to manufacture, market, and sell products bearing the Cat trademark to licensees worldwide. Wolverine World Wide is one example, a licensee since 1994 and currently the sole company licensed to produce Cat branded footwear. Other licensees sell items including scale models of Cat products, clothing, hats, luggage, watches, flashlights, shovels, knives, fans, gloves, smartphones, and other consumer products.
Caterpillar products and components are manufactured in 110 facilities worldwide. 51 plants are located in the United States and 59 overseas plants are located in Australia (until 2015), Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, England, France, Germany, Hungary, India (Tiruvallur), Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Poland, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, and Sweden.
Caterpillar's historical manufacturing home is in Peoria, Illinois, which also has been the location of Caterpillar's world headquarters and core research and development activities. Although Caterpillar has contracted much of its local parts production and warehousing to third parties, Caterpillar still has four major plants in the Peoria area: the Mapleton Foundry, where diesel engine blocks and other large parts are cast; the East Peoria factory, which has assembled Caterpillar tractors for over 70 years; the Mossville engine plant, built after World War II; and the Morton parts facility.
Major facilities in Europe:
- Belgium: Gosselies (1965): Hydraulic Excavators, Medium Wheel Loaders, components (factory closed in 2016)
- France: Grenoble and Échirolles (1961): Track Type Tractors, Track Type Loaders, Wheeled Excavators, Undercarriage components
- Hungary: Gödöllő: Fabrications, Buckets
- Italy: Minerbio: Paving Products
- Poland: Sosnowiec and Janów Lubelski: Fabrications & Sub-assemblies
- Russia: Tosno: Fabrications
- UK: Leicester: Mini-excavators; Peterlee: Articulated Dump Trucks; Peterborough: Engines; Larne and Belfast: generating sets.
Major facilities in Latin America:
- Mexico: Torreón, Acuna, Monterrey, Reynosa, San Luis Potosí, Tijuana
- Brazil: Campo Largo, Piracicaba, Curitiba, Hortolandia, Sete Lagoas
Major facilities in Latin America:
Caterpillar products are distributed to end-users in nearly 200 countries through Caterpillar's worldwide network of 220 dealers. Caterpillar's dealers are independently owned and operated businesses with exclusive geographical territories. Dealers provide sales, maintenance and repair services, rental equipment, and parts distribution. Finning, a dealer based in Vancouver, Canada, is Caterpillar's largest global distributor. Gmmco Ltd is India's No. 1 Dealer for Caterpillar Machines.
Most dealers use a management system called DBS for their day-to-day operations.
As of the first quarter of 2006, 66% of Caterpillars sales are made by one of the 63 dealers in the United States, with the remaining 34% sold by one of Caterpillar's 157 overseas dealers.
Caterpillar has a corporate governance structure where the chairman of the board also acts as chief executive officer (CEO). The board of directors is fully independent and is made up of non-employee directors selected from outside the company. Several group presidents report to the CEO, and multiple vice presidents report to each group president.
The board has three committees: audit; compensation and human resources; governance and public policy.
The behavior of all employees is governed by a code of worldwide business conduct, first published in 1974 and last amended in 2005, which sets the corporate standard for honesty and ethical behavior. Management employees are retested on this code annually.
Current board of directorsEdit
On January 1, 2017, Jim Umpleby succeeded Douglas R. Oberhelman as CEO and Dave Calhoun became non-executive chairman. On December 12, 2018, Umpleby was named chairman of the board as well, reversing Caterpillar's previous decision to split the CEO and chairman position.
Workforce and labor relationsEdit
As of December 31, 2009, Caterpillar employed 93,813 persons of whom 50,562 are located outside the United States. Current employment figures represent a decline of 17,900 employees compared the third quarter of 2008. Due to the restructuring of business operations which began in the 1990s, there are 20,000 fewer union jobs in the Peoria, Illinois area while employment outside the U.S. has increased.
In 2020, it was reported that Caterpillar was planning to cut 700 jobs at its Northern Ireland operations.
