List of polyglots

This is a list of notable people who, according to reliable sources, know six or more languages.



  • Peter Turkson (1948–), Ghanaian Catholic cardinal. In addition to his native language, Fante, he speaks a number of other Ghanaian languages, as well as English, French, Italian, German, and Hebrew. He also knows Latin and Greek.[1]
  • Cyril Ramaphosa (1952–), current President of South Africa. Speaks English, Afrikaans, Venda, Tsonga, Zulu, Xhosa, Sesotho, Setswana, Northern Sotho, and Southern Ndebele.[citation needed]
  • Dikembe Mutombo (1966–), Congolese former basketball player. Speaks English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Tshiluba, Swahili, Lingala, and two other Central African languages.[2]
  • Alick Macheso (1968–), Zimbabwean musician. Speaks Shona, English, Ndau, Chichewa, Sena, Venda, and Lingala.[citation needed]
  • Trevor Noah (1984–), South African comedian. Speaks English, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, Tswana, Tsonga, and some German.[3]


  • Pope Francis (1936–), current leader of the Catholic Church. Born in Argentina and of Italian descent, he speaks Spanish and Italian natively. In addition, he knows Latin, and can get by in German, French, Portuguese, and English.[4]
  • Ivan Argüelles (1939–), American poet. He knows most of the Romance languages (including Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan, Provençal, and Romanian) and a number of Indic languages (Hindi, Bengali, Sinhala, and Nepali), as well as Persian, German, Russian, Arabic, and some Chinese. He has also studied Latin, Ancient Greek, Sanskrit, Old Scandinavian, and Old Icelandic.[5]
  • Ziad Fazah (1954–), Liberian-born Lebanese language teacher, now living in Brazil. He is famous for claiming to speak fifty-nine languages, and for a time was listed in The Guinness Book of Records. It is unclear how many languages he can in fact speak.[5]
  • Andrew Divoff (1955–), Venezuelan actor and producer. Speaks English, Spanish, Italian, French, German, Catalan, Portuguese, and Russian.[6] At one time he also knew Romanian, but forgot it through lack of use.[7]
  • Julie Payette (1963–), current Governor General of Canada. Speaks French and English natively, and can converse in Spanish, Italian, Russian, and German.[8]
  • Alexander Argüelles (1964–), American linguist. He speaks most of the Germanic and Romance languages (in particular, German, Dutch, Swedish, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian), as well as Russian, Korean, and Arabic, and he has a reading knowledge of many more languages, such as Persian and Old Norse.[5][9][10]
  • Alberto Lati (1978–), Mexican sports journalist. Speaks Spanish, English, Hebrew, Portuguese, German, Italian, Mandarin, Japanese, French, Greek, and Zulu with varying degrees of fluency.[11]
  • Pete Buttigieg (1982–), American politician. Speaks English, Norwegian, Spanish, French, Italian, Maltese, Arabic, and Dari with varying degrees of fluency.[12]


  • Lokesh Chandra (1927–), Indian scholar. He knows Sanskrit, Pali, Hindi, Avestan, Old Persian, Greek, Latin, French, German, English, Russian, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, Japanese, and Indonesian.[13]
  • Jeong Su-il (1934–), Chinese-born North Korean spy. Speaks Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Tagalog, Malay, Arabic, Persian, Russian, French, Spanish, German, and English.[14]
  • Mickey Curtis (1938–), Japanese actor and singer. Speaks Japanese, English, German, French, Italian, and Thai.[15]
  • Bartholomew I of Constantinople (1940–), current leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Speaks Turkish, Modern Greek, English, German, French, and Italian. He also knows Ancient Greek and Latin.[citation needed]
  • Malcolm Ranjith (1947–), current Archbishop of Colombo. Speaks Sinhala, English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Tamil, and Indonesian. He also knows Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.[16]
  • Rambhadracharya (1950–), Indian religious leader. Speaks English, French, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bhojpuri, Maithily, Oria, Gujrati, Punjabi, Marathi, Maghdhi, Awadhi, and Braj, as well as a number of other Indic languages.[17]
  • Péter Frankl (1953–), Hungarian mathematician, now living in Japan. Speaks eleven languages, including Hungarian, Japanese, Chinese, English, and French.[18]
  • Kamal Haasan (1954–), Indian actor. Speaks Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, Hindi, Marathi, and English.[19]
  • Shabnam Mausi (1955–), Indian politician. Speaks twelve languages.[20]
  • Naela Chohan (1958–), Pakistani diplomat. Speaks Urdu, Punjabi, Bengali, Persian, English, French, and Spanish.[21]
  • Prakash Raj (1965–), Indian actor. Speaks Kannada, Tulu, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Hindi, and English.[22]
  • Priya Anand (1986–), Indian actress. Speaks Telugu, Tamil, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Spanish, and English.[23]


