List of world records in chess
- 1 Game length records
- 2 Game play records
- 3 National records
- 4 Tournament records
- 4.1 Perfect tournament and match scores
- 4.2 Consecutive tournament victories
- 4.3 Most tournament victories
- 4.4 Most wins in a national championship
- 4.5 Most decisive Interzonal victory
- 4.6 Most games won
- 4.7 Most games lost
- 4.8 Lost all games on time
- 4.9 Most world champions in a tournament
- 4.10 Largest tie for first
- 4.11 Highest percentage of players below 50% in a tournament
- 4.12 Highest percentage of draws in a tournament
- 4.13 Highest performance rating in a tournament
- 5 Playing records
- 6 Rating records
- 7 Age-related records
- 8 Simultaneous and blindfold records
- 9 Writing-related records
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
|This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves.|
Game length recordsEdit
The longest tournament chess game (in terms of moves) ever to be played was Nikolić–Arsović, Belgrade 1989, which lasted for 269 moves and took 20 hours and 15 minutes to complete a drawn game. At the time this game was played, FIDE had modified the fifty-move rule to allow 100 moves to be played without a piece being captured in a rook and bishop versus rook endgame, the situation in Nikolić versus Arsović. FIDE has since rescinded that modification to the rule.
The longest decisive tournament game is Danin–Azarov, Turnov 2016, which Danin won in 239 moves. In the 9th round of THT Extraliga (highest Czech team league), Danin needed to win his game to make the match end in a 4:4 draw. Although he managed to do that, his team (TŽ Třinec) was relegated from the highest league in the end.
The second longest decisive tournament game is Fressinet–Kosteniuk, Villandry 2007, which Kosteniuk won in 237 moves. The last 116 moves were a rook and bishop versus rook ending, as in Nikolić – Arsović. Fressinet could have claimed a draw under the fifty-move rule, but did not do so since neither player was keeping score, it being a rapid chess game. Earlier in the tournament, Korchnoi had successfully invoked the rule to claim a draw against Fressinet; the arbiters overruled Fressinet's argument that Korchnoi could not do so without keeping score. Fressinet, apparently wanting to be consistent, did not try to claim a draw against Kosteniuk in the same situation.
Shortest decisive gameEdit
The fewest moves required to deliver checkmate in chess is two, in what is known as Fool's mate (1.g4 e5 2.f3?? Qh4# and variants thereof). This has been known to occur in amateur play. Chessgames.com gives a game L. Darling–R. Wood, 1983, that was published on April Fool's Day in Northwest Chess magazine (1.g4 e6 2.f4?? Qh4#). Bill Wall lists, in addition to Darling–Wood, three other games that ended with Black checkmating on the second move. In a tournament game at odds of , White delivered checkmate on move 2: W. Cooke–"R____g", Cape Town Chess Club handicap tournament 1908 (remove Black's f-pawn) 1.e4 g5?? 2.Qh5#. The same game had previously been played in Leeky–Mason, Dublin 1867.
If one counts forfeited games as a loss in zero moves, then there have been many such forfeits, the most notable examples being Game 2 of the 1972 world championship match between Boris Spassky and Bobby Fischer, which Fischer defaulted, and Game 5 of the 2006 world championship match between Vladimir Kramnik and Veselin Topalov, which Kramnik defaulted.
Under recently instituted FIDE rules, a player who is late for the beginning of a round loses the game, as does a player who has a forbidden electronic device (by default any device). The former rule was used at the 2009 Chinese Championship to forfeit Hou Yifan for arriving five seconds late for the beginning of a round. The latter rule was used to forfeit Aleksander Delchev against Stuart Conquest after the move 1.d4 in the 2009 European Team Championship.
The German grandmaster Robert Hübner also lost a game without playing any moves. In a World Student Team Championship game played in Graz in 1972, Hübner played one move and offered a draw to Kenneth Rogoff, who accepted. However, the arbiters insisted that some moves be played, so the players played the following ridiculous game: 1.c4 Nf6 2.Nf3 g6 3.Ng1 Bg7 4.Qa4 0-0 5.Qxd7 Qxd7 6.g4 Qxd2+ 7.Kxd2 Nxg4 8.b4 a5 9.a4 Bxa1 10.Bb2 Nc6 11.Bh8 Bg7 12.h4 axb4 (draw agreed). The arbiters ruled that both players must apologize and play an actual game at 7 p.m. Rogoff appeared and apologized; Hübner did neither. Hübner's clock was started, and after an hour Rogoff was declared the winner. Wang Chen and Lu Shanglei both lost a game in which they had played no moves. They agreed to a draw without play at the 2009 Zhejiang Lishui Xingqiu Cup International Open Chess Tournament held in Lishui, Zhejiang Province, China. The chief arbiter declared both players to have lost the game.
