Chess Records was an American record company established in 1950 in Chicago, specializing in blues and rhythm and blues. It was the successor to Aristocrat Records, founded in 1947. It expanded into soul music, gospel music, early rock and roll, and jazz and comedy recordings, released on the Chess and its subsidiary labels Checker and Argo/Cadet. The Chess catalogue is owned by Universal Music Group and managed by Geffen Records.
|Parent company||Universal Music Group|
|Status||Active in the present day (since its later incarnations)|
|Country of origin||United States|
Established and run by two Jewish immigrant brothers from what was then Poland, Leonard and Phil Chess, the company produced and released many singles and albums regarded as central to the rock music canon. The musician and critic Cub Koda described Chess as "America's greatest blues label".
Chess was based at several locations on the south side of Chicago, initially at South Cottage Grove Ave. The most famous was 2120 S. Michigan Avenue, from May 1957 to 1965, immortalized by the Rolling Stones in "2120 South Michigan Avenue", an instrumental recorded there during the group's first U.S. tour in 1964. The building is now the home of Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation. In the mid-1960s, Chess relocated to a much larger building, the former home of Revere Camera Company at 320 E. 21st Street, the label's final Chicago home. Shortly before the death of Leonard Chess in 1969, the brothers sold the company.
Chess brothers' companyEdit
Leonard Chess bought a stake in Aristocrat Records in 1947. In 1950, he brought his brother, Phil, into the operation, and they became the sole owners of the company. In the same year, they brought in a third partner, Evelyn Aron, and renamed the company Chess Records.
In 1951, the Chess brothers began an association with Sam Phillips, of the Memphis Recording Service, the forerunner of Sun Records. One of the most important recordings that Phillips gave to Chess was "Rocket 88", by Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats (the band was actually Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm), which topped Billboard magazine's R&B Records chart and was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1998 in recognition of its influence on rock and roll. One of the most important artists that came out of Memphis was Howlin' Wolf, who stayed with the label until his death in 1976. Musical figures created for Chess by Bo Diddley, Willie Dixon, Chuck Berry, Howlin Wolf, Muddy Waters, Buddy Guy, and others were the basis of much subsequent rock and roll. Many songs created by Chess artists were later covered by many rock artists, including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Fleetwood Mac, the Beach Boys and Eric Clapton.
In 1952, the brothers started Checker Records as an alternative label for radio play (radio stations had a policy of only playing a limited number of records from any one imprint). In December 1955, they launched a jazz and pop label, Marterry, a name created from the first names of Leonard and Phil's sons, Marshall and Terry. This was quickly renamed Argo Records, but the name was changed again in 1965 to Cadet Records to end confusion with an existing British spoken-word label.
In the mid-1950s, the Chess brothers received two doo-wop groups by Alan Freed, the Coronets and the Moonglows; the former group was not very popular but the latter achieved several major crossover hits including "Sincerely", which was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002. Several of Chess's releases gave a writing credit to Alan Freed.
During the 1950s, Leonard and Phil Chess handled most of the recording production themselves. They brought in producer Ralph Bass in 1960 to handle the gospel output and some of the blues singers. Bassist and songwriter Willie Dixon was also heavily involved in organizing blues sessions for the label and is now credited retroactively as a producer on some re-releases. During the 1960s, the company's A&R manager and chief producer for soul and R&B recordings was Roquel "Billy" Davis, who had previously worked with Motown founder Berry Gordy on songs for Jackie Wilson, Etta James, Marv Johnson and other early Motown releases.
Chess Records was also known for its regular band of session musicians who played on most of the company's Chicago soul recordings, including the drummer Maurice White and the bassist Louis Satterfield, both of whom later shaped the funk group Earth, Wind & Fire; the guitarists Pete Cosey, Gerald Sims and Phil Upchurch; the pianist Leonard Caston, later a producer for Motown; and the organist Sonny Thompson. In 1962, Chess Records was sued by Peacock Records for recording their artists Reverend Robert Ballinger and the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi.