  • Pope Benedict XVI (1927–), former leader of the Catholic Church. In addition to his native language, German, he speaks English, Italian, French, Spanish, and Latin, and can read Ancient Greek and Biblical Hebrew.[24]
  • John C. Wells (1939–), British phonetician. He studied Latin and Classical Greek at university, and speaks English, Esperanto, German, Welsh, French, Spanish, Italian, and Modern Greek with varying degrees of fluency. He also has some knowledge of Polish, Russian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Japanese.[25]
  • Queen Silvia of Sweden (1943–), spouse of King Carl XVI Gustaf. The daughter of a German father and a Brazilian mother, she speaks German and Portuguese natively. She also knows Spanish, French, English, and Swedish,[26] and has some knowledge of Swedish sign language.[27]
  • Levon Ter-Petrosyan (1945–), former President of Armenia. He speaks Armenian, Russian, French, English, German, Arabic, and Assyrian. He also knows a number of ancient languages.[28][29]
  • Ranga Yogeshwar (1959–), Luxembourgish physicist and science journalist. Speaks Luxembourgish, German, English, French, Hindi, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam.[30]
  • Johan Vandewalle (1960–), Belgian linguist. In 1987, at the age of twenty-six, he won the Polyglot of Flanders/Babel Prize, after demonstrating communicative competence in nineteen languages (Arabic, Azerbaijani, Bashkir, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Kyrgyz, Persian, Russian, Swahili, Tajik, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvan, Uyghur, and Uzbek).[5][31]
  • Frans Timmermans (1961–), Dutch politician. Speaks Dutch, English, German, French, Italian, and Russian.[32]
  • Sigrid Kaag (1961–), Dutch politician. Speaks Dutch, English, German, French, Spanish, and Arabic.[33]
  • José Mourinho (1963–), Portuguese football manager. Speaks Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, French, Catalan, and English.[34]
  • Ioannis Ikonomou (1964–), translator at the European Commission. He speaks thirty-two modern languages, including twenty-one of the twenty-four official languages of the European Union (the three exceptions being Estonian, Maltese, and Irish). Among the other languages that he speaks are Russian, Bengali, Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hebrew, Amharic, and Mandarin. He has also studied a number of ancient languages, such as Old Church Slavoniic, Classical Armenian, Sanskrit, Sogdian, and Assyro-Babylonian.[35]
  • Connie Nielsen (1965–), Danish actress. Speaks Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, English, German, French, Italian, and some Spanish.[36]
  • Mišo Juzmeski (1966–), Macedonian writer. Speaks Macedonian, Bulgarian, Serbian, English, Dutch, German, French, Italian, and Spanish.[citation needed]
  • Anatoly Moskvin (1966–), Russian linguist, arrested in 2011 after twenty-six mummified bodies were discovered in his home. He has studied thirteen languages.[37]
  • Mikheil Saakashvili (1967–), former President of Georgia. Speaks Georgian, Russian, Ukrainian, English, and French,[38] and has some command of Spanish[39] and Ossetian.[40]
  • Gianni Infantino (1970–), current President of FIFA. Born in Switzerland to Italian parents, he speaks Italian, French, and Swiss German natively. He also knows English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Arabic.[41]
  • Željko Joksimović (1972–), Serbian singer-songwriter. Speaks Serbian, Russian, Polish, Greek, English, and French.[42]
  • Clarence Seedorf (1976–), Dutch former footballer. Speaks Dutch, English, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Surinamese.[43]
  • Richard Simcott (1977–), British language consultant. He speaks sixteen languages (English, French, Spanish, Welsh, German, Macedonian, Swedish, Italian, Serbian/Bosnian/Croatian, Portuguese, Czech, Catalan, Russian, Dutch, Romanian, and Albanian)[44] and can use around thirty languages in total to some degree.[45]
  • Zdeno Chára (1977–), Slovak ice hockey player. Speaks Slovak, Czech, Polish, Russian, Swedish, German, and English.[46]
  • Daniel Tammet (1979–), British author. In his book Born on a Blue Day, he states that he knows ten languages: English, Finnish, French, German, Lithuanian, Esperanto, Spanish, Romanian, Icelandic, and Welsh.[47]
  • Ivan Rakitić (1988–), Croatian footballer. Speaks Croatian, English, German, French, Italian, and Spanish.[48]
  • Henrikh Mkhitaryan (1989–), Armenian footballer. Speaks Armenian, Russian, English, German, French, and Portuguese.[49]
  • Miralem Pjanić (1990–), Bosnian footballer. Speaks Bosnian, Luxembourgish, German, English, French, and Italian.[50]
  • Romelu Lukaku (1993–), Belgian footballer. Speaks Dutch, English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Lingala.[51]


