Open main menu

The Media of the People's Republic of China (alternatively Media of China, Chinese Media) consists primarily of television, newspapers, radio, and magazines. Since 2000, the Internet has also emerged as an important form of communication by media, and is placed under the supervision of the Chinese government.

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and until the 1980s, almost all media outlets in Mainland China were state-run. Independent media outlets only began to emerge at the onset of economic reforms, although state-run media outlets such as Xinhua, CCTV, and People's Daily continue to hold significant market share. Independent media that operate within the PRC (excluding Hong Kong and Macau, which have separate media regulatory bodies) are no longer required to strictly follow journalistic guidelines set by the Chinese government.[1][failed verification] Hong Kong, though, is witnessing increasing complaints about self-censorship.[2][citation needed] However, regulatory agencies, such as the General Administration of Press and Publication (GAPP) and the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television (SARFT), continue to set strict regulations on subjects considered taboo by the government, including but not limited to the legitimacy of the Communist Party, government policies in Tibet and Xinjiang, pornography, and the banned religious topics, such as the Dalai Lama and the Falun Gong.

Despite heavy government monitoring, however, the Mainland Chinese media has become an increasingly commercial market, with growing competition, diversified content, and an increase in investigative reporting. Areas such as sports, finance, and the increasingly lucrative industries of Entertainment, Lifestyle, and Architecture / Interior Decoration of which some publications claiming up to 100,000 print run per month, face little regulation from the government.[3] Media controls were most relaxed during the 1980s under Deng Xiaoping, until they were tightened in the aftermath of the 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests. They were relaxed again under Jiang Zemin in the late 1990s, but the growing influence of the Internet and its potential to encourage dissent led to heavier regulations again under the government of Hu Jintao.[4] Reporters Without Borders consistently ranks China very poorly on media freedoms in their annual releases of the Press Freedom Index, labeling the Chinese government as having "the sorry distinction of leading the world in repression of the Internet".[5] For 2019, China ranked 177 out of 180 nations.

HistoryEdit

The government is heavily involved in the media in the PRC, and the largest media organizations (namely CCTV, the People's Daily, and Xinhua) are agencies of the Party-State: "The first social responsibility and professional ethic of media staff should be understanding their role clearly and being a good mouthpiece. Journalists who think of themselves as professionals, instead of as propaganda workers, are making a fundamental mistake about identity," Hu Zhanfan, the president of CCTV.[6] Media taboos include topics such as the legitimacy of the Communist Party of China, the governance of Tibet, and Falun Gong. Within those restrictions there is a diversity of the media and fairly open discussion of social issues and policy options within the parameters set by the Party.

The diversity in mainland Chinese media is partly because most state media outlets no longer receive heavy subsidies from the government, and are expected to cover their expenses through commercial advertising.[7] They can no longer merely serve as mouthpieces of the government, but also need to attract advertising through programming that people find attractive.[8] While the government issues directives defining what can be published, it does not prevent, and in fact encourages outlets to compete for viewers and advertising.

The era of Government control over the Mainland Chinese media, however, has not come to an end. For example, the Government utilises financial incentives to manipulate journalists.[9] Recently, though, the Government's command over the nation's media has begun to falter. Despite government restrictions, much information is gathered either at the local level or from foreign sources and passed on through personal conversations and text messaging. This paired with the withdrawal of government media subsidies has caused many newspapers (including some owned by the Communist Party) in tabloids to take bold editorial stands critical of the government, as the necessity to attract readers and avoid bankruptcy has been a more pressing fear than government repression.[8]

In addition, the traditional means of media control have proven extremely ineffective against newer forms of communication, most notably text messaging.[citation needed]