In 1969, Chess Records established a subsidiary label in the U.K., Middle Earth Records, which was distributed by Pye Records. The subsidiary specialized in Psychedelic rock and was a joint venture with the Middle Earth Club in London. The Middle Earth label released only four albums and about a dozen singles before it closed in 1970.
The company was briefly run by Marshall Chess, Leonard's son, in his position as vice president between January and October 1969 and then as president following its acquisition by GRT, before he went on to found Rolling Stones Records.
Under GRT and All PlatinumEdit
In 1969, the Chess brothers sold the label to General Recorded Tape (GRT) for $6.5 million. In October 1969, Leonard Chess died and by 1972, the only part of Chess Records still operating in Chicago was the recording studio, Ter-Mar Studios. Following the sale of Chess to GRT, Phil left the label to run radio station WVON. In the 1970s, Chess Records and its publishing arm, Arc Music, were successfully sued by Muddy Waters and Willie Dixon for nonpayment of royalties due to them. Ter-Mar Studios operated at the 2120 S. Michigan building until its closure in 1979.
In the early 1980s, noticing that much of the Chess catalogue was commercially unavailable, Marshall Chess was able to convince Joe and Sylvia Robinson, who ran All Platinum, to reissue the catalogue themselves under his supervision (All Platinum had been licensing selected tracks to other companies, which ultimately resulted in the disappearance of some original master tapes). The reissued singles and LPs sold well, but by the mid-80s All Platinum had fallen into financial difficulties, and the Chess master recordings were acquired by MCA Records, which itself was later merged with Geffen Records, a Universal Music imprint.
In the 2000s, Universal's limited-edition reissue label, Hip-O Select, began releasing a series of comprehensive box sets devoted to such Chess artists as Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, Little Walter, Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry.
In July 2008, the 2008 Universal Studios fire burned down a warehouse filled with Universal Music Group recording masters, including many albums and songs released by Chess. These masters, by artists such as Chuck Berry, were "priceless" and irreplaceable; while UMG claimed at the time it had copies, later reporting questioned this, with it emerging that the masters were destroyed.
Chess Records was the subject of two films produced in 2008, Cadillac Records and Who Do You Love?. In addition to the Chess brothers, both films feature portrayals of or characters based on Willie Dixon, Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Chuck Berry, Howlin' Wolf and Etta James. Cadillac Records was directed by Darnell Martin and features an ensemble cast including Adrien Brody, Mos Def, Beyoncé Knowles and Jeffrey Wright. Who Do You Love was directed by Tony Award winner Jerry Zaks and stars Alessandro Nivola playing Leonard Chess "as a complicated, driven man, hard on both his musicians and his family, yet with a real love for some of America's greatest music." The world premiere of the latter film was at the Toronto International Film Festival, September 11, 2008.
Chess LP-1425 to LPS-1553 (1956–1970)Edit
The original Chess LP series started with LP-1425 and included albums on both the Chess and the Checker labels. After 1437, the series was used exclusively for the Chess label; the Checker label switched to a 2970 series.