  • Ghil'ad Zuckermann (1971–), Israeli linguist, now living in Australia. He can speak eleven languages, and has some knowledge of eleven more.[52]


Antiquity and Middle AgesEdit

Modern age, pre-18th centuryEdit

18th centuryEdit

  • Adam František Kollár (1718–1783), a Slovak writer, spoke Slovak, Czech, Serbian, Polish, Rusin, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, German, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Turkish, Chinese, Persian, Arabic, Italian, Spanish, Romanian, French, Dutch, and English.[62]
  • Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799) was an Italian mathematician, philosopher, theologian and humanitarian. Agnesi was known as "the seven-language orator" already in her childhood, since she was fluent with Italian, French, Greek, Hebrew, Spanish, German and Latin.
  • Zaharije Orfelin (1726–1785) was a Serbian writer, artist, and polyglot who spoke more than 10 languages, and understood many more.
  • Jovan Rajić (1726–1801) was a Serbian writer and cleric who spoke and wrote in many languages in his time. He was born in the Habsburg Empire where one had to know German, Hungarian, Latin, Italian, Romanian, and all the Slavic languages if one wanted to achieve a standing.
  • Dositej Obradović (1739–1811) was a Serbian writer. Obradović spoke and wrote in German, French, Italian, English, Greek, Albanian, Latin, Turkish, Hungarian, Romanian and all of the Slavic languages, including Russian and Church Slavonic.
  • Sir William Jones (1746–1794), an Anglo-Welsh philologist known for founding comparative linguistics through proposing the existence of a relationship between European and Indian languages (the Indo-European Languages). Alongside his native English and Welsh languages, he learned Greek, Latin, Persian, Arabic, Hebrew and the basics of Chinese writing at an early age. In all, Jones could speak forty-one languages (at least thirteen fluently).[63][64]
  • Noah Webster (1758–1843), a lexicographer, English spelling reformer, and author, mastered twenty-three languages.[citation needed]
  • Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti (1774–1849), an Italian Cardinal, knew the following thirty-nine languages, speaking many fluently and teaching some:[65] Biblical Hebrew, Rabbinical Hebrew, Arabic, Coptic, Ancient Armenian, Modern Armenian, Persian, Turkish, Albanian, Maltese, Ancient Greek, Modern Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Swedish, Danish, Dutch, English, Illyrian, Russian, Polish, Czech, Hungarian, Chinese, Syriac, Ge'ez, Hindustani, Amharic, Gujarati, Basque, Romanian, and Algonquin.
  • Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855), a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields in mathematics and sciences, excelled in ancient Greek and Latin at school. Entering university, Gauss considered studying philology.[66] He wrote the Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, a groundbreaking work in the field of number theory, in Latin when he was 21. Gauss was known for his language capabilities; he spoke and wrote most of the principal European languages, many others he could read.[67][68] At the age of 62 he started learning Russian and in less than two years wrote and spoke it.[69]
  • Sándor Kőrösi Csoma (1784–1842), a Hungarian philologist and Orientalist, author of the first Tibetan-English dictionary and grammar book, was literate in at least eighteen languages, including Latin, ancient Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, French, German, English, Russian, Slavic, Turkish, Persian, Hindustani, Sanskrit, Tibetan, Bengali, Pashto, Marathi, and probably also Romanian, apart from his native Hungarian.
  • Jean-François Champollion (1790–1832), a French classical scholar, philologist, and orientalist, was the first to decipher the inscription on the Rosetta Stone, an achievement that facilitated the translation of the Egyptian Hieroglyphs—the titles "Father of Egyptology"[70] and "the founder of scientific Egyptology" have since been bestowed upon Champollion.[71] He specialized in Oriental languages while he was a student at the College de France between 1807 and 1809, and his linguistic repertoire eventually consisted of Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Pahlavi, Arabic, Persian, Coptic, Ethiopic, Zend, and his native French.[70][71][72]
  • John Bowring (1792–1872), an English political economist, traveler, writer, and the fourth governor of Hong Kong. Reputed to have known over two hundred languages, and to have had varying speaking ability in one hundred.
  • Matija Čop (1797–1835) was a Slovenian polymath and linguist, and was said to speak nineteen languages, among which were his native Slovene, Latin, ancient Greek, German, English, French, Italian, Serbian, Polish, Ukrainian, Czech, Spanish, Russian, Portuguese, Hungarian, Occitan and Hebrew.
  • Helmuth von Moltke the Elder (1800–1891) was a brilliant strategist and tactician who had a decisive share in the success of the Kingdom of Prussia in the German Unification Wars, adapting the army to modern times. He achieved this by separating the army on the march and concentrating it at the decisive moment, Getrennt marschieren – vereint schlagen (March separately, strike together), and giving subordinates independence in how to accomplish their goals, Auftragstaktik (Mission-type tactics). He was taciturn, popular called der große Schweiger (the great silent one), although he had an excellent knowledge of languages. It was quipped that he was 'silent in seven languages'. [73] Moltke spoke and wrote German, Danish, French, English, Italian and Turkish.[74]

19th centuryEdit

20th centuryEdit




  • Ahmad Hasan Dani (1920–2009), a Pakistani intellectual, archaeologist, historian, and linguist, who mastered thirty-five languages.
  • Pope John Paul II (1920–2005), could speak many languages but reportedly was only fluent in Polish, Italian, Spanish, French, German, and Latin.[132]
  • Sahabzada Yaqub Khan (1920–2016), a Pakistani diplomat and army general who could "speak, read and write somewhere between 6 and 10 languages."[133]
  • Alessandro Bausani (1921-1988), an Italian orientalist (author of one of the most important Italian translations of the Quran) who could speak more than 30 languages, including several Asian, African and Native American languages such as Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Indonesian, and Cherokee.
  • P. V. Narasimha Rao (1921–2004), who served as the tenth Prime Minister of India (1991–1996), could speak 17 languages,[134] including nine Indian languages: Telugu, Marathi, Hindi, Urdu, Oriya, Tamil, Kannada, Sanskrit and Bengali and six foreign languages: English, French, German, Spanish, Arabic, and Persian.
  • Abdul Shakoor Rashad (1921–2004), Afghan scholar, who mastered a dozen of languages outside his native Pashto.
  • Max Mangold (1922–2015), Swiss linguist. He spoke almost forty languages.[135]
  • Christopher Lee (1922–2015), English actor, singer, author, and World War II veteran who spoke fluent English, Italian, French, Spanish and German, and was moderately proficient in Swedish, Russian and Greek.[136]
  • Michael Ventris (1922–1956), an English linguist and architect. French, German, Swiss German, Polish, Russian, Swedish, Danish, Italian, Spanish, some Turkish, and ancient and modern Greek.[137]
  • Stephen Wurm (1922–2001) was a Hungarian-born Australian linguist. "He was a genuine rapid language learner, and before he was 40, was fluent in five of the Germanic languages, five of the Romance languages, three Slavic languages, in Arabic, Swahili, Turkish, Uzbek, Mongol, Mandarin, Tok Pisin, and Police Motu, and could get by in perhaps 30 other languages—over 50 in all."[138]
  • Hans Eberstark (1929–2001)[139]



  • J. Jayalalithaa (1948–2016), Indian politician and actress. She spoke Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, Hindi, and English.[149]
  • Sergei Starostin (1953–2005), Russian linguist. He spoke Russian, Polish, English, German, and French, and could read a further thirteen Slavic languages, as well as Chinese, Japanese, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit. Through his research, he had some knowledge of a wide range of other languages.[150]
  • Shahab Ahmed (1966–2015), Pakistani scholar of Islam. He mastered around fifteen languages.[151]