More rarely, a player might decide to protest by resigning a game rather than forfeiting. A game between Fischer and Oscar Panno, played at the Palma de Mallorca Interzonal 1970, went: 1.c4 Black resigns. Panno refused to play to protest the organizers' rescheduling of the game to accommodate Fischer's desire not to play on his religion's Sabbath. Panno was not present when the game was to begin. Fischer waited ten minutes before making his move and went to get Panno to convince him to play. Fifty-two minutes had elapsed on Panno's clock before he came to the board and resigned. (At the time, an absence of sixty minutes resulted in a forfeit.)
The shortest decisive tournament game that was decided because of the position on the board (i.e. not because of a forfeit or protest) is Z. Đorđević–M. Kovačević, Bela Crkva 1984. It lasted only three moves (1.d4 Nf6 2.Bg5 c6 3.e3?? Qa5+ winning the bishop), and White resigned. This was repeated in Vassallo–Gamundi, Salamanca 1998. (In a number of other games, White has played on after 3...Qa5+, occasionally drawing or even winning in this line.) The shortest game ever lost by a grandmaster because of the position on the board was by future world champion Viswanathan Anand, who resigned on move 6 against Alonso Zapata in 1988 (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nf3 Nxe4 5.Nc3 Bf5?? 6.Qe2 winning a piece, since 6...Qe7 is answered by 7.Nd5 Qe6? 8.Nxc7+).
A game may be drawn by mutual agreement in any number of moves. Traditionally, it has been common for players to agree to a "grandmaster draw" after playing about 10–15 moves of known opening theory and making no serious effort to win. This is usually done to preserve energy in a tournament, after a devastating loss in the previous round of the tournament, or in the final round when no prize money is at stake. There has been some debate over the ethics of the practice, and recently there has been a trend away from such games, with many tournaments adopting measures to discourage short draws. If the tournament officials (unlike those at Graz and Lishui) do not object, a game may even be agreed drawn without a single move being played. According to ChessGames.com, in the 1968 Skopje–Ohrid tournament Dragoljub Janosevic and Efim Geller agreed to a draw without playing any moves. Tony Miles and Stewart Reuben did the same thing in the last round of the Luton 1975 tournament, "with the blessing of the controller", in order to assure themselves of first and second places respectively.
Shortest World Championship gameEdit
As mentioned above, Fischer (in 1972) and Kramnik (in 2006) each forfeited a world championship game without playing any moves. Other than those unplayed games, the shortest game in a world championship was the 21st match game in the World Chess Championship 1963 between Mikhail Botvinnik and Tigran Petrosian. The players agreed to a draw after the 10th move by White (Petrosian). The shortest decisive, non-forfeited world championship game occurred between Viswanathan Anand and Boris Gelfand in game 8 of the World Chess Championship 2012. Gelfand resigned after Anand's 17th move, 17.Qf2.
The shortest known stalemate, composed by Sam Loyd, involves the sequence 1.e3 a5 2.Qh5 Ra6 3.Qxa5 h5 4.Qxc7 Rah6 5.h4 f6 6.Qxd7+ Kf7 7.Qxb7 Qd3 8.Qxb8 Qh7 9.Qxc8 Kg6 10.Qe6 (diagram). The shortest stalemate with all of the pieces on the board, composed by Charles H Wheeler, occurs after 1.d4 d6 2.Qd2 e5 3.a4 e4 4.Qf4 f5 5.h3 Be7 6.Qh2 Be6 7.Ra3 c5 8.Rg3 Qa5+ 9.Nd2 Bh4 10.f3 Bb3 11.d5 e3 12.c4 f4 (minor variations are possible). These games are nonsensical from the point of view of chess strategy, but both have occasionally been played in tournaments as a joke, as part of a prearranged draw. The shortest known route to a position where both players are stalemated, discovered by Enzo Minerva and published in the Italian newspaper l'Unità on 14 August 2007, is 1.c4 d5 2.Qb3 Bh3 3.gxh3 f5 4.Qxb7 Kf7 5.Qxa7 Kg6 6.f3 c5 7.Qxe7 Rxa2 8.Kf2 Rxb2 9.Qxg7+ Kh5 10.Qxg8 Rxb1 11.Rxb1 Kh4 12.Qxh8 h5 13.Qh6 Bxh6 14.Rxb8 Be3+ 15.dxe3 Qxb8 16.Kg2 Qf4 17.exf4 d4 18.Be3 dxe3. The shortest genuine stalemate in a serious game was played in Ravenna 1982, when the Italian master Mario Sibilio forced a stalemate on move 27 against grandmaster Sergio Mariotti.
Fewest moves played in a tournamentEdit
Game play recordsEdit
Latest first captureEdit
In Rogoff–Williams, World Junior Chess Championship, Stockholm 1969, the first capture (94.bxc5) occurred on White's 94th move. Filipowicz–Smederevac, Polanica Zdroj 1966, was drawn in 70 moves under the fifty-move rule, without any piece or pawn having been captured.
Latest first capture in a decisive gameEdit
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Be7 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 d6 8.c3 Na5 9.Bc2 c5 10.d4 Qc7 11.h3 0-0 12.Nbd2 Bd7 13.Nf1 Nc6 14.d5 Nd8 15.g4 Ne8 16.Ng3 g6 17.Kh2 Ng7 18.Rg1 f6 19.Be3 Nf7 20.Rg2 Kh8 21.Qd2 Qc8 22.Rh1 Rg8 23.Rhg1 a5 24.Kh1 b4 25.c4 a4 26.Bd3 Qa6 27.Qe2 Raf8 28.Nd2 Qc8 29.f3 Ne8 30.Ndf1 Kg7 31.Bc1 h6 32.Ne3 Kh7 33.Rh2 Nh8 34.h4 Rf7 35.Nd1 Bf8 36.Nf2 Bg7 37.f4 Bf8 38.Qf3 Qd8 39.Nh3 Qe7 (diagram) 40.g5 Bxh3 41.f5 hxg5 42.hxg5 Rgg7 43.Rxh3+ Kg8 44.fxg6 Rxg6 45.Nf5 Qd7 46.Rg2 fxg5 47.Rgh2 Bg7 48.Rxh8+ Bxh8 49.Qh5 Rff6 50.Qxh8+ Kf7 51.Rh7+ Ng7 52.Rxg7+ Rxg7 53.Qxg7+ 1–0
Largest number of helpless pinned piecesEdit
In the final position of G. Chandler–R. Kynoch, Edinburgh Club Championship 1981, White's knight on f6 administered checkmate with three black pieces capable of capturing it, except that all three could not do so because they were pinned against Black's king.
The book 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties contains the games with the ten highest-ranked (TNs) that appeared in each of Volumes 11 through 110 of Chess Informant. The earliest such novelty occurred on White's fourth move in Karpov–Miles, Bugojno 1978, namely 1.c4 b6 2.d4 e6 3.d5 Qh4 4.Nc3! The latest occurred on Black's 34th move (34...Kd5!) in Shulman–Marin, Reykjavík Open 2009. The only game to receive a perfect rating from Chess Informant's panel of judges was Miles–Belyavsky, Tilburg 1986, which featured the novelty 18.f4!! It received 90 points, 10 out of a possible 10 from each of the 9 judges.
Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia has continued to hold the record for greatest number of grandmasters. In the November 2018 rating list, 229 of the 1645 grandmasters were from Russia.
Greatest concentration of resident grandmastersEdit
In 2005, Reykjavík, Iceland, with eight grandmasters (Jon Arnason, Jóhann Hjartarson, Margeir Petursson, Fridrik Olafsson, Throstur Thorhallsson, Helgi Gretarsson, Hannes Stefansson, and Bobby Fischer) had a higher percentage of resident grandmasters per capita than any other city worldwide; the city of 114,000 had, therefore, one grandmaster per 14,000 residents.
Most rated playersEdit
As of November 2018, Germany has the highest number of active FIDE-rated players with 11,813. Russia, by comparison, has 11,313.
Perfect tournament and match scoresEdit
In top-class chess it is rare for a player to complete a tournament or match with a 100 percent score. Some notable examples are:
- Gustav Neumann at Berlin in 1865 (34/34)
- William Pollock at Belfast 1886 (8/8)
- Emanuel Lasker at New York in 1893 (13/13)
- Henry Atkins at Amsterdam 1899 (15/15)
- José Raúl Capablanca at New York in 1913 (13/13, including one default)
- Dawid Janowski at Paris in 1914 (9/9)
- Alexander Alekhine at Moscow in 1919–20 (11/11)
- Boris Kostić at Hastings 1921–22 (7/7)
- Bobby Fischer at the US Championship of 1963/64 (11/11)
- Alexander Beliavsky at Alicante in 1978 (13/13)
- Sandro Mareco at Montevideo in 2017 (9/9)
Perfect scores were achieved in matches by:
- Howard Staunton over Daniel Harrwitz in 1846 (7/7)
- Wilhelm Steinitz over Joseph Henry Blackburne in 1876 (7/7)
- Capablanca over Kostić in 1919 (5/5)
- Fischer over Mark Taimanov in 1971 (6/6) (quarter-final Candidates Match)
- Fischer over Bent Larsen in 1971 (6/6) (semi-final Candidates Match)
William Lombardy is the only player ever to achieve a perfect score in the World Junior Chess Championship, open to players under the age of 20 as of January 1 in the year of competition. He scored 11–0 at Toronto 1957.
Vera Menchik won four consecutive Women's World Chess Championship tournaments with perfect scores, a total of 45 games (8–0 at Prague 1931, 14–0 at Folkestone 1933, 9–0 at Warsaw 1935, and 14–0 at Stockholm 1937). She only played 43 of the 45 games, since Harum, the Austrian contestant, was unable to reach Folkestone and thus forfeited all of her games in that double round robin event.
Alekhine scored 9–0 on for France at the 3rd Chess Olympiad (Hamburg, 1930), and Dragoljub Čirić scored 8–0 as second reserve (the sixth player on his team) for Yugoslavia at the 17th Olympiad (Havana, 1966), but each played only about half of the possible games. Robert Gwaze scored 9–0 on first board for Zimbabwe at the 35th Olympiad (Bled, 2002).