|LP-1425||Rock, Rock, Rock||Various Artists||soundtrack album for the motion picture of the same name featuring The Moonglows, Chuck Berry and The Flamingos|
|LP-1426||After School Session||Chuck Berry|
|LP-1427||The Best of Muddy Waters||Muddy Waters|
|LP-1428||The Best of Little Walter||Little Walter||released on Checker|
|LP-1429||Oh! Suzy-Q||Dale Hawkins||released on Checker|
|LP-1430||Look! It's the Moonglows||The Moonglows|
|LP-1431||Bo Diddley||Bo Diddley||released on Checker|
|LP-1432||One Dozen Berrys||Chuck Berry|
|LP-1433||The Flamingos||The Flamingos||released on Checker|
|LP-1434||Moanin' in the Moonlight||Howlin' Wolf|
|LP-1435||Chuck Berry Is on Top||Chuck Berry|
|LP-1436||Go Bo Diddley||Bo Diddley||released on Checker|
|LP-1437||Down and Out Blues||Sonny Boy Williamson||released on Checker|
|LP-1438||House of the Blues||John Lee Hooker||compiles tracks from 1951–52|
|LP-1439||Oldies in Hi-Fi||Various Artists|
|LP/LPS-1440||Benny Rides Again||Benny Goodman|
|LP-1441||Bunch of Goodies||Various Artists|
|LP-1442||Soulful Saxophone||Gene Ammons|
|LP-1443||In a German Beer Garden||Bob Kames at the Organ|
|LP-1444||Muddy Waters Sings "Big Bill"||Muddy Waters|
|LP-1445||Jug and Sonny||Gene Ammons and Sonny Stitt|
|LP-1446||Walkin' by Myself...and Other Blues Hits of the Past||Various Artists|
|LP-1447||The Funniest Woman in the World: Moms Mabley Onstage||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1448||Rockin' at the Hops||Chuck Berry|
|LP/LPS-1449||At Newport 1960||Muddy Waters|
|LP-1450||Have I Had You Before?||Patsy Abbott|
|LP-1451||The Trial||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP-1452||Moms Mabley at the 'UN' '||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1453||The Loneliest Gal in Town||Little Miss Cornshucks|
|LP-1454||John Lee Hooker Plays & Sings the Blues||John Lee Hooker|
|LP-1455||Memphis Slim||Memphis Slim|
|LP-1456||New Juke Box Hits||Chuck Berry|
|LP-1457||Larry Williams||Larry Williams|
|LP-1458||Murray the K's Golden Gassers||Various Artists|
|LP-1459||Fun||Freddie & Flo Robinson|
|LP-1460||"Moms" Mabley at the Playboy Club||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1461||Murray the K's Blasts from the Past||Various Artists|
|LP-1462||Pigmeat at the Party||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP-1463||Moms Mabley at Geneva Conference||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1464||Jimmy McCracklin Sings||Jimmy McCracklin|
|LP-1465||Chuck Berry Twist||Chuck Berry||also released as More Chuck Berry|
|LP-1467||Anything Goes with Pigmeat||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP-1468||Big Bill Broonzy and Washboard Sam||Big Bill Broonzy / Washboard Sam||split album|
|LP-1469||Howlin' Wolf||Howlin' Wolf|
|LP-1470||Murray the K's Gassers for Submarine Race Watchers||Various Artists|
|LP-1471||The Best of Bobby Lester and the Moonglows||Bobby Lester and the Moonglows|
|LP-1472||Moms Mabley Breaks it Up||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1473||Rinky Dink||Dave "Baby" Cortez|
|LP-1474||Treasure Tunes from the Vault||Various Artists|
|LP-1475||The World's Greatest Clown||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP-1476||Dance Tunes from the Vault, Volume 2||Various Artists|
|LP-1477||Young Men Si, Old Men No||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1478||Groups of Goodies||Various Artists|
|LP-1479||I Got Somethin' to Tell You||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1480||Chuck Berry on Stage||Chuck Berry|
|LP-1481||Slappy White at the Club Harlem||Slappy White|
|LP-1482||The Funny Sides of Moms Mabley||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1483||Folk Singer||Muddy Waters|
|LP-1484||Open the Door Richard||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP-1485||Chuck Berry's Greatest Hits||Chuck Berry|
|LP-1486||Moms Wows||Moms Mabley|
|LP-1487||The Best of Moms and Pigmeat Volume One||Moms Mabley / Pigmeat Markham||split album|
|LP/LPS-1488||St. Louis to Liverpool||Chuck Berry|
|LP/LPS-1489||Full Bloom||Miss Jackie Ross|