Although the government can and does use laws concerning state secrets to censor press reports about social and political conditions, these laws have not prevented the press from all discussion of Chinese social issues. Chinese newspapers have been particularly affected by the loss of government subsidies, and have been especially active at gaining readership though must engaging in hard hitting investigative reporting and muckraking.[citation needed] As a result, even papers which are nominally owned by the Communist Party are sometimes very bold at reporting social issues. However, both commercial pressures and government restrictions have tended to cause newspapers to focus on lurid scandals often involving local officials who have relatively little political cover, and Chinese newspapers tend to lack depth in analysis of political events, as this tends to be more politically sensitive.[citation needed]

Among social issues first reported in the press of mainland China include[citation needed] the unsafe state of mines in mainland China.[citation needed] In addition, the SARS coverup was first revealed by a fax to CCTV which was forwarded to Western news media.[citation needed]

China Bans 'Simpsons' From Prime-Time TV]. Associated Press: August 13, 2006</ref>

Newspapers and journalsEdit

 
A current issue of Renmin Ribao posted on a newspaper display board in Hangzhou
Investigation of potential copyright issue

Please note this is about the text of this Wikipedia article; it should not be taken to reflect on the subject of this article.

Do not restore or edit the blanked content on this page until the issue is resolved by an administrator, copyright clerk or OTRS agent.

If you have just labeled this page as a potential copyright issue, please follow the instructions for filing at the bottom of the box.

 

The previous content of this page or section has been identified as posing a potential copyright issue, as a copy or modification of the text from the source(s) below, and is now listed on Wikipedia:Copyright problems (listing):

Unless the copyright status of the text on this page is clarified, the problematic text or the entire page may be deleted one week after the time of its listing.

Temporarily, the original posting is still accessible for viewing in the page history.

Can you help resolve this issue?
If you hold the copyright to this text, you can license it in a manner that allows its use on Wikipedia.
  1. You must permit the use of your material under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA) and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) (unversioned, with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts).
  2. Explain your intent to license the content on this article's discussion page
  3. To confirm your permission, you can either display a notice to this effect at the site of original publication or send an e-mail from an address associated with the original publication to permissions-en wikimedia.org or a postal letter to the Wikimedia Foundation. These messages must explicitly permit use under CC-BY-SA and the GFDL. See Wikipedia:Donating copyrighted materials.
  4. Note that articles on Wikipedia must be written from a neutral point of view and must be verifiable in published third-party sources; consider whether, copyright issues aside, your text is appropriate for inclusion in Wikipedia.
You can demonstrate that this text is in the public domain, or is already under a license suitable for Wikipedia.
Explain this on this article's discussion page, with reference to evidence. Wikipedia:Public domain and Wikipedia:Compatibly licensed may assist in determining the status.
Otherwise, you may write a new article without copyright-infringing material.

Your rewrite should be placed on this page, where it will be available for an administrator or clerk to review it at the end of the listing period. Follow this link to create the temporary subpage.

  • Simply modifying copyrighted text is not sufficient to avoid copyright infringement—if the original copyright violation cannot be cleanly removed or the article reverted to a prior version, it is best to write the article from scratch. (See Wikipedia:Close paraphrasing.)
  • For license compliance, any content used from the original article must be properly attributed; if you use content from the original, please leave a note at the top of your rewrite saying as much. You may duplicate non-infringing text that you had contributed yourself.
  • It is always a good idea, if rewriting, to identify the point where the copyrighted content was imported to Wikipedia and to check to make sure that the contributor did not add content imported from other sources. When closing investigations, clerks and administrators may find other copyright problems than the one identified. If this material is in the proposed rewrite and cannot be easily removed, the rewrite may not be usable.
State that you have created a rewrite on this article's discussion page.
About importing text to Wikipedia
  • Posting copyrighted material without the express permission of the copyright holder is unlawful and against Wikipedia policy.
  • If you have express permission, this must be verified either by explicit release at the source or by e-mail or letter to the Wikimedia Foundation. See Wikipedia:Declaration of consent for all enquiries.
  • Policy requires that we block those who repeatedly post copyrighted material without express permission.
Instructions for filing

If you have tagged the article for investigation, please complete the following steps: