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Chess Records was an American record company, founded in 1950 in Chicago and specializing in blues and rhythm and blues. Over time it expanded into soul music, gospel music, early rock and roll, and occasional jazz and comedy recordings, released on the Chess label and on its subsidiary labels Checker, Argo/Cadet and Cadet Concept. The entire Chess catalogue is currently owned by Universal Music Group and managed by Geffen Records.

Chess Records
Chessrecordslogo.gif
Parent companyUniversal Music Group
Founded1950 (1950)
FounderLeonard Chess
Phil Chess
Defunct1975 (1975)
StatusInactive
Distributor(s)Geffen
GenreVarious
Country of originUnited States
LocationChicago, Illinois

Founded and run by two Jewish immigrant brothers from Poland, Leonard and Phil Chess, the company produced and released many singles and albums regarded as central to the rock music music canon. The musician and critic Cub Koda described Chess as "America's greatest blues label."[1]

Chess was based at several different locations on the south side of Chicago, initially at two different locations on South Cottage Grove Ave.[2] The most famous location was 2120 S. Michigan Avenue from May of 1957[2] to 1965, immortalized by the Rolling Stones in "2120 South Michigan Avenue", an instrumental recorded there during the group's first U.S. tour in 1964. The Stones recorded at Chess Studios on two more occasions. The building is now the home of Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation.[3] In the mid-1960s, Chess relocated to a much larger building, the former home of Revere Camera Company at 320 E. 21st Street, the label's final Chicago home.[4] Shortly before the death of Leonard Chess in 1969, the brothers sold the company.

HistoryEdit

Chess brothers' companyEdit

 
The Chess Records logo, as featured on a Memphis Slim single

Leonard bought a stake in Aristocrat Records in 1947. in 1950, he brought his brother, Phil, into the operation, and they became the sole owners of the company. In the same year they brought in a third partner, Evelyn Aron, and renamed the company Chess Records.

The first release from Chess was a 78 RPM single, "My Foolish Heart", backed with "Bless You", by Gene Ammons, issued as Chess 1425 in June 1950, which became the label's biggest hit of the year.[5]

In 1951, the Chess brothers began an association with Sam Phillips, of the Memphis Recording Service, the forerunner of Sun Records.[5] One of the most important recordings that Phillips gave to Chess was "Rocket 88", by Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats (the band was actually Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm), which topped Billboard magazine's R&B Records chart[6] and was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1998 in recognition of its influence on rock and roll.[7] One of the most important artists that came out of Memphis was Howlin' Wolf,[8] who stayed with the label until his death in 1976. Many songs created by Chess artists were later covered by many famous rock-and-roll artists, including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Beach Boys and Eric Clapton. Musical figures created for Chess by Bo Diddley, Willie Dixon, Chuck Berry, Howlin Wolf, Muddy Waters, Buddy Guy and others were the basis of much subsequent rock and roll.

In 1952, the brothers started Checker Records as an alternative label for radio play (radio stations had a policy of only playing a limited number of records from any one imprint).[9] In December 1955, they launched a jazz and pop label, Marterry, a name created from the first names of Leonard and Phil's sons, Marshall and Terry.[2] This was quickly renamed Argo Records, but the name was changed again in 1965 to Cadet Records to end confusion with an existing British spoken-word label.

In 1953, Leonard Chess and Gene Goodman set up Arc Music BMI, a publishing company, which published songs by many rhythm and blues artists.[10]

In the mid-1950s, the Chess brothers received two doo-wop groups by Alan Freed, the Coronets and the Moonglows; the former group was not very popular but the latter achieved several major crossover hits including "Sincerely", which was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002.[7] Several of Chess's releases gave a writing credit to Alan Freed.

During the 1950s, Leonard and Phil Chess handled most of the recording production themselves. They brought in producer Ralph Bass in 1960 to handle the gospel output and some of the blues singers. Bassist and songwriter Willie Dixon was also heavily involved in organizing blues sessions for the label and is now credited retroactively as a producer on some re-releases.[2] During the 1960s, the company's A&R manager and chief producer for soul and R&B recordings was Roquel "Billy" Davis, who had previously worked with Motown founder Berry Gordy on songs for Jackie Wilson, Etta James, Marv Johnson and other early Motown releases.

 
Chess Studios, 2120 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, later Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation (photo 2009)

In 1958, Chess began producing their first LP records[11] which included such albums as The Best of Muddy Waters, Best of Little Walter, and Bo Diddley.

Chess Records was also known for its regular band of session musicians who played on most of the company's Chicago soul recordings, including the drummer Maurice White and the bassist Louis Satterfield, both of whom later shaped the funk group Earth, Wind & Fire; the guitarists Pete Cosey, Gerald Sims and Phil Upchurch; the pianist Leonard Caston, later a producer for Motown; and the organist Sonny Thompson. In 1962, Chess Records was sued by Peacock Records for recording their artists Reverend Robert Ballinger and the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi.[12]

In 1969, Chess Records established a subsidiary label in the U.K., Middle Earth Records, which was distributed by Pye Records. The subsidiary specialized in Psychedelic rock and was a joint venture with the Middle Earth Club in London. The Middle Earth label released only four albums and about a dozen singles before it closed in 1970.[13]

The company was briefly run by Marshall Chess, Leonard's son, in his position as vice president between January and October 1969 and then as president following its acquisition by GRT, before he went on to found Rolling Stones Records.

Under GRT and All PlatinumEdit

In 1969, the Chess brothers sold the label to General Recorded Tape (GRT) for $6.5 million. In October 1969, Leonard Chess died and by 1972, the only part of Chess Records still operating in Chicago was the recording studio, Ter-Mar Studios. Following the sale of Chess to GRT, Phil left the label to run radio station WVON. In the 1970s, Chess Records and its publishing arm, Arc Music, were successfully sued by Muddy Waters[14] and Willie Dixon[15] for nonpayment of royalties due to them.

Some of the other artists who contributed to the legacy of Chess Records were the Flamingos, the Moonglows, Fontella Bass, Billy Stewart, the Dells and the Ramsey Lewis Trio.

Later incarnationsEdit

In the early 1980s, noticing that much of the Chess catalogue was commercially unavailable, Marshall Chess was able to convince Joe and Sylvia Robinson, who ran All Platinum, to reissue the catalogue themselves under his supervision (All Platinum had been licensing selected tracks to other companies, which ultimately resulted in the disappearance of some original master tapes).[2] The reissued singles and LPs sold well, but by the mid-80s All Platinum had fallen into financial difficulties, and the Chess master recordings were acquired by MCA Records, which itself was later merged with Geffen Records, a Universal Music imprint.

In the 1990s, MCA Records sued Charly Records for selling CDs which contained copyrighted material by Chess artists.[16]

In February 1997, MCA started releasing eleven compilation albums for the 50th anniversary of Chess Records.[17]

In the 2000s, Universal's limited-edition reissue label, Hip-O Select, began releasing a series of comprehensive box sets devoted to such Chess artists as Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry.

In July 2008, the 2008 Universal Studios fire burned down a warehouse filled with Universal Music Group recording masters, including many albums and songs released by Chess. These masters, by artists such as Chuck Berry, were "priceless" and irreplaceable; while UMG claimed at the time it had copies, later reporting questioned this, with it emerging that the masters were destroyed.[18][19]

Chess Records was the subject of two films produced in 2008, Cadillac Records and Who Do You Love?. In addition to the Chess brothers, both films feature portrayals of or characters based on Willie Dixon, Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Chuck Berry, Howlin' Wolf and Etta James. Cadillac Records was directed by Darnell Martin and features an ensemble cast including Adrien Brody, Mos Def, Beyoncé Knowles and Jeffrey Wright. Who Do You Love was directed by Tony Award winner Jerry Zaks and stars Alessandro Nivola playing Leonard Chess "as a complicated, driven man, hard on both his musicians and his family, yet with a real love for some of America's greatest music." The world premiere of the latter film was at the Toronto International Film Festival, September 11, 2008.[20]

DiscographyEdit

Chess LP-1425 to LPS-1553 (1956-1970)Edit

The original Chess LP series started with LP-1425 and included albums on both the Chess and the Checker labels. After 1437, the series was used exclusively for the Chess label; the Checker label switched to a 2970 series.[21]

Catalog No. Album Artist Details
LP-1425 Rock, Rock, Rock Various Artists soundtrack album for the motion picture of the same name featuring The Moonglows, Chuck Berry and The Flamingos
LP-1426 After School Session Chuck Berry
LP-1427 The Best of Muddy Waters Muddy Waters
LP-1428 The Best of Little Walter Little Walter released on Checker
LP-1429 Oh! Suzy-Q Dale Hawkins released on Checker
LP-1430 Look! It's the Moonglows The Moonglows
LP-1431 Bo Diddley Bo Diddley released on Checker
LP-1432 One Dozen Berrys Chuck Berry
LP-1433 The Flamingos The Flamingos released on Checker
LP-1434 Moanin' in the Moonlight Howlin' Wolf
LP-1435 Chuck Berry Is on Top Chuck Berry
LP-1436 Go Bo Diddley Bo Diddley released on Checker
LP-1437 Down and Out Blues Sonny Boy Williamson released on Checker
LP-1438 House of the Blues John Lee Hooker compiles tracks from 1951-52
LP-1439 Oldies in Hi-Fi Various Artists
LP/LPS-1440 Benny Rides Again Benny Goodman
LP-1441 Bunch of Goodies Various Artists
LP-1442 Soulful Saxophone Gene Ammons
LP-1443 In a German Beer Garden Bob Kames at the Organ
LP-1444 Muddy Waters Sings "Big Bill" Muddy Waters
LP-1445 Jug and Sonny Gene Ammons and Sonny Stitt
LP-1446 Walkin' by Myself...and Other Blues Hits of the Past Various Artists
LP-1447 The Funniest Woman in the World: Moms Mabley Onstage Moms Mabley
LP-1448 Rockin' at the Hops Chuck Berry
LP/LPS-1449 At Newport 1960 Muddy Waters
LP-1450 Have I Had You Before? Patsy Abbott
LP-1451 The Trial Pigmeat Markham
LP-1452 Moms Mabley at the 'UN' ' Moms Mabley
LP-1453 The Loneliest Gal in Town Little Miss Cornshucks
LP-1454 John Lee Hooker Plays & Sings the Blues John Lee Hooker
LP-1455 Memphis Slim Memphis Slim
LP-1456 New Juke Box Hits Chuck Berry
LP-1457 Larry Williams Larry Williams
LP-1458 Murray the K's Golden Gassers Various Aritsts
LP-1459 Fun Freddie & Flo Robinson
LP-1460 "Moms" Mabley at the Playboy Club Moms Mabley
LP-1461 Murray the K's Blasts from the Past Various Artists
LP-1462 Pigmeat at the Party Pigmeat Markham
LP-1463 Moms Mabley at Geneva Conference Moms Mabley
LP-1464 Jimmy McCracklin Sings Jimmy McCracklin
LP-1465 Chuck Berry Twist Chuck Berry also released as More Chuck Berry
LP-1467 Anything Goes with Pigmeat Pigmeat Markham
LP-1468 Big Bill Broonzy and Washboard Sam Big Bill Broonzy / Washboard Sam split album
LP-1469 Howlin' Wolf Howlin' Wolf
LP-1470 Murray the K's Gassers for Submarine Race Watchers Various Artists
LP-1471 The Best of Bobby Lester and the Moonglows Bobby Lester and the Moonglows
LP-1472 Moms Mabley Breaks it Up Moms Mabley
LP-1473 Rinky Dink Dave "Baby" Cortez
LP-1474 Treasure Tunes from the Vault Various Artists
LP-1475 The World's Greatest Clown Pigmeat Markham
LP-1476 Dance Tunes from the Vault, Volume 2 Various Artists
LP-1477 Young Men Si, Old Men No Moms Mabley
LP-1478 Groups of Goodies Various Artists
LP-1479 I Got Somethin' to Tell You Moms Mabley
LP-1480 Chuck Berry on Stage Chuck Berry
LP-1481 Slappy White at the Club Harlem Slappy White
LP-1482 The Funny Sides of Moms Mabley Moms Mabley
LP-1483 Folk Singer Muddy Waters
LP-1484 Open the Door Richard Pigmeat Markham
LP-1485 Chuck Berry's Greatest Hits Chuck Berry
LP-1486 Moms Wows Moms Mabley
LP-1487 The Best of Moms and Pigmeat Volume One Moms Mabley / Pigmeat Markham split album
LP/LPS-1488 St. Louis to Liverpool Chuck Berry
LP/LPS-1489 Full Bloom Miss Jackie Ross
LP-1490 The Blues Soul of Johnny "Guitar" Watson Johnny "Guitar" Watson also released as I Cried For You
LP-1491 Groups of Goodies Volume 2 Various Artists
LP/LPS-1492 Shades of a Genius Mitty Collier
LP-1493 Mr. Funny Man Pigmeat Markham
LP-1494 Up Tight Clay Tyson
LP/LPS-1495 Chuck Berry in London Chuck Berry
LP/LPS-1496 I Do Love You Billy Stewart
LP-1497 The Men in My Life Moms Mabley
LP/LPS-1498 Fresh Berry's Chuck Berry
LP/LPS-1499 Unbelievable Billy Stewart also released as Summertime
LP-1500 This'll Kill Ya! Pigmeat Markham
LP-1501 The Real Folk Blues Muddy Waters
LP-1502 The Real Folk Blues Howlin' Wolf
LP-1503 The Real Folk Blues Sonny Boy Williamson
LP-1504 One More Time...... Moms Mabley / Pigmeat Markham split album
LP/LPS-1505 If You Can't Be Good, Be Careful! Pigmeat Markham
LP/LPS-1506 The Comeback Herb Lance
LP/LPS-1507 Muddy, Brass & the Blues Muddy Waters
LP/LPS-1508 The Real Folk Blues John Lee Hooker
LP/LPS-1509 More Real Folk Blues Sonny Boy Williamson
LP/LPS-1510 The Real Folk Blues Memphis Slim
LP/LPS-1511 More Real Folk Blues Muddy Waters
LP/LPS-1512 More Real Folk Blues Howlin' Wolf
LP/LPS-1513 Billy Stewart Teaches Old Standards New Tricks Billy Stewart
LP/LPS-1514 Chuck Berry's Golden Decade Chuck Berry
LP/LPS-1515 Mr. Vaudeville Pigmeat Markham
LP/LPS-1516 The Baroques The Baroques
LP-1517 Save Your Soul, Baby! Pigmeat Markham
LP/LPS-1518 Sax and the Single Girl Charlie Chalmers
LP/LPS-1519 Wayne Cochran! Wayne Cochran
LP/LPS-1520 Petal Pushers Various Artists
LP/LPS-1521 Backstage Pigmeat Markham
LP/LPS-1522 Heavy Heads Various Artists
LP/LPS-1523 Here Come the Judge Pigmeat Markham
LP/LPS-1524 The Last Request Ben Branch and Operation Breadbasket
LP/LPS-1525 Moms Mabley Breaks Up the Network Moms Mabley
LP/LPS-1526 Tune Me In Pigmeat Markham
LP/LPS-1527 I Left My Blues in San Francisco Buddy Guy
LP/LPS-1528 Heavy Heads Voyage 2 Various Artists
LP/LPS-1529 The Hustlers Pigmeat Markham
LP/LPS-1530 Moms Mabley Sings Moms Mabley
LP/LPS-1531 Fathers and Sons Muddy Waters
LP/LPS-1532 Koko Taylor Koko Taylor
LP-1533 Blues from Big Bill's CopaCabana Various Artists
LP/LPS-1534 Pigmeat's Bag Pigmeat Markham
LP-1535 Hate to See You Go Little Walter Chess Vintage Series
LP-1536 Bummer Road Sonny Boy Williamson Chess Vintage Series
LP-1537 Whose Muddy Shoes Elmore James / John Brim Chess Vintage Series
LP-1538 Door to Door Albert King / Otis Rush Chess Vintage Series
LP-1539 Sail On Muddy Waters Chess Vintage Series reissue of Chess LP-1427
LP-1540 Evil Howlin' Wolf Chess Vintage Series reissue of Chess LP-1434
LP-1544 Pop Origins Volume One Various Artists
LP/LPS-1545 Moogie Woogie The Zeet Band
LP/LPS-1546 Souled Out Various Artists
LPS-1547 Billy Stewart Remembered Billy Stewart
LPS-1548 Just a Taste Joann Garrett
LPS-1549 On the Case The SCLC Operation Breadbasket Orchestra and Choir
LPS-1550 Back Home Chuck Berry
LPS-1551 Black Merda Black Merda
LP-1552 Rocky Roberts Rocky Roberts
LP-1553 They Call Me Muddy Waters Muddy Waters

Chess Vintage SeriesEdit

The Chess Vintage LP series started with LP-407 and featured 9 albums released in 1970/71 with an additional three albums released in 1975.[21]

Catalog No. Album Artist Details
LP-407 Chicago Bound Jimmy Rogers with Little Walter and Muddy Waters recorded 1954-56
LP-408 Hung Down Head Lowell Fulson recorded 1954-61
LP-409 I Was Walking Through the Woods Buddy Guy
LP-410 Natural Man J. B. Lenoir
LP-411 Drop Down Mama Various Artists featuring Johnny Shines, Robert Nighthawk, Big Boy Spire, Honey Boy Edwards and Floyd Jones
CHV-412 Shoutin', Swingin' And Makin' Love Various Artists featuring Jimmy Rushing, Jimmy Witherspoon, Wynonie Harris and Al Hibbler
CHV-413 Rare Unissued Recordings, Vintage 1951-53 Various Artists featuring Leo Parker, Sahib Shihab and Red Saunders
CHV-414 Chicago's Boss Tenors (1948-1956) Various Artists featuring Tom Archia, Gene Ammons, Claude McLin and Johnny Griffin
CHV-415 South Side Jazz Various Artists featuring Eddie South, Eddie Johnson, Prince Cooper, Red Saunders and Dave Young
CHV-416 Confessin' the Blues Little Walter
CHV-417 One Way Out Sonny Boy Williamson
CHV-418 Change My Way Howlin' Wolf

GRT consolidated Chess/Cadet album discography (1971-1975)Edit

In 1971 Chess Records was purchased by General Recorded Tape, a.k.a. GRT Corporation, which consolidated both the Chess and Cadet labels into a single labeling number sequence.[22]