|LP-1490||The Blues Soul of Johnny "Guitar" Watson||Johnny "Guitar" Watson||also released as I Cried For You|
|LP-1491||Groups of Goodies Volume 2||Various Artists|
|LP/LPS-1492||Shades of a Genius||Mitty Collier|
|LP-1493||Mr. Funny Man||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP-1494||Up Tight||Clay Tyson|
|LP/LPS-1495||Chuck Berry in London||Chuck Berry|
|LP/LPS-1496||I Do Love You||Billy Stewart|
|LP-1497||The Men in My Life||Moms Mabley|
|LP/LPS-1498||Fresh Berry's||Chuck Berry|
|LP/LPS-1499||Unbelievable||Billy Stewart||also released as Summertime|
|LP-1500||This'll Kill Ya!||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP-1501||The Real Folk Blues||Muddy Waters|
|LP-1502||The Real Folk Blues||Howlin' Wolf|
|LP-1503||The Real Folk Blues||Sonny Boy Williamson|
|LP-1504||One More Time......||Moms Mabley / Pigmeat Markham||split album|
|LP/LPS-1505||If You Can't Be Good, Be Careful!||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP/LPS-1506||The Comeback||Herb Lance|
|LP/LPS-1507||Muddy, Brass & the Blues||Muddy Waters|
|LP/LPS-1508||The Real Folk Blues||John Lee Hooker|
|LP/LPS-1509||More Real Folk Blues||Sonny Boy Williamson|
|LP/LPS-1510||The Real Folk Blues||Memphis Slim|
|LP/LPS-1511||More Real Folk Blues||Muddy Waters|
|LP/LPS-1512||More Real Folk Blues||Howlin' Wolf|
|LP/LPS-1513||Billy Stewart Teaches Old Standards New Tricks||Billy Stewart|
|LP/LPS-1514||Chuck Berry's Golden Decade||Chuck Berry|
|LP/LPS-1515||Mr. Vaudeville||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP/LPS-1516||The Baroques||The Baroques|
|LP-1517||Save Your Soul, Baby!||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP/LPS-1518||Sax and the Single Girl||Charlie Chalmers|
|LP/LPS-1519||Wayne Cochran!||Wayne Cochran|
|LP/LPS-1520||Petal Pushers||Various Artists||The Bystanders - Royal Blue Summer Sunshine Day; Sounds Around - Red White And You; Pennsylvania Sixpence - Love Of The Common People; Ali Ben Dhown - Mustapha; Pinkerton's Colours - MUM And DAD; The Bystanders - Make Up Your Mind; The Traffic Jam - Almost But Not Quite There; Tony Crane - Anonymous Mr. Brown; Ali Ben Dhown - Turkish Delight; The Bystanders - Pattern People.|
|LP/LPS-1522||Heavy Heads||Various Artists|
|LP/LPS-1523||Here Come the Judge||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP/LPS-1524||The Last Request||Ben Branch and Operation Breadbasket|
|LP/LPS-1525||Moms Mabley Breaks Up the Network||Moms Mabley|
|LP/LPS-1526||Tune Me In||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP/LPS-1527||I Left My Blues in San Francisco||Buddy Guy|
|LP/LPS-1528||Heavy Heads Voyage 2||Various Artists|
|LP/LPS-1529||The Hustlers||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP/LPS-1530||Moms Mabley Sings||Moms Mabley|
|LP/LPS-1531||Fathers and Sons||Muddy Waters|
|LP/LPS-1532||Koko Taylor||Koko Taylor|
|LP-1533||Blues from Big Bill's CopaCabana||Various Artists|
|LP/LPS-1534||Pigmeat's Bag||Pigmeat Markham|
|LP-1535||Hate to See You Go||Little Walter||Chess Vintage Series|
|LP-1536||Bummer Road||Sonny Boy Williamson||Chess Vintage Series|
|LP-1537||Whose Muddy Shoes||Elmore James / John Brim||Chess Vintage Series|
|LP-1538||Door to Door||Albert King / Otis Rush||Chess Vintage Series|
|LP-1539||Sail On||Muddy Waters||Chess Vintage Series reissue of Chess LP-1427|
|LP-1540||Evil||Howlin' Wolf||Chess Vintage Series reissue of Chess LP-1434|
|LP-1544||Pop Origins Volume One||Various Artists|
|LP/LPS-1545||Moogie Woogie||The Zeet Band|
|LP/LPS-1546||Souled Out||Various Artists|
|LPS-1547||Billy Stewart Remembered||Billy Stewart|
|LPS-1548||Just a Taste||Joann Garrett|
|LPS-1549||On the Case||The SCLC Operation Breadbasket Orchestra and Choir|
|LPS-1550||Back Home||Chuck Berry|
|LPS-1551||Black Merda||Black Merda|
|LP-1552||Rocky Roberts||Rocky Roberts|
|LP-1553||They Call Me Muddy Waters||Muddy Waters|
Chess Vintage SeriesEdit
The Chess Vintage LP series started with LP-407 and featured 9 albums released in 1970/71 with an additional three albums released in 1975.
