Algebraic notation (chess)

Algebraic notation (or AN) is the standard method for recording and describing the moves in a game of chess. It is based on a system of coordinates to uniquely identify each square on the chessboard. It is used by most books, magazines, and newspapers. In English-speaking countries, the parallel method of descriptive notation was generally used in chess publications until about 1980. A few players still use descriptive notation, but it is no longer recognized by FIDE, the international chess governing body.

Algebraic notation

Algebraic notation exists in various forms and languages and is based on a system developed by Philipp Stamma. Stamma used the modern names of the squares, but he used p for pawn moves and the original file of a piece (a through h) instead of the initial letter of the piece name.[1]

The term "algebraic notation" may be considered a misnomer as the system is unrelated to algebra. Other terms such as "standard notation" and "coordinate notation" have been proposed, but the traditional term persists.

Naming the squaresEdit

Each square of the chessboard is identified by a unique coordinate pair—a letter and a number—from White's point of view. The vertical columns of squares, called files, are labeled a through h from White's left (the queenside) to right (the kingside). The horizontal rows of squares, called ranks, are numbered 1 to 8 starting from White's side of the board. Thus each square has a unique identification of file letter followed by rank number. For example, the initial square of White's king is designated as "e1".

Naming the piecesEdit

Each piece type (other than pawns) is identified by an uppercase letter. English-speaking players use the letters K for king, Q for queen, R for rook, B for bishop, and N for knight (since K is already used). S (from the German Springer) was also used for the knight in the early days of algebraic notation and is still used in some chess problems (where N stands for nightrider, a popular fairy chess piece).

Different initial letters are used by other languages. In chess literature, especially that intended for an international audience, the language-specific letters are often replaced by universally recognized piece symbols; for example, ♞c6 in place of Nc6. This style is known as Figurine Algebraic Notation (FAN). The Unicode Miscellaneous Symbols set includes all the symbols necessary for FAN. In order to display or print these symbols, one has to have one or more fonts with good Unicode support installed on the computer, that the Web page, or word processor document, etc., uses.[2]

In both standard algebraic notation and FAN, pawns are not identified by an uppercase letter, but rather by the absence of one. Distinguishing between pawns is not done when recording moves (pawn captures are an exception and indicated differently as explained below), since only one pawn can move to a given square.

Notation for movesEdit

Each move of a piece is indicated by the piece's uppercase letter, plus the coordinate of the destination square. For example, Be5 (move a bishop to e5), Nf3 (move a knight to f3). For pawn moves, a letter indicating pawn is not used, only the destination square is given. For example, c5 (move a pawn to c5).

Captures Edit

When a piece makes a capture, an "×" is inserted immediately before the destination square. For example, B×e5 (bishop captures the piece on e5). When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used to identify the pawn. For example, e×d5 (pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5). A colon (:) is sometimes used instead of "×", either in the same place the "×" would go (B:e5) or at the end (Be5:), but this is not the FIDE standard.

En passant captures are indicated by specifying the capturing pawn's file of departure, the "×", the destination square (not the square of the captured pawn), and (optionally) the suffix "e.p." indicating the capture was en passant.[4] For example, e×d6 e.p.

Some texts, such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, omit any indication that a capture has been made. (For example, Be5 instead of B×e5; ed6 instead of e×d6 or e×d6 e.p.) When it is unambiguous to do so, a pawn capture is sometimes described by specifying only the files involved (e×d or even ed). These shortened forms are sometimes called minimal or abbreviated algebraic notation.

Disambiguating movesEdit

abcdefgh
8
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
1) ...Rdf8, 2) R1a3, 3) Qh4e1

When two (or more) identical pieces can move to the same square, the moving piece is uniquely identified by specifying the piece's letter, followed by (in descending order of preference):

  1. the file of departure (if they differ); or
  2. the rank of departure (if the files are the same but the ranks differ); or
  3. both the file and rank of departure (if neither alone is sufficient to identify the piece – which occurs only in rare cases where a player has three or more identical pieces able to reach the same square, as a result of one or more pawns having promoted).

In the diagram, both black rooks could legally move to f8, so the move of the d8-rook to f8 is disambiguated as Rdf8. For the white rooks on the a-file which could both move to a3, it is necessary to provide the rank of the moving piece, i.e., R1a3.

In the case of the white queen on h4 moving to e1, neither the rank nor file alone are sufficient to disambiguate from the other white queens. As such, this move is written Qh4e1.

As above, an "×" can be inserted to indicate a capture; for example, if the final case were a capture, it would be written as Qh4×e1.

Pawn promotionEdit

When a pawn promotes, the piece promoted to is indicated at the end of the move notation, for example: e8Q (promoting to queen). In standard FIDE notation, no punctuation is used; in Portable Game Notation (PGN), as well as in Chess Life and English Wikipedia, pawn promotion is indicated by the equals sign (e8=Q). Other formulations used in chess literature include parentheses (e.g. e8(Q)) and a forward slash (e.g. e8/Q).

Draw offerEdit

FIDE specifies draw offers to be recorded by an equals sign with parentheses "(=)" after the move on the score sheet.[5] This is not usually included in published game scores.

Castling Edit

Castling is indicated by the special notations 0-0 (for kingside castling) and 0-0-0 (queenside castling). While the FIDE standard [6] is to use the digit zero (0-0 and 0-0-0), PGN uses the uppercase letter O (O-O and O-O-O).[a]

Check Edit

A move that places the opponent's king in check usually has the symbol "+" appended. Alternatively, sometimes a dagger (†) or the abbreviation "ch" is used. Some publications indicate a discovered check with an abbreviation such as "dis ch", or with a specific symbol. Double check is usually indicated the same as check, but is sometimes represented specifically as "dbl ch" or "++", particularly in older chess literature. The Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings omits any indication of check.

Checkmate Edit

Checkmate at the completion of moves is represented by the symbol "#" in standard FIDE notation and PGN. The word mate is commonly used instead; occasionally a double dagger () or a double plus sign (++) is used, although the double plus sign is also used to represent "double check" when a king is under attack by 2 enemy pieces simultaneously.[citation needed] A checkmate is represented by "" (the not equal sign) in the macOS chess application. In Russian and ex-USSR publications, where captures are indicated by ":", checkmate can also be represented by "X", "x", or "×".

End of game Edit

The notation 1–0 at the completion of moves indicates that White won, 0–1 indicates that Black won, and ½–½ indicates a draw. In case of forfeit, scores 0–0, ½–0, and 0–½ are also possible. If player(s) lost by default, results are +/−, −/+, or −/−.

Often there is no indication regarding how a player won or lost (other than checkmate, see above), so simply 1–0 or 0–1 may be written to show that one player resigned or lost due to time control or forfeit. (Similarly, there is more than one way for a game to end in a draw.) Sometimes direct information is given by the words "White resigns" or "Black resigns", though this is not considered part of the notation but rather a return to the surrounding narrative text.

Similar notationsEdit

Besides the FIDE standard (or short) algebraic notation (SAN) already described, several similar systems have been used.

Long algebraic notationEdit

Some computer programs (and people) use a variant of algebraic chess notation termed long algebraic notation or fully expanded algebraic notation. In long algebraic notation, both the starting and ending squares are specified, for example: e2e4. Sometimes these are separated by a hyphen, e.g. Nb1-c3, while captures are indicated by an "×", e.g. Rd3×d7. Long algebraic notation takes more space and is no longer commonly used in print, however it has the advantage of clarity. Some books using primarily short algebraic notation use the long notation instead of the disambiguation forms described earlier.

A form of long algebraic notation (without piece names) is also used by the Universal Chess Interface (UCI) standard, which is a common way for graphical chess programs to communicate with chess engines (e.g., for AI).

ICCF numeric notationEdit

In international correspondence chess the use of algebraic notation may cause confusion, since different languages employ different names (and therefore different initial letters) for the pieces, and some players may be unfamiliar with the Latin alphabet. Hence, the standard for transmitting moves in this form of chess is ICCF numeric notation, which identifies squares using numerical co-ordinates, and identifies both the departure and destination squares. For example, the move 1.e4 is rendered as 1.5254. In recent years, the majority of correspondence games have been played on on-line servers rather than by email or post, leading to a decline in the use of ICCF numeric notation.

PGNEdit

Portable Game Notation (PGN) is a text-based file format for storing chess games, which uses standard English algebraic notation and a small amount of markup.[8] PGN can be processed by almost all chess software, as well as being easily readable by humans.

FormattingEdit

A game or series of moves is generally written in one of two ways.

abcdefgh
8
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
Position after 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6
  • In two columns, as White/Black pairs, preceded by the move number and a period:
    1. e4 e5
    2. Nf3 Nc6
    3. Bb5 a6
  • Horizontally:
    1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6

Moves may be interspersed with commentary (annotations). When the game score resumes with a Black move, an ellipsis (...) fills the position of the White move, for example:

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3
White attacks the black e-pawn.
2... Nc6
Black defends and develops simultaneously.
3. Bb5
White plays the Ruy Lopez.
3... a6
Black elects Morphy's Defence.

HistoryEdit

Descriptive notation was usual in the Middle Ages in Europe. A form of algebraic chess notation that seems to have been borrowed from Muslim chess, however, appeared in Europe in a 12th century manuscript referred to as “MS. Paris Fr. 1173 (PP.)”. The files run from a to h, just as they do in the current standard algebraic notation. The ranks, however, are also designated by letters, with the exception of the 8th rank which is distinct because it has no letter. The ranks are lettered in reverse – from the 7th to the 1st: k, l, m, n, o, p, q.[9]

Another system of notation using only letters appears in a book of Mediaeval chess, Rechenmeister Jacob Köbel's Schachzabel Spiel of 1520.[9]

Algebraic notation is described in 1847 by Howard Staunton in his book The Chess-Player's Handbook. Staunton credits the idea to German authors, and in particular to "Alexandre, Jaenisch, and the Handbuch [des Schachspiels]."[10]

Piece names in various languagesEdit

The table contains names for all the pieces as well as the words for chess, check, and checkmate in several languages.[11] Several languages use the Arabic loanword alfil for the piece called bishop in English; in this context it is a chess-specific term which no longer has its original meaning of "elephant".


Language King Queen Rook Bishop Knight Pawn Chess Check Checkmate/Mate
figure ♔ ♚ ♕ ♛ ♖ ♜ ♗ ♝ ♘ ♞ ♙ ♟ n./a. + or # or ++ or
Afrikaans K Koning
king
D Dame
lady
T Toring
tower
L Loper
runner
R Ruiter
rider
(P) Pion
Skaak Skaak Skaakmat
Albanian M Mbreti
king
D Dama / Mbretëresha
lady / queen
T Torra
tower
F Fili / Oficeri
elephant / officer
K Kali
horse
(U) Ushtari
soldier
Shahu Shah Shah mat
Arabic م مَلِك (malik)
king
و وزير (wazïr)
vizier
ر رخ / طابية (rukhkh / ṭābiya)
fortress / castle
ف فيل (fīl)
elephant
ح حصان (ħiṣān)
horse
ب بيدق / عسكري (baidaq / `askarī)
pawn / soldier
شطرنج (shaṭranj) كِش مَلِك (kish malik) كِش مات (kish māt)
Azerbaijani Ş Şah
shah
V Vəzir
vizier
T Top
cannon
F Fil
elephant
A At
horse
P Piyada
foot soldier
Şahmat şah
shah
mat
mat
Armenian Ա Արքա (Ark῾a)
king
Թ Թագուհի (T῾agowhi)
queen
Ն Նավակ (Navak)
ship
Փ Փիղ (P῾ił)
elephant
Ձ Ձի (Dzi)
horse
Զ Զինվոր (Zinvor)
soldier
Շախմատ (Šaxmat)
Ճատրակ (Čatrak)
Շախ (Šax) Մատ (Mat)
Basque E Erregea
king
D Dama
lady
G Gaztelua
castle
A Alfila
Z Zalduna
knight
(P) Peoia
pawn
Xake Xake Xake mate
Belarusian (Taraškievica) К кароль
king
Вз візыр
vizier
Лд ладзьдзя
rook
А афіцэр
officer
В вершнік
rider
(Л) латнік
pawn
Шахматы Шах Мат
Bengali R রাজা (rājā)
King
M মন্ত্রী (montri)
Minister
N নৌকা (noukā)
Boat
H গজ / হাতি (gôj / hāti)
Elephant
G ঘোড়া (ghoṛā)
Horse
B বোড়ে / সৈন্য (boṛe / śoinno)
Walker/Troop
দাবা (dābā) কিস্তি (kisti)
Check
কিস্তিমাত (kistimāt)
Checkmate
Bulgarian Ц цар
king
Д дама
lady
Т топ
cannon
О офицер
officer
К кон
horse
(П) пешка
Шахмат / Шах Шах (Шах и) мат
Catalan R rei
D dama / reina
lady / queen
T torre
tower
A alfil
C cavall
horse
(P) peó
Escacs Escac / Xec Escac i mat
Chinese K (wáng)
king
Q (hòu)
queen
R (jū)
chariot
B (xiàng)
elephant
N (mǎ)
horse
(P) (bīng)
soldier
國際象棋 (guójì xiàngqí)
international chess
將軍 (jiāngjūn)
general
將死 (jiāngsǐ)
general dead
Czech K král
king
D dáma
lady
V věž
tower
S střelec
shooter
J jezdec
rider
(P) pěšec
foot soldier
Šachy Šach Mat
Danish K konge
king
D dronning
queen
T tårn
tower
L løber
runner
S springer
jumper
(B) bonde
peasant
Skak Skak Skakmat
Dutch K koning
king
D dame
lady / queen
T toren / kasteel
tower / castle
L loper / raadsheer
runner / counsellor
P paard
horse
(pi) pion
Schaken Schaak Mat / Schaakmat
English K king
Q queen
R rook, castle
B bishop
N knight
(P) pawn
Chess Check Checkmate / Mate
Esperanto R reĝo
king
D damo
lady
T turo
tower
K kuriero
courier
Ĉ ĉevalo
horse
(P) peono
Ŝako Ŝak Ŝakmato
Estonian[12] K kuningas
king
L lipp
flag
V vanker
chariot / carriage
O oda
spear
R ratsu
riding horse
(E) ettur
forwarder
Male
after malev
Tuli / Šahh
fire
Matt
Finnish K kuningas
king
D daami / kuningatar
lady / queen
T torni
tower
L lähetti
messenger
R ratsu
horse
(S) sotilas
soldier
Shakki Shakki Matti / Shakkimatti
French R roi
king
D dame
lady
T tour
tower
F fou
jester
C cavalier
rider
(P) pion
Échecs Échec Échec et mat
Georgian მფ მეფე (mep'e)
king
ლაზიერი (lazieri)
queen
ეტლი (etli)
chariot
კუ (ku)
tortoise
მხედარი (mkhedari)
rider
პაიკი (paiki)
pawn
ჭადრაკი (Čadraki) ქიში (K'ishi) შამათი (Shamat'i)
German[13] K König
king
D Dame
lady / queen
T Turm
tower
L Läufer
runner
S Springer
jumper
(B) Bauer
peasant
Schach Schach Matt / Schachmatt
Greek Ρ βασιλιάς (vasiliás)
king
Β βασίλισσα (vasílissa)
queen
Π πύργος (pýrgos)
tower
Α αξιωματικός (axiomatikós)
officer
Ι ίππος (íppos)
horse
(Σ) πιόνι (pióni)
pawn
Σκάκι (Skáki) Σαχ (Sach) Mατ (Mat)
Hindi R राजा (rājā)
king
V वज़ीर (vazīr)
vizier
H हाथी (hāthī)
elephant
O ऊँट (ūṁṭ)
camel
G घोड़ा (ghoṛā)
horse
(P) प्यादा (pyādā)
infantryman
शतरंज (Shatranj) शाह (Shāh) शाहमात (Shāhmāt)
Hebrew מ מלך (Melech)
king
מה מלכה (Malka)
queen
צ צריח (Tzariach)
tower
ר רץ (Ratz)
runner
פ פרש (Parash)
rider
רגלי (Regli)
foot soldier
שחמט (Shakhmat) שח (Shakh) מט (Mat)
Hausa S sarki
king
Q sarauniya
queen
R sansanin
fortress
G giwa
elephant
J jarumi
mounted warrior
(P) soja
soldier
ces ceki ceki mat
Hungarian K király
king
V vezér / királynő
vizier / queen
B bástya
bastion
F futó
runner
H huszár / ló
hussar / horse
(Gy) gyalog / paraszt
footman / peasant
Sakk Sakk Matt
Icelandic K kóngur
king
D drottning
queen
H hrókur
rook
B biskup
bishop
R riddari
knight
(P) peð
pawn
Skák Skák Skák og mát
Ido R rejo
king
D damo
lady
T turmo
tower
E episkopo
bishop
K kavalo
horse
(P) piono
Shakoludo Shako Shakmato
Indonesian R raja
king
M menteri
minister / vizier
B benteng
castle / fortress
G gajah
elephant
K kuda
horse
(P) pion
Catur Sekak / Ster Sekakmat
Interslavic K kralj
king
C carica / dama
empress / lady
Z zamok / věža
castle / tower
L lovec
hunter
J jezdec / konj
rider / horse
(P) pěšak
infantryman
Šahy Šah Mat
Irish R
king
B banríon
queen
C caiseal
bulwark
E easpag
bishop
D ridire
knight
(F) fichillín / ceithearnach
little chess piece / kern
Ficheall Sáinn Marbhsháinn
Italian R re
king
D donna / regina
lady / queen
T torre
tower
A alfiere
standard-bearer
C cavallo
horse
(P) pedone
foot soldier
Scacchi Scacco Scacco matto
Japanese K キング (kingu)
Q クイーン (kuīn)
R ルーク (rūku)
B ビショップ (bishoppu)
N ナイト (naito)
(P) ポーン (pōn)
チェス (chesu) 王手 (ōte) /
チェック (chekku)
詰み (tsumi) /
チェックメイト (chekkumeito)
Javanese R raja
king
Q ratu / perdhana mentri
queen / prime minister
B bèntèng
fortress
M mentri
minister
K jaran
horse
(P) pion
sekak
Kannada ರಾ ರಾಜ (raaja)
king
ಮಂತ್ರಿ (mantri)
minister
ಆನೆ (aane)
elephant
ರಥ (ratha)
chariot
ಕು ಕುದುರೆ (kudure)
horse
ಪಾ ಪಾದಾತಿ (paadaati)
foot sodier
Kazakh Кр патша (patsha)
king
У уәзір (wazir)
vizier
Т тура (tura)
tower
П піл (pil)
elephant
А ат (at)
horse
(П) пешка (peshka) / (С) сарбаз (sarbaz)
foot soldier / warrior
шахмат (shakhmat) шах (shakh) мат (mat)
Korean K 킹 (king)
Q 퀸 (kwin)
R 룩 (rug)
B 비숍 (bi syob)
N 나이트 (na i teu)
(P) 폰 (pon)
체스 (che seu) 체크 (che keu) 체크메이트 (che keu me i teu)
Latin R rex
king
M regina
queen
T turris / elephas
tower / elephant[14]
A signifer / cursor / stultus / alphinus
standard-bearer / messenger / fool[14]
E eques
knight
(P) pedes / pedo
foot soldier
Scacci Scaccus Mattus
Latvian K karalis
king
D dāma
lady
T tornis
tower
L laidnis
Z zirgs
horse
(B) bandinieks
peasant
Šahs Šahs Šahs un mats
Lithuanian K karalius
king
V valdovė
queen
B bokštas
tower
R rikis
Lithuanian military commander
Ž žirgas
horse
(P) pėstininkas
pawn
Šachmatai Šach Matas
Lojban Na noltrunau
king
Ni noltruni'u
queen
S slanydi'u
castle
X xanto
elephant
Xi xirma
horse
(S) sonci
soldier
caxmati gunta
attack
lo nolraitru cu morsi
the king is dead
Luxembourgish K Kinnek
king
D Damm
lady
T Tuerm
tower
L Leefer
runner
P Päerd
horse
(B) Bauer
farmer
Schach Schach Schachmatt
Macedonian K крал
king
D кралица / дама
queen / lady
T топ
cannon
L ловец
hunter
S коњ / скокач
horse / jumper
P пешак / пион
infantryman / pawn
шах шах мат
Malayalam K രാജാവ് (rajavu)
king
Q മന്ത്രി (manthri)
minister
R തേര് (theru)
chariot
B ആന (anaa)
elephant
N/Kt കുതിര (kuthira)
horse
(P) കാലാള്‍ / പടയാളി
(kalal / padayali)
foot soldier
ചതുരംഗം (chathurangam) ചെക്ക്
ചെക്ക് മേറ്റ്
Marathi R राजा (rājā)
king
V वजीर (vajīr)
vizier
H हत्ती (hātti)
elephant
O उंट (Unṭ)
camel
G घोडा (ghoḍā)
horse
(P) प्यादे (pyāde)
foot soldier
बुद्धिबळ (buddhibal) शह (shāh) शहमात (shāhmāt)
Mongolian Н ноён
noyan
Б бэрс (fers)
vizier
т тэрэг (tereg)
chariot
Т тэмээ (temee)
camel
М морь (mor)
rider
(Х) хүү (hüü)
infantryman
Шатар шаг / дуг / цод мад
Norwegian Bokmål K konge
king
D dronning
queen
T tårn
tower
L løper
runner
S springer
jumper
(B) bonde
peasant
Sjakk Sjakk Sjakkmatt
Norwegian Nynorsk K konge
king
D dronning
queen
T tårn
tower
L løpar
runner
S springar
jumper
(B) bonde
peasant
Sjakk Sjakk Sjakkmatt
Persian ش شاه
king
و وزیر
vizier / minister
ق/ر قلعه/رخ
castle
ف فیل
elephant
ا اسب
horse
س سرباز
soldier
شطرنج کیش (kish) مات (mat)
Polish K król
king
H hetman
W wieża
tower
G goniec
courier
S skoczek
jumper
(P) pion
pawn
szachy szach mat / szach-mat
Portuguese R rei
king
D dama / rainha
lady / queen
T torre
tower
B bispo
bishop
C cavalo
horse
(P) peão
foot soldier
Xadrez Xeque Xeque-mate
Romanian R rege
king
D damă / regină
lady / queen
T turn / tură
tower
N nebun
fool
C cal
horse
(P) pion
Șah Șah Mat / Șah mat
Russian Кр король (korol')
king
Ф ферзь (ferz')
vizier
Л ладья (ladya)
boat
С слон (slon)
elephant
К конь (kon')
horse
(П) пешка (peshka)
шахматы (shakhmaty) шах (shakh) мат (mat)
Scottish Gaelic R righ
king
B bànrigh
queen
T tùr
tower
E easbaig
bishop
D ridir
knight
(P) pàn
pawn
feòirne casg tul-chasg
Serbo-Croatian К краљ (kralj)
king
Д краљицa / дама (kraljica / dama)
queen / lady
Т топ (top)
cannon
Л ловац (lovac)
hunter
С скaкaч / коњ (skakač / konj)
jumper / horse
(П) пешак / пион (pešak / pion)
pedestrian / pawn
Шах (Šah) Шах (Šah) Мат (Mat)
Northern Sotho К Kgoši
Kg Kgošigadi
N Ntlosebô / Moshate
Mp Mopišopo
M Mogale
S Seitšhireletšo
Tšhêšê Check Checkmate
Sicilian R re
king
D riggina
queen
T turru
tower
A alferu
S scecc[h]u
donkey
(P) pidinu
foot soldier
Scacchi
Slovak K kráľ
king
D dáma
lady
V veža
tower
S strelec
shooter
J jazdec
horseman
(P) pešiak
infantryman / pawn
Šach Šach Mat / Šachmat
Slovene K kralj
king
D dama
lady
T trdnjava
castle
L lovec
hunter
S skakač
jumper
(P) kmet
farmer
Šah Šah Mat / Šahmat
Spanish R rey
king
D dama / reina
lady / queen
T torre
tower
A alfil
C caballo
horse
(P) peón
foot soldier
Ajedrez Jaque Jaque mate
Swedish K kung
king
D dam / drottning
lady / queen
T torn
tower
L löpare
runner
S springare / häst
horse
(B) bonde
peasant
Schack Schack Schack matt
Tamil K அரசன் (arasaṉ)
king
Q அரசி (araci)
queen
R கோட்டை (kōṭṭai)
castle
B அமைச்சர் / மந்திரி (amaicchar / manthiri)
minister
N/Kt குதிரை (kutirai)
horse
(P) காலாள் / சிப்பாய் (kālāḷ / cippāy)
foot soldier / sepoy
சதுரங்கம் (sathurankam) முற்றுகை (muṟṟukai) இறுதி முற்றுகை (iṟuti muṟṟukai)
Telugu రాజు (rāju)
king
మంత్రి (maṃtri)
minister
ఏనుగు (ēnugu)
elephant
శకటు (śakaţu)
గుర్రం (gurraṃ)
horse
బంటు (baṃţu)
soldier
చదరంగం (cadaraṃgaṃ) దాడి (dāḍi) కట్టు (kaţţu)
Thai ขุน (khun)
king
เม็ด / ตรี / มนตรี (met / trī / montrī)
counselor
เรือ (reūa)
ship
โคน (khōn)
ม้า (mā)
horse
(บ) เบี้ย (bīa)
menial
หมากรุก (mākruk) รุก (ruk) จน (jon)
Turkish Ş/K şah / kral
shah / king
V vezir
vizier
K kale
castle
F fil
elephant
A at
horse
(P) er / piyon
soldier / pawn
Satranç Şah Mat
Ukrainian король (korol)
king
Ф ферзь (ferz)
vizier
T тура (tura)
tower
C слон (slon)
elephant
K кінь (kin)
horse
(П) пішак / пішка (pishak / pishka)
foot soldier
Шахи (shakhi) Шах (shakh) Мат (mat)
Urdu بادشاہ‎ (bādshāh)
وزیر‎ (vazīr)
رخ‎ (rukh)
فيلہ‎ (fiyalah)
گھوڑا‎ (ghōṛā)
پیادہ‎ (pyādah)
شطرنج‎ (šaṭranj) شہ‎ (sheh) شہمات‎ (shehmāt)
Vietnamese V vua
king
H hậu
queen
X xe
chariot
T tượng
statue
M
horse
tốt
soldier
Cờ vua Chiếu Chiếu bí / Chiếu hết / Hết cờ
Welsh T teyrn / brenin
lord / king
B brenhines
queen
C castell
castle
E esgob
bishop
M marchog
rider
(G) gwerinwr
peasant
Gwyddbwyll Siach Siachmat

Annotation symbolsEdit

Though not technically a part of algebraic notation, the following are some symbols commonly used by annotators, for example in publications Chess Informant and Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, to give editorial comment on a move or position.

On moves:
! a very good move
!! a brilliant—and usually surprising—move
? a bad move; a mistake
?? a blunder
!? an interesting move that may, or may not, be good
?! a dubious move or move that is probably a mistake
a better move than the one played
the only reasonable move, or the only move available
TN
(or N)
a theoretical novelty

On positions:
= equal chances for both players
+/=
(or )
White has a slight plus
=/+
(or )
Black has a slight plus
+/−
(or ±)
White has a clear plus
−/+
(or )
Black has a clear plus
+− White has a winning advantage
−+ Black has a winning advantage
unclear whether either side has an advantage; “toss-up”
=/∞ whoever is down in material has compensation for it

The symbol chosen is simply appended to the end of the move notation, for example, the “Soller gambit” is:

1. d4 e5 ?!
2.   d×e5   f6      
3. e4! Nc6
4. Bc4 +/−

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ The main differences from standard Algebraic are that there is both a dot and a space after each move number, and an upper case "O" is used, instead of a zero, in the notation for castling. Presumably these were initially just one individual's personal foible (or error) in the early days of chess on the Internet, but the standard is now established. — Burgess (1997)[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Davidson, Henry (1981). A Short History of Chess. David McKay. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0679145509.
  2. ^ "Test for Unicode support in Web browsers".
  3. ^ a b c "FIDE Laws of Chess taking effect from 1 January 2018". FIDE. 2018-01-01. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  4. ^ see FIDE Laws of Chess[3](Apdx C.9.3).
  5. ^ Article 9.1.2.2 in FIDE Laws of Chess[3]
  6. ^ Appendix C.13 in FIDE Laws of Chess[3]
  7. ^ Burgess, Graham (2000) [1997]. The Mammoth Book of Chess. Carroll & Graph. p. 517. ISBN 0-7867-0725-9.
  8. ^ Standard: Portable Game Notation Specification and Implementation Guide
  9. ^ a b Murray, Harold James Ruthven (1913). A History of Chess. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. pp. 469–470.
  10. ^ Staunton, Howard (1866). The Chess-Player's Handbook (Second, revised ed.). London, UK: Bell & Daldy. p. 501 – via Google Books. A popular and scientific introduction to the game of chess, exemplified in games actually played by the greatest masters, and illustrated by numerous diagrams of original and remarkable positions.
  11. ^ Sources for this section include Wikipedia articles in various languages. Archived 2009-10-25.
  12. ^ The Estonian chess terms were coined by Ado Grenzstein.
  13. ^ "Handbook". www.fide.com. Retrieved 22 March 2019. The pieces bear the names: Koenig, Dame, Turm, Laeufer, Springer, Bauer
  14. ^ a b H. J. R. Murray, A History of Chess, ch. 11

External linksEdit