Wesley So scored 9/9 in the 2011 Inter-Provincial Chess Team Championship, with a performance rating of 3037, won the gold medal in men's blitz at the SEA Games 2011 at Indonesia with a score of 9/9 and a rating performance of 3183, and won the 2013 Calgary International Blitz Championship with a score of 9/9.
Consecutive tournament victoriesEdit
Most tournament victoriesEdit
Most wins in a national championshipEdit
As of November 2014, Carlos Juárez has won the national championship of Guatemala 25 times.
Most decisive Interzonal victoryEdit
The highest percentage score at an Interzonal was 82.5% (16½ points out of 20 games), scored by Alexander Kotov at the 1952 Stockholm Interzonal. The largest margin of victory was achieved by Bobby Fischer, who won the Palma de Mallorca Interzonal in 1970 with 18½ points out of 23 games, 3½ points ahead of second-place finishers Bent Larsen, Efim Geller and Robert Hübner.
Most games wonEdit
Gustav Neumann won all 34 of his games at the aforementioned Berlin 1865 tournament.
Most games lostEdit
Nicholas MacLeod holds the record for the most games lost in a single tournament: he lost 31 games at the Sixth American Chess Congress at New York 1889, while winning six and drawing one. MacLeod was only 19, and the tournament, a 20-player double-round robin, was one of the longest tournaments in chess history. The most games lost by a player who lost all of his games in a tournament was by Colonel Moreau. At Monte Carlo 1903, Moreau lost all 26 of his games.
Lost all games on timeEdit
Most world champions in a tournamentEdit
Nottingham 1936 included five past, current, and future world champions: reigning champion Max Euwe; Alexander Alekhine, who had lost the title to Euwe the prior year, and would regain it the following year; former champions Emanuel Lasker and José Raúl Capablanca; and Mikhail Botvinnik, who would win the championship in 1948. This record was equaled by Moscow 1971 and the 1973 Soviet Chess Championship, each of which included former champions Vasily Smyslov, Mikhail Tal, and Tigran Petrosian; Boris Spassky, who was champion from 1969 to 1972; and future champion Anatoly Karpov.
Largest tie for firstEdit
Thirteen players tied for first with 5–1 scores at the National Open held on March 17–19, 2000 in Las Vegas: grandmasters Jaan Ehlvest, Alexander Goldin, Alexander Baburin, Pavel Blatny, Eduard Gufeld, Yuri Shulman, Alex Yermolinsky, Gregory Kaidanov, Dmitry Gurevich, Alexander Stripunsky, and Gregory Serper, and International Masters Rade Milovanovic and Levon Altounian.
Highest percentage of players below 50% in a tournamentEdit
At the Linares 2001 tournament, five of the six players (83.3%) finished with a minus score. Garry Kasparov won with 7½/10, while Judit Polgár, Alexander Grischuk, Peter Leko, Alexei Shirov, and Anatoly Karpov tied for second to sixth places, each with 4½/10.
Highest percentage of draws in a tournamentEdit
At the 1999 Petrosian Memorial tournament, 42 of the 45 games (93.3%) were drawn. Five of the ten players drew all nine of their games.
Highest performance rating in a tournamentEdit
This section possibly contains original research. (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- 3103, Karen H. Grigoryan, VII Torneio Internacional Cidade Famalicão 2019
- 3098, Fabiano Caruana, Sinquefield Cup 2014
- 3021, Gabriel Sargissian, Zafra 2007
- 3001, Magnus Carlsen, Pearl Spring 2009
Note: If one includes performances before the Elo rating system was established, then Emanuel Lasker's score of 13 out of 13 in the 1893 Tournament in New York has a Chessmetrics performance of 3190. The tournament was Category 12 and Lasker's rating at that point was 2749.
Consecutive wins against mastersEdit
Wilhelm Steinitz won his last 16 games at Vienna 1873, including a two-game playoff against Blackburne at the end. He played no serious chess until an 1876 match against Blackburne that Steinitz swept 7–0. After a long period of inactivity, Steinitz played at Vienna 1882, where he won his first two games before finally ending his winning streak with a draw. Steinitz's 25-game winning streak over nine years has never been equaled.
In modern times, Bobby Fischer won 20 consecutive games, all in competitions at late stages of the world championship cycle. (Some commentators give this as 19, electing not to count Fischer's game against Oscar Panno, who resigned after Fischer's first move as a protest). Fischer won his last seven games at the 1970 Palma de Mallorca Interzonal (including the one-move game against Panno), then swept Mark Taimanov 6–0 in the quarterfinals followed by Bent Larsen by the same score in the semifinals. In the Candidates Match final, Fischer beat former World Champion Tigran Petrosian in the first game before Petrosian snapped the streak by winning the second match game.