Catalog number Title Artist
Chess CH-50001 Another Dimension Bo Diddley
Chess CH-50002 Message to the Young Howlin' Wolf
Chess CH-50003 Etta James Sings Big Ones Etta James
Cadet CA-50004 Freedom Means The Dells
Cadet CH-50005 Great Female Soul Vocalists Various Artists
Cadet Concept CC-50006 Hey Love The New Rotary Connection
Cadet CA-50007 Occasional Rain Terry Callier
Chess CH-50008 San Francisco Dues Chuck Berry
Cadet CA-50009 Mystical Lady Shirley Scott
Cadet Concept CC-50010 Oh What a Lovely War Colonel Bagshot
Cadet CA-50011 Swahili Strut Bobby Bryant Sextet
Chess CH-50012 Live at Mr. Kelly's Muddy Waters
Chess CH-50013 Greatest Hits Little Milton
Chess CH-50014 Power and Light Power & Light
Chess CH-50015 Live and Cookin' Howlin' Wolf
Chess CH-50016 Where it All Began Bo Diddley
Cadet CA-50017 The Dells Sing Dionne Warwick's Greatest Hits The Dells
Chess CH-50018 Basic Soul Koko Taylor
Cadet CA-50019 What Color Is Love Terry Callier
Cadet CA-50020 The Groover Ramsey Lewis
Cadet CA-50021 Sweet as Funk Can Be The Dells
Cadet 2CA-50022 The Best of the Soulful Strings The Soulful Strings
Chess CH-50023 Can't Get No Grindin' Muddy Waters
Cadet CA-50024 Check This Out Jack McDuff
Cadet CA-50025 Lean on Me Shirley Scott
Cadet CA-50026 Mr. Bojangles Sonny Stitt
Chess 2CH-50027 This Is My Story Sonny Boy Williamson
Chess CH-50029 The London Bo Diddley Sessions Bo Diddley
Chess 2CH-50030 The Golden Age of Rhythm and Blues Various Artists
Chess CH-50031 Love More Than Pride Laura Lee
Chess CH-50032 Ghettos of the Mind Bama the Village Poet
Chess 2CH-50033 Fathers and Sons Muddy Waters
Cadet CA-50034 Teardrops in the Rain Johnny Nash
Cadet 2CA-50035 Inspiration Ahmad Jamal
Cadet CA-50036 Superstition Shirley Scott
Cadet CA-50037 Give Your Baby a Standing Ovation The Dells
Cadet 2CA-50038 It Was a Very Good Year Ray Bryant
Cadet 2CA-50039 I Cover the Waterfront Sonny Stitt
Chess CH-50040 Come and Get Me Kim Tolliver
Cadet CA-50041 I Just Can't Help Myself Terry Callier
Chess CH-50042 Etta James a.k.a. Only a Fool Etta James
Chess CH-50043 Bio Chuck Berry
Cadet CA-50044 Songs for Ageing Children Dave Van Ronk
Chess CH-50045 The Back Door Wolf Howlin' Wolf
Cadet CA-50046 The Dells The Dells
Chess CH-50047 Big Bad Bo Bo Diddley
Cadet CA-50048 While My Guitar Gently Weeps Jimmy Ponder
Cadet CA-50049 Atlantis Daniel Salinas
Cadet CA-50051 The Fourth Dimension Jack McDuff
Cadet CA-50052 In the Cut Ray Bryant
Chess CH-50053 You Can All Join In The Violinaires
Cadet 2CA-50058 Solid Ivory Ramsey Lewis
Cadet CH-50059 Cross My Heart Billy Stewart
Cadet CA-50060 Satan Sonny Stitt
Chess 2CH-60000 Laugh Time Moms Mabley and Pigmeat Markham
Cadet CA-60001 Back to the Roots Ramsey Lewis
Cadet 2CA-60002 Charlie Parker Memorial Concert Various Artists
Cadet 2CA-60003 Rock Bottom Various Artists
Chess 2CH-60004 Peaches Etta James
Chess 2CH-60005 Got My Own Bag of Tricks Bo Diddley
Chess 2CH-60006 McKinley Morganfield A.K.A. Muddy Waters Muddy Waters
Cadet 2CA-60007 Ha' Mercy Lou Donaldson
Chess CH-60008 The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions Howlin' Wolf
Chess 2CH-60009 Moms and Pigmeat Moms Mabley and Pigmeat Markham
Cadet 2CA-60010 Everything 'Bout Sax and Flute James Moody
Chess 2CH-60011 Mad Man's Blues John Lee Hooker
Chess 2CH-60012 Chicago Blues Anthology Various Artists
Chess CH-60013 The London Muddy Waters Sessions Muddy Waters
Chess 2CH-60014 Boss Blues Harmonica Little Walter
Chess 2CH-60015 Blues Rock Cookbook: Montreux Festival Various Artists
Chess 2CH-60016 Chester Burnette A.K.A. Howlin' Wolf Howlin' Wolf
Cadet 2CA-60017 The Heatin' System Jack McDuff
Cadet 2CA-60018 Inside Ramsey Lewis
Cadet 2CA-60019 Cool Cookin' Kenny Burrell
Chess CH-60020 The London Chuck Berry Sessions Chuck Berry
Cadet CA-60021 12 X 6 The Hard Way Various Artists
Cadet CA-60022 12 X 6 The Easy Way Various Artists
Chess 2CH-60023 Chuck Berry's Golden Decade Volume 2 Chuck Berry
Cadet CA-60024 12 X 6 Volume 3 Various Artists
Cadet CA-60025 12 X 6 Volume 4 Various Artists
Chess 2CH-60026 London Revisited Howlin' Wolf / Muddy Waters
Cadet CA-60027 The Dells vs. The Dramatics The Dells / The Dramatics
Chess 2CH-60028 Chuck Berry's Golden Decade, Volume 3 Chuck Berry
Chess CH-60029 Come a Little Closer Etta James
Cadet CA-60030 The Mighty, Mighty Dells The Dells
Chess CH-60031 "Unk" in Funk Muddy Waters
Chess CH-60032 Chuck Berry Chuck Berry
Cadet CA-60033 Got to Get Your Own Reuben Wilson
Chess CH-60034 American Gypsy American Gypsy
Chess CH-60035 The Muddy Waters Woodstock Album Muddy Waters
Chess CH-60036 The Dells Greatest Hits, Volume 2 The Dells
Chess CH-60037 Black Caucus Concert Various Artists
Cadet 2CA-60038 Early Visions Gene Ammons
Cadet CA-60039 Magnetic Feel Jack McDuff
Cadet CA-60040 Never Can Say Goodbye Sonny Stitt
Chess CH-60042 Music to Make Love By Solomon Burke
Cadet CA-60044 We Got to Get Our Thing Together The Dells

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cub Koda (1967-08-23). "Chess Blues, Various Artists | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved 2016-10-19.
  2. ^ a b c d e Cohodas, Nadine (2000). "Spinning Blues into Gold: The Chess Brothers and the Legendary Chess Records". Bluestogold.com. New York: St. Martins. Archived from the original on 2017-02-04. Retrieved 2016-10-19.
  3. ^ Adams, Ginger (2015-12-22). "Architecture, Food and Music Keep Tourists Coming to Chicago". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2016-10-19. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |newspaper= (help)
  4. ^ "Chess Producing Corp., est. 1947". MadeInChicagoMuseum. 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  5. ^ a b White, George R.; Campbell, Robert L.; Kelly, Tom. "The Chess Label Part I (1950–1952)". Clemson, South Carolina: Clemson University. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
  6. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles (1942–2004). Record Research. p. 800.
  7. ^ a b "Grammy Hall of Fame". Recording Academy. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
  8. ^ Leonard Chess and Howlin' Wolf interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
  9. ^ Dahl, Bill Chess Records and the Ten 73s That Helped Shape Modern Music Vinyl Factory. August 5, 2015.
  10. ^ "Chess, Goodman in New Firm". Billboard: 16. August 1, 1953. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
  11. ^ Howard Mandel, ed. (2005). The Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Jazz & Blues. Billboard Books. pp. 176, 182. ISBN 0-8230-8266-0.
  12. ^ "Accuse Chesses in Court Suit". Billboard: 11. December 8, 1962. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
  13. ^ "Middle Earth Records Discography". Rateyourmusic.com. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  14. ^ "American Masters: Muddy Waters – Can't Be Satisfied". PBS. 2006-05-24. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  15. ^ Snowden, Don (1990). I Am the Blues. DaCapo Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0306804151.
  16. ^ Holland, Bill (October 8, 1997). "MCA Is Victor in Supreme Ct. Refusal to Hear Charly Case". Billboard: 7. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
  17. ^ Reece, Doug (December 7, 1996). "Vital Reissues – A Selected Guide to Fourthcoming Releases". Billboard: 52. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
  18. ^ Chokshi, Niraj. "Recordings by Elton John, Nirvana and Thousands More Lost in Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  19. ^ Rosen, Jody (June 11, 2019). "The Day the Music Burned". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  20. ^ Anderson, John (September 17, 2008). "Who Do You Love - Review". Variety. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  21. ^ a b Both Sides Now: Chess Album Discography, Part 1: LP-1425 to LPS-1553 and CHV-400 Vintage Series accessed July 23, 2019
  22. ^ Callahn, M. and Edwards, D. GRT Consolidated Chess/Cadet Album Discography (1971-1975), Both Sides Now Publications, accessed October 19, 2012

External linksEdit