|LP-407||Chicago Bound||Jimmy Rogers||with Little Walter and Muddy Waters recorded 1954-56|
|LP-408||Hung Down Head||Lowell Fulson||recorded 1954-61|
|LP-409||I Was Walking Through the Woods||Buddy Guy|
|LP-410||Natural Man||J. B. Lenoir|
|LP-411||Drop Down Mama||Various Artists||featuring Johnny Shines, Robert Nighthawk, Big Boy Spire, Honey Boy Edwards and Floyd Jones|
|CHV-412||Shoutin', Swingin' And Makin' Love||Various Artists||featuring Jimmy Rushing, Jimmy Witherspoon, Wynonie Harris and Al Hibbler|
|CHV-413||Rare Unissued Recordings, Vintage 1951-53||Various Artists||featuring Leo Parker, Sahib Shihab and Red Saunders|
|CHV-414||Chicago's Boss Tenors (1948-1956)||Various Artists||featuring Tom Archia, Gene Ammons, Claude McLin and Johnny Griffin|
|CHV-415||South Side Jazz||Various Artists||featuring Eddie South, Eddie Johnson, Prince Cooper, Red Saunders and Dave Young|
|CHV-416||Confessin' the Blues||Little Walter|
|CHV-417||One Way Out||Sonny Boy Williamson|
|CHV-418||Change My Way||Howlin' Wolf|
GRT consolidated Chess/Cadet album discography (1971–1975)Edit
|Chess CH-50001||Another Dimension||Bo Diddley|
|Chess CH-50002||Message to the Young||Howlin' Wolf|
|Cadet CA-50004||Freedom Means||The Dells|
|Cadet CH-50005||Great Female Soul Vocalists||Various Artists|
|Cadet Concept CC-50006||Hey Love||The New Rotary Connection|
|Cadet CA-50007||Occasional Rain||Terry Callier|
|Chess CH-50008||San Francisco Dues||Chuck Berry|
|Cadet CA-50009||Mystical Lady||Shirley Scott|
|Cadet Concept CC-50010||Oh What a Lovely War||Colonel Bagshot|
|Cadet CA-50011||Swahili Strut||Bobby Bryant Sextet|
|Chess CH-50012||Live at Mr. Kelly's||Muddy Waters|
|Chess CH-50013||Greatest Hits||Little Milton|
|Chess CH-50014||Power and Light||Power & Light|
|Chess CH-50015||Live and Cookin'||Howlin' Wolf|
|Chess CH-50016||Where it All Began||Bo Diddley|
|Cadet CA-50017||The Dells Sing Dionne Warwick's Greatest Hits||The Dells|
|Chess CH-50018||Basic Soul||Koko Taylor|
|Cadet CA-50019||What Color Is Love||Terry Callier|
|Cadet CA-50020||The Groover||Ramsey Lewis|
|Cadet CA-50021||Sweet as Funk Can Be||The Dells|
|Cadet 2CA-50022||The Best of the Soulful Strings||The Soulful Strings|
|Chess CH-50023||Can't Get No Grindin'||Muddy Waters|
|Cadet CA-50024||Check This Out||Jack McDuff|
|Cadet CA-50025||Lean on Me||Shirley Scott|
|Cadet CA-50026||Mr. Bojangles||Sonny Stitt|
|Chess 2CH-50027||This Is My Story||Sonny Boy Williamson|
|Chess CH-50029||The London Bo Diddley Sessions||Bo Diddley|
|Chess 2CH-50030||The Golden Age of Rhythm and Blues||Various Artists|
|Chess CH-50031||Love More Than Pride||Laura Lee|
|Chess CH-50032||Ghettos of the Mind||Bama the Village Poet|
|Chess 2CH-50033||Fathers and Sons||Muddy Waters|
|Cadet CA-50034||Teardrops in the Rain||Johnny Nash|
|Cadet 2CA-50035||Inspiration||Ahmad Jamal|
|Cadet CA-50036||Superstition||Shirley Scott|
|Cadet CA-50037||Give Your Baby a Standing Ovation||The Dells|
|Cadet 2CA-50038||It Was a Very Good Year||Ray Bryant|
|Cadet 2CA-50039||I Cover the Waterfront||Sonny Stitt|
|Chess CH-50040||Come and Get Me||Kim Tolliver|
|Cadet CA-50041||I Just Can't Help Myself||Terry Callier|
|Chess CH-50042||Etta James a.k.a. Only a Fool||Etta James|
|Chess CH-50043||Bio||Chuck Berry|
|Cadet CA-50044||Songs for Ageing Children||Dave Van Ronk|
|Chess CH-50045||The Back Door Wolf||Howlin' Wolf|
|Cadet CA-50046||The Dells||The Dells|
|Chess CH-50047||Big Bad Bo||Bo Diddley|
|Cadet CA-50048||While My Guitar Gently Weeps||Jimmy Ponder|
|Cadet CA-50049||Atlantis||Daniel Salinas|
|Cadet CA-50051||The Fourth Dimension||Jack McDuff|
|Cadet CA-50052||In the Cut||Ray Bryant|
|Chess CH-50053||You Can All Join In||The Violinaires|
|Cadet 2CA-50058||Solid Ivory||Ramsey Lewis|
|Cadet CH-50059||Cross My Heart||Billy Stewart|
|Cadet CA-50060||Satan||Sonny Stitt|
|Chess 2CH-60000||Laugh Time||Moms Mabley and Pigmeat Markham|
|Cadet CA-60001||Back to the Roots||Ramsey Lewis|
|Cadet 2CA-60002||Charlie Parker Memorial Concert||Various Artists|
|Cadet 2CA-60003||Rock Bottom||Various Artists|
|Chess 2CH-60004||Peaches||Etta James|
|Chess 2CH-60005||Got My Own Bag of Tricks||Bo Diddley|
|Chess 2CH-60006||McKinley Morganfield A.K.A. Muddy Waters||Muddy Waters|
|Cadet 2CA-60007||Ha' Mercy||Lou Donaldson|
|Chess CH-60008||The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions||Howlin' Wolf|
|Chess 2CH-60009||Moms and Pigmeat||Moms Mabley and Pigmeat Markham|
|Cadet 2CA-60010||Everything 'Bout Sax and Flute||James Moody|
|Chess 2CH-60011||Mad Man's Blues||John Lee Hooker|
|Chess 2CH-60012||Chicago Blues Anthology||Various Artists|
|Chess CH-60013||The London Muddy Waters Sessions||Muddy Waters|
|Chess 2CH-60014||Boss Blues Harmonica||Little Walter|
|Chess 2CH-60015||Blues Rock Cookbook: Montreux Festival||Various Artists|
|Chess 2CH-60016||Chester Burnette A.K.A. Howlin' Wolf||Howlin' Wolf|
|Cadet 2CA-60017||The Heatin' System||Jack McDuff|
|Cadet 2CA-60018||Inside||Ramsey Lewis|
|Cadet 2CA-60019||Cool Cookin'||Kenny Burrell|
|Chess CH-60020||The London Chuck Berry Sessions||Chuck Berry|
|Cadet CA-60021||12 X 6 The Hard Way||Various Artists|
|Cadet CA-60022||12 X 6 The Easy Way||Various Artists|
|Chess 2CH-60023||Chuck Berry's Golden Decade Volume 2||Chuck Berry|
|Cadet CA-60024||12 X 6 Volume 3||Various Artists|
|Cadet CA-60025||12 X 6 Volume 4||Various Artists|
|Chess 2CH-60026||London Revisited||Howlin' Wolf / Muddy Waters|
|Cadet CA-60027||The Dells vs. The Dramatics||The Dells / The Dramatics|
|Chess 2CH-60028||Chuck Berry's Golden Decade, Volume 3||Chuck Berry|
|Chess CH-60029||Come a Little Closer||Etta James|
|Cadet CA-60030||The Mighty, Mighty Dells||The Dells|
|Chess CH-60031||"Unk" in Funk||Muddy Waters|
|Chess CH-60032||Chuck Berry||Chuck Berry|
|Cadet CA-60033||Got to Get Your Own||Reuben Wilson|
|Chess CH-60034||American Gypsy||American Gypsy|
|Chess CH-60035||The Muddy Waters Woodstock Album||Muddy Waters|
|Chess CH-60036||The Dells Greatest Hits, Volume 2||The Dells|
|Chess CH-60037||Black Caucus Concert||Various Artists|
|Cadet 2CA-60038||Early Visions||Gene Ammons|
|Cadet CA-60039||Magnetic Feel||Jack McDuff|
|Cadet CA-60040||Never Can Say Goodbye||Sonny Stitt|
|Chess CH-60042||Music to Make Love By||Solomon Burke|
|Cadet CA-60044||We Got to Get Our Thing Together||The Dells|