  1. ^ Jones, Sam; Hirsch, Afua (11 February 2013). "Who will be the next pope? The contenders for Vatican's top job". The Guardian.
  2. ^ Stuter, Bret. "Former Sixer Dikembe Mutombo Prepares For HOF Induction Ceremony". FanSided.
  3. ^ "Trevor Noah Says He Grew Up 'In The Shadow Of A Giant' (His Mom)". NPR. 22 November 2016.
  4. ^ Vallely, Paul (2013). Pope Francis: Untying the Knots. London: Bloomsbury. p. 22. ISBN 9781472903723.
  5. ^ a b c d Erard, Michael (2012). Babel No More: The Search for the World's Most Extraordinary Language Learners. New York: Free Press.
  6. ^ Lanyon, Mary-Justine (Winter 2015–2016). "A 'Bad Guy' with a Heart of Gold" (PDF). Lake Arrowhead Magazine. pp. 41–43.
  7. ^ "Toxic Shock TV - Actor Andrew Divoff Interview".
  8. ^ "Biography of Julie Payette". Canadian Space Agency.
  9. ^ Lim Yan Liang (1 April 2012). "One man, 50 languages" (PDF). The Sunday Times.
  10. ^ "A Stroll with Alexander Arguelles (For International Mother Language Day)". 21 February 2014.
  11. ^ "Mandarín, zulú, griego y todos los idiomas que habla Alberto Lati". Milenio. 13 May 2020.
  12. ^ Erard, Michael (29 April 2019). "Pete Buttigieg's Language Magic Is Textbook Polyglot Mythmaking". The Atlantic.
  13. ^ "Lokesh Chandra New ICCR President". Outlook. 30 October 2014.
  14. ^ 문명을 교류하면 모든 갈등 극복…남북 교류 땐 머잖아 통일 이룰것 (in Korean). 23 November 2014.
  15. ^ ミッキー・カーチス|ワタナベエンターテインメント (in Japanese). Watanabe Entertainment.
  16. ^ "Sri Lanka overjoyed as prelate named cardinal". Catholic News. 7 November 2010.
  17. ^ "Welcome to JRHU: Founder and Chancellor: Brief Profile of Guruji". Jagadguru Rambhadracharya Handicapped University.
  18. ^ Maruko, Mami (15 March 2011). "Juggler of two professions in Japan". Japan Times.
  19. ^ "Movies: Kamal, as we know him".
  20. ^ "8 Indian transgender people who were the firsts in their fields". India Today. 3 July 2018.
  21. ^ "Interview with Her Excellency, Ambassador Naela Chohan". International Association of Hyperpolyglots.
  22. ^ Dutta, Amrita (13 January 2018). "What lies behind the dissent of Prakash Raj?". Indian Express.
  23. ^ "Interview with Priya Anand". 13 April 2010.
  24. ^ "Pope Benedict XVI: Quick Facts". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.
  25. ^ "Professor J.C. WELLS: brief curriculum vitae". University College London.
  26. ^ "Biography". Swedish Royal Court.
  27. ^ "Essener LVR-Schule zu Gast bei Königin Silvia von Schweden".
  28. ^ Լևոն Տեր-Պետրոսյան. Av Production (in Armenian).
  29. ^ Hakobyan, Tatul (27 March 2009). "Armenia is a homeland for the Assyrians, who have no homeland". The Armenian Reporter.
  30. ^ Dohnke, Kay (April 2018). "We Need to Change, Pursue New Paths". Schaeffler.
  31. ^ Polyglot of Flanders/Babel Prize certificate, 23 January 1987.
  32. ^ O'Leary, Naomi (16 May 2019). "Frans Timmermans' greatest strength is his greatest weakness". Politico.
  33. ^ Yoon, Sangwon (16 May 2014). "Sigrid Kaag: Woman who's 'more man than any man'". Gulf News.
  34. ^ "Jose Mourinho: Five top facts you might not know". BBC. 26 May 2016.
  35. ^ Rice, Xan (3 August 2015). "The man who speaks 32 languages – and counting". New Statesman.
  36. ^ Vaughan, Brendan (29 January 2007). "A Woman We Love: Connie Nielsen". Esquire.
  37. ^ "Russian historian kept 29 mummified bodies at home, police say". The Guardian. Associated Press. 7 November 2011.
  38. ^ "Profile: Mikhail Saakashvili". BBC. 25 January 2004.
  39. ^ Murray, Don (29 February 2008). "Can bountiful Georgia escape the Russian bear?". CBC.
  40. ^ Smock, John (13 August 2004). "As prospect of South Ossetian conflict grows, Georgia prepares to send troops to Iraq". Eurasianet.
  41. ^ "Gianni Infantino". FIFA.
  42. ^ "Željko Joksimović: Ne promatram se kao da sam zgodan!". (in Croatian). 11 December 2010.
  43. ^ "6 reasons why Clarence Seedorf Is AC Milan's Best Bet". Swide. 17 January 2014.
  44. ^ Leland, John (9 March 2012). "Adventures of a Teenage Polyglot". New York Times.
  45. ^ Robson, David (29 May 2015). "How to learn 30 languages". BBC.
  46. ^ Bishop, John (21 July 2010). "Bruins by the Numbers: 33". BostonBruins.Com.
  47. ^ Tammet, Daniel (2006). Born on a Blue Day. New York: Free Press. p. 11.
  48. ^ Rakitić, Ivan (19 September 2017). "A Croatian Guy Walks into a Bar". The Players' Tribune.
  49. ^ "Генрих Мхитарян: "Каждый получает свой шанс"". Golos Armenii (in Russian). 13 February 2017.
  50. ^ "Miralem Pjanić - a polyglot". Sarajevo Times. 10 April 2013.