Longest unbeaten streakEdit
In classical chess Bogdan Lalic (+44, =66) and Sergei Tiviakov (+57, =53) both claim to have played 110 consecutive tournament games without losing, although neither player faced exclusively elite-level opponents during their streak. The longest confirmed streak at elite level belongs to Magnus Carlsen, who is currently unbeaten through 102 games since 31 July 2018, when he lost a game in the Biel tournament against Shakhriyar Mamedyarov. Carlsen tied the previous record of 100 games on 21 October 2019 by drawing against Levon Aronian in the FIDE Grand Swiss Tournament 2019. Carlsen's current streak also represents the longest unbeaten streak played by a reigning world champion and includes a stretch of 12 undefeated games against Fabiano Caruana at the 2018 World Chess Championship.
The previous record of 100 unbeaten games belonged to Ding Liren, who went undefeated between 9 August 2017, when he lost one game in a match with Anish Giri, and 11 November 2018, when he lost to Maxime Vachier-Lagrave in round 7 of the Shenzhen Masters tournament, this streak being the longest in history by a player above 2800 Elo points at the moment of the end of the streak at the time. This included his undefeated run at the Candidates Tournament 2018.
Wilhelm Steinitz went 9 years without a loss (including his 25 consecutive win streak mentioned above), but the streak included only 32 games.
Most wins against world championsEdit
- Keres defeated every world champion from Capablanca (3rd) to Fischer (11th): José Raúl Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, Max Euwe, Mikhail Botvinnik, Vasily Smyslov, Mikhail Tal, Tigran Petrosian, Boris Spassky, Bobby Fischer.
- Korchnoi defeated every undisputed world champion from Botvinnik (6th) to Kasparov (13th), and also Carlsen (16th): Botvinnik, Smyslov, Tal, Petrosian, Spassky, Fischer, Anatoly Karpov, Garry Kasparov, Magnus Carlsen.
- Beliavsky has defeated every undisputed world champion from Smyslov (7th) to Carlsen (16th), except for Fischer: Smyslov, Tal, Petrosian, Spassky, Karpov, Kasparov, Vladimir Kramnik, Viswanathan Anand, Carlsen.
If disputed world champions are included, then Garry Kasparov, Korchnoi, and Beliavsky share the record at 11. Kasparov has defeated 7 undisputed world champions (Smyslov, Tal, Petrosian, Spassky, Karpov, Kramnik, Anand) as well as 4 FIDE world champions (Alexander Khalifman, Ruslan Ponomariov, Rustam Kasimdzhanov and Veselin Topalov). Korchnoi defeated the 9 mentioned above, plus FIDE champions Ponomariov and Topalov. Beliavsky defeated the 9 mentioned above, plus FIDE champions Khalifman and Topalov.
If draws are included, Korchnoi has beaten or drawn 11 undisputed world chess champions in a row in classical games (he had draws against Anand and Kramnik) and all 4 disputed world champions (draws against Khalifman and Kasimdzhanov) – that is, every one since Alekhine's death in 1946.
Progression of highest rating record Player Rating Year-month first achieved Bobby Fischer 2760 1971-01 Bobby Fischer 2785 1972-01 Garry Kasparov 2800 1990-01 Garry Kasparov 2805 1993-01 Garry Kasparov 2815 1993-07 Garry Kasparov 2820 1997-07 Garry Kasparov 2825 1998-01 Garry Kasparov 2851 1999-07 Magnus Carlsen 2861 2013-01 Magnus Carlsen 2872 2013-02 Magnus Carlsen 2881 2014-03 Magnus Carlsen 2882 2014-05
Carlsen also holds the highest unofficial "live rating" of 2889.2, achieved on April 21, 2014.
Largest rating leadEdit
On the July 1972 FIDE rating list, Bobby Fischer's rating of 2785 was 125 points ahead of the second-highest rated player, then-reigning World Champion Boris Spassky (2660). Kasparov's biggest lead at his peak was 82 points in January 2000. In both the January and July 1990 rating lists, Kasparov was rated 2800 while Karpov was the only player rated 2700+, with third place being at 2680 although the identity of the third-place player changed. Magnus Carlsen's biggest lead was 74 points in October 2013.
Jeff Sonas of Chessmetrics calculates that in April 1876 Wilhelm Steinitz was the top-ranked player in the world, with a rating a record 199 points above that of Henry Bird, the second-ranked player.
Longest duration as number oneEdit
Garry Kasparov was the world's highest-rated player on FIDE's rating list for a record 255 months, a number that is well ahead of all other world number ones since the inception of the list. Before the list, Emanuel Lasker was the world's highest-rated player for 292 months between June 1890 and December 1926 according to Chessmetrics.
The youngest player to be awarded the grandmaster title by FIDE is Sergey Karjakin. In 2002 he qualified for the title at the age of 12 years, 7 months, and 0 days. See List of youngest grandmasters for the history of this record.
Several players have been awarded honorary or retrospective grandmaster titles based on their past achievements. The oldest of these was Enrico Paoli, who was awarded the title in 1996 at the age of 88.
Apart from retrospective awards, a number of players have achieved the title by winning the World Senior Championship. The oldest player to gain the title in this way was Yuri Shabanov, who won the 2003 event and was awarded the title at the age of 66.