Caterpillar came close to bankruptcy in the early 1980s, at one point losing almost US$1 million per day due to a sharp downturn in product demand as competition with Japanese rival Komatsu increased. (At the time, Komatsu used the internal slogan "encircle Caterpillar".) Caterpillar suffered further when the United States declared an embargo against the Soviet Union after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, causing the company to be unable to sell US$400 million worth of pipelaying machinery that had already been built.
Due to the drastic drop in demand, Caterpillar initiated employee layoffs, which led to strikes, primarily by the members of the United Auto Workers, against Caterpillar facilities in Illinois and Pennsylvania. Several news reports at the time indicated that products were piling up so high in facilities that replacement workers could barely make their way to their work stations.
In 1992, the United Auto Workers conducted a five-month strike against Caterpillar. In response, Caterpillar threatened to replace Caterpillar's entire unionized work force. Over ten thousand UAW members struck again in 1994–1995 for 17 months, a record at that time. The strike ended with the UAW deciding to return to work without a contract despite record revenues and profits by Caterpillar. In 1994, Caterpillar offered a contract to the UAW members that would have raised the salary of top workers from $35,000 to $39,000 per year. However, the UAW was seeking the same top wage of $40,000 that was paid to workers at Deere & Company in 1994.
During the strikes, Caterpillar used management employees in an attempt to maintain production. It suspended research and development work, sending thousands of engineers and other non-bargained for employees into their manufacturing and assembly facilities to replace striking or locked out union members.
Rather than continuing to fight the United Auto Workers, Caterpillar chose to make itself less vulnerable to the traditional bargaining tactics of organized labor. One way was by outsourcing much of their parts production and warehouse work to outside firms. In another move, according to UAW officials and industry analysts, Caterpillar began to execute a "southern strategy". This involved opening new, smaller plants, termed "focus facilities", in right-to-work states. Caterpillar opened these new facilities in Clayton and Sanford, North Carolina; Greenville, South Carolina; Corinth, Mississippi; Dyersburg, Tennessee; Griffin and LaGrange, Georgia; Seguin, Texas; and North Little Rock, Arkansas.
In 2012, the company locked out workers at a locomotive plant in London, Ontario, Canada and demanded some accept up to a 50% cut in pay, in order to become cost-competitive with comparable Caterpillar manufacturing facilities in the United States. The move created controversy in Canada, with some complaining the plant was acquired under false pretenses. Retail store Mark's Work Wearhouse began pulling Caterpillar boots from its shelves as a result.
On May 1, 2012, 780 members of the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers Local Lodge 851 went on strike. An agreement was reached in August, resulting in a 6-year wage freeze. Striking workers expressed anger about the freeze given the company's record 2011 profits and CEO Oberhelman's 60% salary increase.
Coerced labor in XinjiangEdit
In June 2020, it was reported that a Caterpillar clothing wholesaler, Summit Resource International, participates in a Chinese government-run labor transfer scheme that uses forced labor of Uyghurs in internment camps.
Caterpillar divisions have won Illinois Governor's Pollution Prevention Awards every year since 1997. Caterpillar was awarded the 2007 Illinois Governor's Pollution Prevention Award for three projects: The Hydraulics and Hydraulic Systems business unit in Joliet implemented a flame sprayed coating for its truck suspension system, replacing a chroming process, reducing hazardous waste by 700,000 pounds annually, and saving 14 million US gallons (53,000 m3) of water. Caterpillar's Cast Metals Organization in Mapleton worked with the American Foundry Society to help produce a rule to reduce hazardous waste in scrap metal that meet strict quality requirements, and also allow foundries to continue recycling certain types of scrap and maintain a competitive cost structure. Caterpillar's Mossville Engine Center formed a team to look at used oil reuse and recycle processes that forced MEC to send large amounts of used oil off-site for recycling, and developed an updated system for reclaiming it for reuse on-site. The resulting benefits included a usage reduction of about 208,000 US gallons (790 m3) of oil per year.
Caterpillar in 2004 participated in initiatives such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Clean Diesel Campaign program, which encourages retrofitting fleets of older buses and trucks with newer diesel engines that meet higher emissions standards.
Caterpillar has, for many years, been a member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development based in Geneva, Switzerland and has been listed on the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index each year since 2001.
Clean Air Act violationEdit
In July 1999, Caterpillar and five other diesel engine manufacturers signed a consent decree with the Justice Department and the State of California, after governmental investigations revealed violations of the Clean Air Act. The violation involves over a million diesel engines sold with defeat devices, devices that regulated emissions during pre-sale tests, but that could be disabled in favor of better performance during subsequent highway driving. Consequently, these engines "...emit up to triple the permissible level of smog-forming nitrogen oxides (NOx). In 1998 alone, these violating vehicles emitted 1.3 million tons of additional NOx – an amount equal to the emissions of 65 million cars." For this reason, Caterpillar was named the "Clean Air Villain of the Month" for August 2000 by the Clean Air Trust. The consent decree provided that $83 million be paid in civil penalties and determined new deadlines for meeting emissions standards. Caterpillar, however, was successful in lobbying for an extension of deadlines they considered too severe. Even so, in October 2002, Caterpillar – the only diesel engine company (of those that signed decrees) to fail to meet the new emissions standards deadline – was forced to pay $128 million in per-engine non-conformance penalties.
Tax deferral techniquesEdit
In March 2017, when US federal agents raided Caterpillar's headquarters in Peoria Ill., it was already evident that the company engaged in aggressive measures to control tax costs. Since April 2014, the company's tax policies have been investigated by a senate subcommittee headed by Senator Carl Levin. Those investigations uncovered significant changes in Caterpillar's offshore tax strategy, culminating in the creation of the new Swiss subsidiary Caterpillar SARL (CSARL) in Geneva. In 1999, the former Caterpillar executive Daniel Schlicksup accused the company of funneling profits from replacement parts to Switzerland where it had no warehouses or factories. The Internal Revenue Service found the firm liable for a billion dollars of unpaid taxes for the years 2007 to 2009.
At the same time, the architect of Caterpillar's fiscal strategy, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) came also under scrutiny, owing this to a conflict of interest, acting as Caterpillar's global tax consultant and controller. The Senate uncovered documents from PWC saying the elaborate move was simply a way to evade American taxes. "We are going to have to do some dancing" one said. Another noted, "What the heck, we will all be retired when this comes up on audit."
Israel Defense Forces salesEdit
In 2004 the Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights sent a warning letter to the company about its sales of bulldozers to the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and which were used in part to destroy Palestinian farms.
Caterpillar Inc. has sought the revocations of registered trademarks in the United States incorporating the word "Cat" within the market of apparel, such as "Cat & Cloud" (a cafe in Santa Cruz, California), and Keyboard Cat. The company has faced criticism for this perceived "bullying", even when the likelihood of confusion is low.
Advocacy, philanthropy and awardsEdit
Caterpillar is a member of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, a Washington D.C.-based coalition of over 400 major companies and NGOs that advocates for increased funding of American diplomatic and development efforts abroad through the International Affairs Budget. Economic development projects in developing countries (particularly in rural, agricultural regions) serve as new markets for Caterpillar products by improving political and economic stability and raising average incomes. 2011 recipient of the Henry C. Turner Prize for Innovation in Construction Technology from the National Building Museum.
- "Caterpillar 2019 SEC Filing" (PDF). sec.gov. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Caterpillar 2017 SEC Filing". sec.gov. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- "Caterpillar – About Cat". cat.com. Caterpillar Inc. 2010. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
We deliver products, services and technologies in three principal lines of business: Machinery, Engines and Financial Products.
- "2009 Form 10-K". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 19, 2010. Archived from the original on March 24, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
As of December 31, 2009, we employed 93,813 persons of whom 50,562 were located outside the United States.
- Haddock, Keith; Orlemann, Eric (November 11, 2001). Paul Johnson (ed.). Classic Caterpillar Crawlers. St. Paul, Minnesota, United States: MBI Publishing Company. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-7603-0917-9. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- "Caterpillar Inc. 4Q 2010 Earnings Release" (PDF). caterpillar.com. Caterpillar Inc. January 27, 2011. pp. 15, 36–37, 39. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 3, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
Total sales and revenues....42,588
- Yang, Jia Lynn (May 4, 2009). "Fortune 500 2009: Top 100 American Companies – Caterpillar – CAT". FORTUNE on CNNMoney.com. Cable News Network, Inc. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- "Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List". Fortune. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "Fortune Global 500 List 2018: See Who Made It". Fortune. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "Dow Jones Averages – Dow Jones Industrial Average – Components". djaverages.com. Dow Jones & Company. 2010. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
Ticker CAT – Company Name Caterpillar Incorporated
- "Caterpillar Tractor Co. List of Deals". Lehman Brothers Collection. President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2010. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
In 1925 Holt and C.W. Best's company merged to form the Caterpillar Tractor Company.