  51. ^ Varley, Ciaran (10 June 2020). "Footballer or teacher? The stars who could do both". BBC.
  52. ^ Goldsworthy, Anna (September 2014). "Voices of the Land". The Monthly.
  53. ^ "Mithridates, who was king of twenty-two nations, administered their laws in as many languages, and could harangue each of them, without employing an interpreter:" Pliny the Elder, Natural History, VII, 24.
  54. ^ "she could pass from one language to another; so that there were few of the barbarian nations that she answered by an interpreter; to most of them she spoke herself, as to the Ethiopians, Troglodytes, Hebrews, Arabians, Syrians, Medes, Parthians, and many others, whose language she had learnt; which was all the more surprising because most of the kings, her predecessors, scarcely gave themselves the trouble to acquire the Egyptian tongue, and several of them quite abandoned the Macedonian." Plutarch, Antony, 27.3–4
  55. ^ Rom Landau, Islam and the Arabs, Routledge (2013), p. 147
  56. ^ Cronica, Giovanni Villani Book VI e. 1. (Rose E. Selfe's English translation)
  57. ^ Royal Asiatic Society, Sri Lanka (2004). "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka". 47–48. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  58. ^ Yong Zhao; Jing Lei; Guofang Li; Ming Fang He; Kaori Okano; Nagwa Megahed; David Gamage; Hema Ramanathan (2010). Handbook of Asian Education: A Cultural Perspective. Routledge. p. 399. ISBN 978-1-136-72129-8.
  59. ^ Himbutana, Gopitha Peiris (29 January 2006). "Ven. Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera Scholar monk par excellence" (PDF). Lake House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  60. ^ Disanayaka, Professor. J. B. (20 February 2000). "A taste of Sinhala : What apabbransa are you jabbering?". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  61. ^ John Crace (28 January 2008). "John Milton – our greatest word-maker". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  62. ^ Kopčan Vojtech:Adam František Kollár ako orientalista. In: Literárnomuzejný letopis č. 16, Martin, Matica slovenská, 1985, s. 171–178
  63. ^ Edward Said, Orientalism New York: Random House, page 77.
  64. ^ Jones, Sir William (1824). Discourses delivered before the Asiatic Society: and miscellaneous papers, on the religion, poetry, literature, etc., of the nations of India. Printed for C. S. Arnold. p. 28.
  65. ^ C. W. Russel, D.D., 1863, Longman & Green, London
  66. ^ Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen: Gauss zum Gedächtniss [1], S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1856, p. 15
  67. ^ Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen: Gauss zum Gedächtniss [2], S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1856, p. 91
  68. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, "Gassendi, Pierre" to "Geocentric" [3]
  69. ^ Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen: Gauss zum Gedächtniss [4], S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1856, p. 91f
  70. ^ a b Jimmy Dunn writing as John Warren (1996–2013). "Jean Francois Champollion: The Father of Egyptology". Tour Egypt. Tour Egypt. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  71. ^ a b "Jean Francois Champollion and the Rosetta Stone". Translator Interpreter Hall of Fame. Translator Interpreter Hall of Fame. 2000–2003. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  72. ^ E Bruce Brooks (2001). "Gallery of Philologists Jean-François Champollion 23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832". University of Massachusetts Amherst. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  73. ^ "Moltke, Helmuth Carl Bernhard, Count von" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). 1911.
  74. ^ Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Moltke, Helmuth Graf von, B. v. Poten, Band 52 (1906), [5], p. 457
  75. ^ Bell, E.T. (2014). Men of Mathematics. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781476784250.
  76. ^ Janusz Fedirko: Szalony plan wyzwolenia Polski, cz. I, "Alma Mater", 2008 r., nr. 102–104 [6].
  77. ^ E. H. Blakeney, "The Greatest Linguist", The Observer, 15 December 1929, p. 9.
  78. ^ Morais, Henry Samuels (1880). Eminent Israelites of the Nineteenth Century: A Series of Biographical Sketches. Philadelphia: E. Stern & Company. pp. 71–74.
  79. ^ Paul Lafargue; Jacques Bonhomme (15 August 1905). "Frederick Engels". Marxists Internet Archive (from The Social Democrat journal). Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  80. ^ McLynn, Frank (1990), Of No Country: An Anthology of the Works of Sir Richard Burton, Scribner's, pp. 5–6.