Youngest player to defeat a grandmasterEdit
Simultaneous and blindfold recordsEdit
Best and worst results in simultaneous exhibitionsEdit
In 1922, José Raúl Capablanca, the recently crowned World Champion, played 103 opponents simultaneously in Cleveland. He completed the exhibition in seven hours, scoring 102 wins and one draw (99.5%), the best result ever in a simultaneous exhibition on over 75 boards.
The best result in a simultaneous exhibition solely against grandmasters is former World Champion Garry Kasparov's performance against an Israeli team consisting of Boris Alterman, Alexander Huzman, Ilya Smirin, and Emil Sutovsky at Tel Aviv in 1998. Adding to the difficulty Kasparov played Black in half the games; usually in exhibitions the exhibitor plays White on all boards. A second round was played 2 days later with colors reversed. Kasparov scored 7–1 against an all 2600+ rated team and considers it one of the peak performances of his career.
Paul Morphy also gave an impressive exhibition. On April 26, 1859, at London's St. James Chess Club, Morphy played "five games simultaneously against a group of masters who could be described as among the top ten players of the day", scoring 3–2. He defeated Jules Arnous de Rivière and Henry Bird, drew Samuel Boden and Johann Löwenthal, and lost only to Thomas Wilson Barnes.
The worst result in a simultaneous exhibition given by a master occurred in 1951, when International Master Robert Wade gave a simultaneous exhibition against 30 Russian schoolboys, aged 14 and under. After 7 hours of play, Wade had lost 20 games and drawn the remaining 10 (16.7%).
Most games in blindfold exhibitionsEdit
The record for the most games played in a blindfold simultaneous exhibition is 48, set by Timur Gareyev in December 2016, when he played 48 opponents over 20 hours, scoring 35 wins, 7 draws and 6 losses.
Most players taking part in a multi-simulEdit
Most simultaneous gamesEdit
Longest-running chess columnEdit
Leonard Barden's daily chess column for the London Evening Standard began in June 1956, and was published daily in the printed newspaper until July 30, 2010, a total run of 54 years and 1 month. It has since continued online, and is still running as of April 2018.
- "Ivan Nikolic vs. Goran Arsovic (1989)". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Chess records © Tim Krabbé". Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Alexandre Danin vs. Sergei Azarov (2016)". Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "Laurent Fressinet vs. Alexandra Kosteniuk (2007)". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- A chess feast in Château de Villandry Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine
- "Viktor Korchnoi vs. Anatoly Karpov". Chessgames.com. Archived from the original on 2017-09-27. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- "Lance Darling vs. Richard Wood (1983)". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Miniatures. Retrieved on 2009-01-04.
- Edward Winter, Chess Note 5858 Archived 2017-04-29 at the Wayback Machine.
- (Winter 2003, p. 99)
- It counts as a loss for tournament score, but not for rating calculations where a forfeit is treated as an unplayed game.
- (Brady 1973, pp. 244–45)
- Chess Informant, Volume 98, Šahovski Informator, 2007, p. 295.
- New rule. Good or bad? You decide. Archived 2012-02-17 at the Wayback Machine susanpolgar.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2009-10-25.
- "Novi Sad: another loss by ringtone". ChessBase News. 2009-10-25. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Robert Huebner vs. Kenneth S Rogoff (1972) Going Rogoff". www.chessgames.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- (Alexander 1973, pp. 80–81)
- Susan Polgar Daily Chess News and Information, Double forfeit Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine (based on Polgar's translation of Chinese-language Sina Sports Archived 2009-10-09 at the Wayback Machine, published 2009-09-21). Retrieved on 2009-09-29.
- (Brady 1973, p. 179)
- (Wade & O'Connell 1973, pp. 344, 410)
- (Brady 1973, p. 245)
- "Zoran Djordjevic vs. Milorad Kovacevic (1984)". Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 177)
- Tim Krabbé, Entry No. 257 Archived 2006-05-25 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2009-05-04.
- "Carl D Latino vs. Steven R Dumas (2010)". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Barden, Leonard (February 3, 2017). "Hou Yifan resigns after five moves in protest over her Gibraltar pairings". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017.
- "Alonso Zapata vs. Viswanathan Anand (1988)". Chessgames.com. Archived from the original on 2011-02-27.
- "Dragoljub Janosevic vs. Efim Geller (1968)". Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- (Whyld 1986, p. 124)
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 178)
- "Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian vs. Mikhail Botvinnik (1963)". www.chessgames.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Viswanathan Anand vs. Boris Gelfand (2012)". chessgames.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Chess Notes by Edward Winter". Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Johan Upmark vs. Robin Johansson (1995) "A Stale Joke"". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Jens Hohmeister vs. Tena Frank (1993)". Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Sibilio vs. Mariotti, Ravenna 1982 Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
- (Winter 2008)
- "Kenneth Rogoff vs. Arthur Howard Williams (1969) "Trade Restrictions"". Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Andrzej Filipowicz vs. Petar Smederevac (1966)". Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "Reinhard Nuber vs. Roland Keckeisen (1994)". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- The game appears in "The Game of Chess" by Harry Golombek, Penguin Books, first published 1954, on page 119. The game is only given from move 40 onwards, but the diagram showing position on move 40 shows all pieces and pawns present.
- "Yates, Frederic D – Znosko-Borovsky, Eugene 1927, Tunbridge Wells, Tunbridge Wells". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Geoff Chandler vs. Richard Kynoch (1981) On Pins and Needles". www.chessgames.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- British Chess Magazine, February 1985, "Quote & Querie" No. 4394.
- Chess Informant, 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties, 2012, p. 3.
- 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties, p. 94
- "Anatoly Karpov vs. Anthony Miles (1978)". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties, pp. 579–80.
- "Yury Shulman vs. Mihail Marin (2009)". Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties, p. 311.
- "Anthony Miles vs. Alexander Beliavsky (1986) "Big Fun"". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "The Beer Sheva Chess Club". Chess News. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- FIDE ratings advanced search
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 129)
- (Di Felice 2004, p. 101)
- (Winter 1998)
- (Cload & Keene 1991, pp. 123–24)
- Hooper and Whyld call Fischer's achievement "the most remarkable achievement of this kind", noting that the 1963/64 U.S. Championship was "a tournament of about category 10." (Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 81)
- (Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 81)
- (Soltis 2002, pp. 81–83)
- (Sunnucks 1970, p. 76)
- Sunnucks also lists Alekhine's 10/10 score at Caracas 1939, but Soltis writes that it, and Buenos Aires 1926, which Alekhine won with the same score, were "weak events". (Soltis 2002, p. 81).
- (Fox & James 1993, pp. 17–18)
- (Kažić 1974, pp. 273–74)
- Lombardy 2011, back cover.
- (Kažić 1974, pp. 261–63)
- (Sergeant 1934, p. 324)
- (Kažić 1974, pp. 16, 95)
- (Hook 2008, p. 177)
- His fifth samovar – Morozevich wins 64th Moscow Blitz Archived 2010-09-03 at Wikiwix, "WGM Valentina Gunina with a truly astounding result", "an incredible 100% result, winning all seventeen games she played".
- "Chess-Results Server Chess-results.com – Tournament-Database". Chess-results.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Chess-Results Server Chess-results.com – Tournament-Database". Chess-results.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-09. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Chess-Results Server Chess-results.com – Tournament-Database". Chess-results.com. 2011-11-21. Archived from the original on 2013-12-09. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "2013 Calgary International Chess Classic – International – Standings". Calgaryinternationalchessclassic.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-07. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- ""The chess games of Garry Kasparov"". Archived from the original on 2017-01-18.
- "Chess Chat with John Curdo". Archived from the original on 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
- "Carlos Juárez y Carolina Mazariegos monarcas nacionales de Ajedrez 2014". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- (Chernev 1974, p. 50)
- (Fox & James 1993, pp. 168–69)
- (Winter 1996, p. 3)
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 169)
- (Whyld 1986, p. 125)
- Edward Winter, Chess Note 8237 Archived 2014-03-28 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Saemisch . . . was brought in as a last minute substitute. He made chess history by losing every game on time." The Chess Player, Modern Opening Chess Theory as Surveyed in Busum 1969 Complete with All the Games (1969), p. 1.
- (Hooper & Whyld 1992, pp. 352–53)
- Chess Informant, Volume 12, Šahovski Informator, 1972, p. 235.
- B. Cafferty and M. Taimanov, The Soviet Championships, Cadogan Books, 1998, p. 160. ISBN 1-85744-201-6.
- Robert Byrne, CHESS; Gufeld is One of Lucky 13 at Top of the National Open Archived 2017-04-23 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, April 23, 2000. Retrieved on 2011-10-09.
- Chessgames.com, Petrosian Memorial (1999) Archived 2014-05-15 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2014-05-14.
- "VII Torneio Internacional Cidade Famalicão 2019". Archived from the original on 2019-08-08.
- "Sinquefield Cup 2014 results". Archived from the original on 2018-01-22.
- "d5 or not d5, that is the question". Chessbase. 5 September 2007. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017.
- (Soltis 2002, p. 42)
- (Soltis 2002, pp. 43, 73)
- Friedel, Frederic (23 May 2017). "New in Chess Invincibility List". ChessBase. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- "Shakhriyar Mamedyarov vs Magnus Carlsen (2018) State of Shakh". www.chessgames.com. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
- "Aronian, Levon vs. Carlsen, Magnus | FIDE Chess.com Grand Swiss 2019". chess24.com. Retrieved 2019-10-21.
- "All tied at Shenzen Masters". ChessBase. 12 November 2018.
- "Ding defeated! Tiviakov celebrates!". ChessBase. 2018-11-11. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
- "August 2019 FIDE rating list". Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-10-11. Retrieved 2015-10-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Retrieved on 2015-04-24.
- All Time Rankings Archived 2009-11-26 at the Wayback Machine – lists the top 10 from 1970 to 1997.