- Buedel, Matt (January 31, 2017). "Caterpillar moving headquarters, CEO from Peoria to Chicago". Peoria Journal Star.
- Yerak, Becky (January 31, 2017). "Caterpillar will move headquarters to Chicago area, citing transportation access". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
- "Contact Us – CAT Footwear".
- "Building the Brand One Step at a Time | Cat | Caterpillar". www.cat.com. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
- "Caterpillar – Legal Notices". cat.com. Caterpillar Inc. 2010. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
"Caterpillar Yellow,"...trade dress...are trademarks of Caterpillar...
- Pernie, Gwenyth Laird (March 3, 2009). "Benjamin Holt (1849–1920): The Father of the Caterpillar tractor". Archived from the original on August 3, 2012.
- Bellis, Mary. "History of Bulldozers". About.com. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- "Agricultural Machinery, Business History of Machinery Manufacturers". Archived from the original on October 17, 2012.
- "Caterpillar History". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
- Leffingwell, Randy (1996). Classic Farm Tractors: History of the Farm Tractor. Crestline Imprints. ISBN 978-0-7603-0246-0.
- Gordon, Paul (February 16, 2010). "Cat hits 100-year milestone: Holt Caterpillar started operations in East Peoria in 1910 with 12 employees". Peoria, Illinois: Journal Star. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- Jay P. Pederson, editor. (2004). "Caterpillar Inc: Roots in Late 19th-Century Endeavors of Best and Holt". International Directory of Company Histories. 63. Farmington Hills, Michigan: St. James Press. ISBN 1-55862-508-9.
- Orleman, Eric C. (2006). Caterpillar. MBI Publishing Company. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-7603-2553-7. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
- "Newly Incorporated". January 13, 1892.
- Marotti, Lauren Zumbach, Ally (April 20, 2017). "Caterpillar bypasses Chicago, picks Deerfield for global headquarters". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
- "Caterpillar History". Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- "Holt Caterpillar". Archived from the original on December 4, 2009. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
- "The Holt 15-ton Tractor". Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- "HOLT CAT – Texas Caterpillar Dealer Equipment Sales and Service". 2007. Archived from the original on April 19, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Swinton, Ernest (1972). Eyewitness. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-405-04594-3.
- "Caterpillar On-Highway Engines: About Us>History>Growth". ohe.cat.com. Caterpillar Inc. 2007. Archived from the original on August 4, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- "Caterpillar History". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- "Pacific Rural Press". 100 (24). December 11, 1920.
- "Caterpillar History". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- "Best Tractor History". Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
- "Caterpillar's latest restructuring move could cut 880 jobs". March 16, 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
- Robert Brooks (November 6, 2011). "Caterpillar to Manufacture Off-Highway Trucks in Russia".
- "Caterpillar in Brazil". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Announces Plans for New Manufacturing Facility in Brazil" (PDF). Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "CATERPILLAR BUYS TRACKSON COMPANY; Tractor Concern to Operate $2,592,000 Acquisition as Wholly Owned Subsidiary". The New York Times. December 20, 1951. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
- "Cat Lift Trucks : About Cat". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Solar Turbines: About Solar". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- . archives.hcea.net (July 17, 2013). Retrieved on 2013–07–17.
- Ehrlich, Jennifer (March 16, 1997). "Caterpillar to expand Brooklyn Park plant".
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Dec 16, 1996". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Acquisition". The New York Times. July 3, 1996.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Dec 11, 1997". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Inc – 8-K – For 2/2/99". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jun 4, 1996". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- Henry McDonald (January 8, 2009). "FG Wilson engineering firm cuts 250 jobs". The Guardian. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
-  Archived December 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Osenga, Mike (2000). "CNH Sells Tractor Operations … Cat Buys The Rest Of Elphinstone … Parker Buys Wynn's … Manitowoc Consolidates – Brief Article". Diesel Progress North American Edition. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016.