- Cub Koda (August 23, 1967). "Chess Blues, Various Artists | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- Cohodas, Nadine (2000). "Spinning Blues into Gold: The Chess Brothers and the Legendary Chess Records". Bluestogold.com. New York: St. Martins. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- "Ter Mar Studios". Discogs.com. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
- Adams, Ginger (December 22, 2015). "Architecture, Food and Music Keep Tourists Coming to Chicago". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- "Chess Producing Corp., est. 1947". MadeInChicagoMuseum. 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
- White, George R.; Campbell, Robert L.; Kelly, Tom. "The Chess Label Part I (1950–1952)". Clemson, South Carolina: Clemson University. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles (1942–2004). Record Research. p. 800.
- "Grammy Hall of Fame". Recording Academy. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Leonard Chess and Howlin' Wolf interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
- Dahl, Bill Chess Records and the Ten 73s That Helped Shape Modern Music Vinyl Factory. August 5, 2015.
- "Chess, Goodman in New Firm". Billboard: 16. August 1, 1953. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
- Howard Mandel, ed. (2005). The Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Jazz & Blues. Billboard Books. pp. 176, 182. ISBN 0-8230-8266-0.
- "Accuse Chesses in Court Suit". Billboard: 11. December 8, 1962. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
- "Middle Earth Records Discography". Rateyourmusic.com. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
- "American Masters: Muddy Waters – Can't Be Satisfied". PBS. May 24, 2006. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
- Snowden, Don (1990). I Am the Blues. DaCapo Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0306804151.
- Holland, Bill (October 8, 1997). "MCA Is Victor in Supreme Ct. Refusal to Hear Charly Case". Billboard: 7. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
- Reece, Doug (December 7, 1996). "Vital Reissues – A Selected Guide to Fourthcoming Releases". Billboard: 52. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
- Chokshi, Niraj. "Recordings by Elton John, Nirvana and Thousands More Lost in Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
- Rosen, Jody (June 11, 2019). "The Day the Music Burned". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
- Anderson, John (September 17, 2008). "Who Do You Love - Review". Variety. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Both Sides Now: Chess Album Discography, Part 1: LP-1425 to LPS-1553 and CHV-400 Vintage Series accessed July 23, 2019
- Information taken from physical album in my collection.
- Callahn, M. and Edwards, D. GRT Consolidated Chess/Cadet Album Discography (1971-1975), Both Sides Now Publications, accessed October 19, 2012
- Marshall Chess in-depth interview by Pete Lewis, 'Blues & Soul' August 2010
- The Chess Story, by Mike Callahan and David Edwards
- Chess Records at history-of-rock.com
- Chess Records in the Encyclopedia of Chicago
- Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation
- Chess Records: How Two Polish Brothers Made Music History
- Chess Records on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project