- The Week in Chess 270 Archived 2008-11-21 at the Wayback Machine, The Week in Chess, January 10, 2000. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
- "Top 20 for any month". Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- "Top 100 Players October 2013 FIDE Top players archive". Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "The Greatest Chess Player of All Time – Part I". Chess News. Archived from the original on 4 March 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- A new record by Awonder Archived 2012-11-27 at the Wayback Machine (July 30, 2012). Susan Polgar Chess Daily News and Information. Retrieved on 2012-10-11.
- (Damsky 2005, p. 235)
- (Chernev 1974, p. 8)
- Chessgames.com, Kasparov's super simuls Archived 2014-07-18 at the Wayback Machine
- (Soltis 2002, p. 103)
- (Kotov 1964, p. 66)
- (Chernev 1974, p. 110)
- (Fox & James 1993, pp. 170–71)
- GM Alexander Kotov wrote that former World Champion Max Euwe warned new arrivals in Moscow, "Just don't give exhibitions against Pioneers" (i.e. students at the Palaces of the Pioneers) (Kotov 1964, p. 66).
- "48 blindfold boards – The tale behind the record". Chessbase. 14 January 2017. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017.
- http://www.theweekinchess.com/html/malcolmpein/world-mass-simul-record-broken-in-india[permanent dead link]
- "Simultaneous Chess-Playing Record Set in India". The New York Times. 2010-12-26. Archived from the original on 2014-01-04.
- "World Record 604 Board Simultaneous Chess Exhibition by GM Ehsan Ghaem Maghami (IRI)". Fide.com. 2011-02-10. Archived from the original on 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Barden on the longest running chess column". chessbase.com. 2010-10-25. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-16.
- "Chess – with Leonard Barden". Evening Standard. 2015-04-17. Archived from the original on 2018-04-04. Retrieved 2015-05-16.
- Alexander, C.H.O'D. (1973), A Book of Chess, New York: Harper & Row, ISBN 0-06-010048-6
- Brady, Frank (1973), Profile of a Prodigy: The Life and Games of Bobby Fischer (2nd ed.), New York: David McKay, ISBN 978-0-679-50075-9
- Chernev, Irving (1974), Wonders and Curiosities of Chess, New York: Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-23007-8
- Cload, Reg; Keene, Raymond (1991), Battles of Hastings, Oxford and New York: Pergamon Chess, ISBN 0-08-037791-2
- Damsky, Yakov (2005), The Batsford Book of Chess Records, London: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-8946-4
- Di Felice, Gino (2004), Chess Results, 1747–1900, Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-2041-3
- Fox, Mike; James, Richard (1993), The Even More Complete Chess Addict, London, Boston: Faber and Faber, ISBN 0-571-17040-4
- Friedel, Frederic (2009). "Linares: The Anibal Hall of Fame". chessbase.com. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Harding, Tim (1999). "Is Khalifman the real World Champion?". chesscafe.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Hearst, Eliot; Knott, John (2009), Blindfold Chess: History, Psychology, Techniques, Champions, World Records, and Important Games, Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., ISBN 978-0-7864-3444-2
- Hook, Bill (2008), Hooked on Chess: A Memoir, Alkmaar: New in Chess, ISBN 978-90-5691-220-8
- Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992), The Oxford Companion to Chess, London, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-866164-9
- Kažić, B.M. (1974), International Championship Chess: A Complete Record of FIDE Events, New York: Pitman, ISBN 0-273-07078-9
- Kotov, Alexander (January–February 1964), "Why the Russians?", Chessworld: 62–69
- Lombardy, William, Understanding Chess: My System, My Games, My Life, New York: Russell Enterprises, ISBN 978-1-93649-022-6
- Morse, Jeremy (1995), Chess Problems: Tasks and Records, Faber and Faber, ISBN 0-571-15363-1 Concentrates on maximum tasks and records.
- Sergeant, Philip (1934), A Century of British Chess, Philadelphia: David McKay
- Soltis, Andy (2002), Chess Lists Second Edition, Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland and Company, ISBN 0-7864-1296-8
- Sunnucks, Anne (1970), The Encyclopaedia of Chess, New York: St. Martin's Press
- Tal, Mikhail (1976), The Life and Games of Mikhail Tal, New York: RHM Press, ISBN 0-89058-027-8
- Wade, Robert; O'Connell, Kevin (1973), Bobby Fischer's Chess Games (2nd ed.), Garden City, New York: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-08627-X
- Whyld, Ken (1986), Chess: The Records, Enfield, Middlesex: Guinness Books, ISBN 0-85112-455-0
- Winter, Edward (1996), Chess Explorations, London: Cadogan Books, ISBN 978-1-85744-171-0
- Winter, Edward (1998). "A Chess Idealist". chesshistory.com. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Winter, Edward (2003), A Chess Omnibus, Milford, Connecticut: Russell Enterprises, Inc., ISBN 1-888690-17-8
- Winter, Edward (2008). "Chess Records". chesshistory.com. Retrieved 2008-12-29.