- "Caterpillar Completes Acquisition of Sabre". Retrieved August 25, 2016.
- "Caterpillar Buys Italian Road Construction Firm". Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form DEF 14A, Filing Date Feb 24, 2005" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Feb 24, 2005". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date May 16, 2006" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar buys privately held rail services firm for $1B". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Feb 23, 2007". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- Caterpillar completes acquisition of joint-venture operations in India | Articles | South Asian Connection Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Indusbusinessjournal.com. Retrieved on March 17, 2011.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Feb 22, 2008" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Completes Acquisition of European Remanufacturing Company, Eurenov S.A". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Announces Acquisition of Blount's Forestry Division and Transition of Pioneer Machinery to Six Caterpillar Dealers – Industry News – Site Prep". Archived from the original on March 10, 2012. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Mar 12, 2008". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Aug 1, 2008" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Announce". Reuters. March 26, 2008. Archived from the original on September 5, 2009.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Feb 20, 2009" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar (CAT) Acquires Stock of MGE Equipamentos & Servicos". StreetInsider.com. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Oct 31, 2008" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar to Expand Remanufacturing Business With Acquisition of Certain Gremada". Reuters. June 16, 2008. Archived from the original on September 8, 2009.
- On the right track: Twin City Signal – Railway Track and Structures Archived June 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Rtands.com (August 28, 2009). Retrieved on 2011–03–17.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date May 3, 2010" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Announces Acquisition of JCS Co., Ltd" (PDF). Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Progress Rail Acquires GE Transportation's Inspection Products Business – Progress Rail Services. Progressrail.com (March 2, 2010). Retrieved on 2011–03–17.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Jul 30, 2010". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar unit buys FCM Rail". Businessweek.com. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Updates from Portec Rail, MGE, Eckert Seamans and ShipXpress". Progressive Railroading. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jun 1, 2010". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- Acquisition Positions Caterpillar to Deliver Subsurface Imaging and Mapping Services Archived July 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Forconstructionpros.com (January 12, 2011). Retrieved on 2011–03–17.
- China Business News: Caterpillar to buyout Caterpillar Xuzhou. Chinaknowledge.com (June 29, 2010). Retrieved on 2011–03–17.
- "Caterpillar Emissions Solutions Expands Capabilities Through Acquisition of CleanAIR Systems". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Nov 4, 2011" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar buys 3i's engine maker MWM for $810 million". Reuters. October 22, 2010.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jul 8, 2011" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Completes Acquisition of Bucyrus" (PDF). Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Cat – Products & Services – North America – Caterpillar". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar Unveils Cat® Marine Propulsion Systems, Successfully Completes Acquisition of Johan Walter Berg AB". Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- "Caterpillar Acquires Company Focused on Robot and Autonomy Technology". Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Ansley, Mary Holm (April 20, 1985). "Caterpillar To Sell Turbine Division To Sundstrand". chicagotribune.com. Chicago, Illinois, United States: Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved November 22, 2010.
Sundstrand Corp. plans to buy the Turbomach unit of Caterpillar Tractor Co. for $100 million in cash plus royalties based on future sales...
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Feb 4, 1999". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Dec 17, 2001". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- Kathie O'Donnell. "T. Rowe Price to acquire Caterpillar unit funds". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar buys Blount's local unit". November 26, 2007.
- Terex Corporation acquires ASV | Banking & Finance > Financial Markets & Investing from. AllBusiness.com. Retrieved on March 17, 2011.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Nov 2, 2012" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Platinum Equity » News – Caterpillar Completes Sale of Third-Party Logistics Business to Platinum Equity". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Annual Report 2005 on SEC Filing Form 10-K". Caterpillar, Inc. May 31, 2006. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- "Annual Report 2010 on SEC Filing Form 10-K". Caterpillar, Inc. February 22, 2011. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- "Annual Report 2015 on SEC Filing Form 10-K". Caterpillar, Inc. February 16, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- "Annual Report 2016 on SEC Filing Form 10-K". Caterpillar Inc. February 15, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- "Caterpillar Financial Statements 2005-2018 | CAT". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
- "Caterpillar Inc, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date May 9, 2011" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Cat – Produtos e Serviços – América Latina – Caterpillar". Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "On-highway truck". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar | Caterpillar to End Production of On-Highway Vocational Trucks". www.caterpillar.com.
- McDonald, Bob (September 27, 2012). "Understanding and Profiting From the Caterpillar C7 – Engine Builder Magazine". Engine Builder Magazine.
- "Caterpillar demonstrates 2007 compliant on-highway engine". Pit & Quarry. Archived from the original on June 15, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
- "Caterpillar exits on-highway engine business". Today's Trucking. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- Hinton, Christopher. "Caterpillar signs alliance deal with Navistar". MarketWatch. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- Caterpillar Defence Products Archived February 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "Caterpillar Defence Products". Armed Forces – The Defence Suppliers Directory. R & F Defence Publications. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
- "MEKO A Class Corvettes / Frigates, Germany". naval-technology.com. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
The Kedah Class MEKO A-100 patrol vessel being built for Malaysia has a displacement of 1,650t. The propulsion system is based on two Caterpillar 3616 (5,450kW) diesel engines each driving two controllable pitch propellers.
- Majumdar, Dave (October 22, 2014). "NAVSEA: Submarines Control Systems are at Risk for Cyber Attack". usni.org. U.S. NAVAL INSTITUTE. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
- "NAVSEA Chief Talks Risk, Cyber and A New Era of Naval Shipbuilding". USNI News. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Caterpillar digs in on Israeli bulldozer battle". Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Caterpillar faces an intifada". Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Gerstein, Josh (September 18, 2007). "Caterpillar Escapes Liability For Israeli Bulldozer Operations". The New York Sun. TWO SL LLC. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- Tanner, Adam (September 17, 2007). "Court dismisses suit over Israeli bulldozing". reuters.com. Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
The U.S. government paid for the bulldozers, which were transferred to the Israel Defense Forces.
- Court verdict א (חי') ALIENE CORRIE 371-05 ואח' נ' מדינת ישראל, משרד הביטחון, August 28, 2012
- Cooperman, Alan (September 29, 2004). "Israel Divestiture Spurs Clash". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
- Stoil, Rebecca Shimoni (June 21, 2014). "'We cannot profit from the destruction of homes and lives,' Presbyterians say". The Times of Israel. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- "Donald Fites, Former Caterpillar Inc. CEO & Chairman, Joins WWW Board of Directors". Business Wire. The Free Library by Farlex. February 24, 1999. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
I have been acquainted with Wolverine World Wide since 1994, when the company was licensed to manufacture and market Caterpillar footwear around the world...
- Liszewski, Andrew (February 18, 2016). "Caterpillar's New S60 Is the First Smartphone With FLIR Thermal Imaging Built Right In". Gizmodo. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- "History of the CAT brand – Stylish watches for Active Men – CAT Watches from Caterpillar". catwatches.co.uk. United Kingdom: Time Network. 2008. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
In the late 90s, Caterpillar Inc. issued its first watch license, welcome to CATWATCHES.CO.UK
- "Buy Caterpillar Apparel, Collectibles & More". shopcaterpillar.com. SureSource LLC. 2010. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
shopcaterpillar.com is operated by SureSource LLC., under license from Caterpillar Inc.
- "Caterpillar | Key Facilities". www.caterpillar.com. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- Semanario, Redacción El (August 18, 2018). "Parque Industrial Oradel impulsa innovación y crecimiento en Nuevo Laredo". El Semanario Sin Límites (in Spanish). Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "Caterpillar parts catalog". AGA Parts. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- "Corporate Overview". Archived from the original on September 26, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Narasimhan, T. E. (November 9, 2014). "Our vision is to be a leader wherever we do business: Ed Rapp". Business Standard India. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Caterpillar | Committees & Charters". www.caterpillar.com. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- "Caterpillar | Board of Directors". www.caterpillar.com. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- "Board of Directors". caterpillar.com. December 14, 2018.
- "Caterpillar Chairman and CEO Doug Oberhelman Elects to Retire in 2017; Jim Umpleby Elected as Caterpillar's Next CEO; Dave Calhoun to become Non-Executive Chairman of the Board". Caterpillar Inc. October 17, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
- Hufford, Austen (December 13, 2018). "Caterpillar Puts CEO Back in Charge of Board". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
- "Caterpillar: Up to 700 jobs to go at Larne plant". BBC News. November 5, 2020. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
- "Management". Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "USA Engage – Home". Archived from the original on October 3, 2011.
- "Caterpillar Inc". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Union Agrees To End Strike At Caterpillar". The New York Times. April 15, 1992.
- Burns, Matthew (June 24, 1996). "Caterpillar rolls into Lee County". Triangle Business Journal. Raleigh, North Carolina: American City Business Journals, Inc. Archived from the original on March 9, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
Locating plants in non-union states such as North Carolina is part of Caterpillar's effort to decrease the impact of organized labor on production, according to union officials and analysts.
- "Caterpillar gives Ontario harsh lesson in union-busting by shutting locomotive plant". The Star. Toronto. February 5, 2012.
- Olive, David (February 5, 2012). "Caterpillar likes to play hardball – so let's play hardball". The Star. Toronto.
- "Mark's Work Wearhouse pulls Caterpillar boots to protest closure of London plant". The Star. Toronto. February 5, 2012.
- Greenhouse, Steven (August 17, 2012). "Caterpillar Workers Ratify Deal They Dislike". New York Times. New York.
- Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany (June 30, 2020). "Caterpillar sourced clothes from Xinjiang factory involved in coercive labor". Axios. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- "Governor's Awards Previous Winners". Illinois Sustainable Technology Center. Champaign, Illinois: Institute of Natural Resource Sustainability, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
- Illinois Department Of Natural Resources October 25, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2008 Archived June 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Cat backs plan to cut school bus emissions". Trailer/Body Builders. Retrieved August 31, 2007.[dead link]
- "Diesel Engine School Bus Retrofit Technology Workshop, Baltimore, MD, April 29, 2004". Maryland Department of the Environment. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
- "$12 Million from Caterpillar Inc. to The Nature Conservancy Launches Ambitious Global Freshwater River Project and Establishes a Great Rivers Center". The Nature Conservancy. Archived from the original on December 14, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
- "WBCSD member companies". World Business Council for Sustainable Development. August 3, 2007. Archived from the original on April 18, 2003. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
- "Dow Jones Sustainability World Index Recognizes Caterpillar's Leadership for the Fifth Consecutive Year". PRNewswire. September 21, 2005. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
- "Six Diesel Engine Companies". Clean Air Villain of the Month. Clean Air Trust. August 1, 2000. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
- "Justice Department Announces FY2003 Record Year For Recovery Of Civil Penalties In Environmental Cases". United States Department of Justice. December 16, 2003. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
- Reid, T. R. (April 4, 2017). A Fine Mess. 2603: Penguin Press.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Bushey C. (2017).
Feds search Caterpillar HQ. Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- "The UN vs. Caterpillar". Haaretz. June 16, 2004.
- "US bulldozer firm in Mid-East row". BBC. June 15, 2004.
- Linville, Kyla (May 28, 2019). "Cat and Cloud Coffee in Santa Cruz facing trademark controversy against Caterpillar Inc". KSBW.com. Hearst Television. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Weissman, Cale Guthrie (June 7, 2019). "Caterpillar Inc. is trying to stop a tiny café from using the word cat". Fast Company. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Geigner, Timothy. "Caterpillar Now Going After All The Cats For Trademark Cancellations". Techdirt. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- "U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, Global Trust members". U.S. Global Leadership Coalition. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Orlemann, Eric C. Caterpillar Chronicle, The History of the World's Greatest Earthmovers. Minneapolis, MN: MBI Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 978-0-7603-3673-1
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caterpillar Inc..|
- NYSE: CAT
- Official website
- Business data for Caterpillar:
- Cat Products Official Website
- Antique Caterpillar Machinery Owners Club
- Antique Caterpillar Machinery Enthusiasts
- Photos of early Holt machinery
- Caterpillar Tractor Company Photograph Collection at Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School