  81. ^
    • Carvalho, José Murilo de (2007). D. Pedro II: ser ou não ser (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras. ISBN 978-85-359-0969-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    • Olivieri, Antonio Carlos (1999). Dom Pedro II, Imperador do Brasil (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Callis. ISBN 978-85-86797-19-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    • Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz (1998). As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos (in Portuguese) (2nd ed.). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras. ISBN 978-85-7164-837-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    • Besouchet, Lídia (1993). Pedro II e o Século XIX (in Portuguese) (2nd ed.). Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. ISBN 978-85-209-0494-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    • Lira, Heitor (1977). História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870) (in Portuguese). 1. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia.
  82. ^ Robert Elsie (24 December 2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I.B.Tauris. pp. 459–461. ISBN 978-1-78076-431-3.
  83. ^ Winchester, Simon (2003). The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.
  84. ^ Sohail H. Hashmi in Just Wars, Holy Wars, and Jihads: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Encounters and Exchanges, Oxford University Press (2012), p. 307
  85. ^ Robert Elsie (2005). Albanian Literature: A Short History. I.B.Tauris. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-84511-031-4
  86. ^ Nicholas, Jean (2010). Complete Works, selected letters. Chicago: University of Chicago.
  87. ^ Robb, Graham (2001). Rimbaud: A Biography. United States of America: W.W. Norton.
  88. ^ John J. O'Neill (May 2009). Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla. pp. 282–284. ISBN 978-1-4421-7396-5.
  89. ^ Andrei Medina (19 June 2012). "Jose Rizal a revered hero abroad, not just PHL". GMA News. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  90. ^ Zaide, Gregorio (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings. Manila, Philippines: All Nations Publishing Co., Inc.
  91. ^ "Rizal and Language". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  92. ^ Jägerskiöld, Stig (1986). Mannerheim: Marshal of Finland. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1527-6.
  93. ^ Screen, J. E. O. (2000). Mannerheim: The Finnish Years. London: Hurst. ISBN 1-85065-573-1.
  94. ^ Ryan, Desmond (1924). James Connolly: His Life, Work and Writings. Dublin: Talbot Press. p. 69. ASIN B007T0SX30.
  95. ^ Metin Heper & Nur Bilge Criss, Historical Dictionary of Turkey, Scarecrow Press (2009), p. 43
  96. ^ Hakan Ozoglu, From Caliphate to Secular State, ABC-CLIO (2011), p. 48
  97. ^ Krymsky, Ahatanhel. Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine
  98. ^ Heehs, Peter (2008). The Lives of Sri Aurobindo. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-231-14098-0.
  99. ^ "Harold Williams VOICE OF THE WORLD". The New Zealand Edge. NZEDGE.COM IP HOLDINGS LIMITED. 1998–2011. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  100. ^ Աճառյան Հրաչյա (in Armenian). Armenian Encyclopedia.
  101. ^ Maurice Friedman, Martin Buber's Life and Work, Wayne State University Press (1988), p. 8
  102. ^ Erik Ritter von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, "The Cultural Background of Ludwig von Mises", The Ludwig von Mises Institute, p. 1
  103. ^ Shruti Kapila, An Intellectual History for India, Cambridge University Press (2010), p. 82
  104. ^ Duiker, William J. (2000). Ho Chi Minh: A Life. Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8701-9.
  105. ^ Sharma, R.S. (2009). Rethinking India's Past. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-569787-2.
  106. ^ Sperling, Abraham Paul (1947). Psychology for the Millions. New York: Frederick Fell. pp. 332–339. Retrieved 26 November 2014.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  107. ^ "Which languages did James Joyce know?". Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  108. ^ Fedirko, Janusz. 2008. Fenomenalny Multilingwista Professor Andrzej Gawroński (1885–1927). Alma Mater nr 2 (100), miesięcznik Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego [7]
  109. ^ Mohan Lal, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature : Sasay to Zorgot, Sahitya Akademi (1992), p. 4199
  110. ^ Ludwig M., Arnold (2004). King of the Mountain: The Nature of Political Leadership. University Press of Kentucky. p. 150.
  111. ^ John von Neumann's – American Mathematical Society – S. Ulam, page six
  112. ^ The library of Sir Steven Runciman, Retrieved on 10 April 2017.
  113. ^ The Last interview with the Great Byzantologist Sir Steven Runciman, Retrieved on 10 April 2017.
  114. ^ Rabiπa Abifadel, Saπadeh : The Expatriate Critic and Man of Letters in Adel Beshara (ed.), Antun Sa'adeh : The Man, His Thought : an Anthology, Ithaca Press (2007), p. 442
  115. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 April 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  116. ^ Linder, Doug. "Nathan F. Leopold".
  117. ^ Sastri, S. Srikanta. "Official Website of Dr S. Srikanta Sastri". Biographical Sketch of S. Srikanta Sastri. Website Administrator. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  118. ^ Rahman, M.M. (2005). Encyclopedia of historiography. New Delhi, India: Anmol Publications. p. 2056. ISBN 8126123052.
  119. ^ "Germina – Revista De Literatura & Arte". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  120. ^ Momin, A.R. "Professor Muhammad Hamidullah (1908–2002)". Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  121. ^ "UKU MASING – Writer, theologian, philologist". Välisministeerium – Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Välisministeerium. 26 August 2009. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  122. ^ Scott Alkire. "Insights of a Master Language Learner". Retrieved 10 May 2013.
  123. ^ Heffer, Simon (1998). Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  124. ^ BARNES, BART (21 August 2002). "Meredith K. Gardner, 89; Cracked Codes to Unmask Key Soviet Spies" – via LA Times.
  125. ^ George Campbell Dies; Spoke 44 Languages (The Washington Post)
  126. ^ Aziz Ahmed, literary research and controversies, Rauf Parekh, Dawn News
  127. ^ Dr Nabi Bukhsh Baloch: a nonagenarian scholar, Rauf Parekh, Dawn News
  128. ^ "Profile: Violinist Henryk Szeryng Was Both an Accomplished Violinist & Diplomat".
  129. ^ Muhammad Khalid Masud, In Memorium: Dr. Fazlur Rahman (1919–1988), Islamic Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Winter 1988), p. 399
  130. ^ Negri, Gloria (2 June 2006). "Omeljan Pritsak, Leading Scholar of Ukraine". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017 – via HighBeam Research.
  131. ^ Ihab Hassan, Between the Eagle and the Sun : Traces of Japan, University of Alabama Press (2015), p. 73
  132. ^ "The Many Languages of Pope John Paul II". 30 April 2005.
  133. ^ S. Abbas Raza (27 June 2005). "UMonday Musing: The Man With Qualities". 3 Quarks Daily. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  134. ^ "Obituary: PV Narasimha Rao – World news – The Guardian". 28 August 2013. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  135. ^ Dogil, Grzegorz (2009). "Beyond Talent: A Short Language Biography of Prof. Max Mangold". In Dogil, Grzegorz; Reiterer, Susanne Maria (eds.). Language Talent and Brain Activity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 352. ISBN 9783110215496.
  136. ^ "Extensive biography at Tiscali UK". Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
  137. ^ A Very English Genius Archived 27 October 2014 at, BBC documentary.
  138. ^ Pawley, Andrew (2002). "Stephen Wurm, 1922–2001: Linguist Extraordinaire". Oceanic Linguistics. 41 (1): 1–14. JSTOR 3623325.
  139. ^ Jeremy Bernstein, A Theory for Everything, Springer (1976), pages 205 and following
  140. ^ "George Fernandes: Rebel without a pause". 27 April 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  141. ^ Rajamani, R. C. (15 August 2004). "George Fernandes, Socialist Who Speaks Many Tongues". Asian Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  142. ^ MURALIDHARA KHAJANE (15 April 2013). "P.B. Sreenivas was the voice of Rajkumar". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  143. ^ Carol Prunhuber (2010). "The Passion and Death of Rahman the Kurd: Dreaming Kurdistan". Carol Prunhuber. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  144. ^ "Dr Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou". SARA Distribution. Foundation For Kurdish Library & Museum. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  145. ^ Dr Carol Prunhuber (28 April 2012). "I wrote the book to denounce the assassination by the Iranian regime and the complicity of the Austrian authorities". KDP Press. Kurdistan Democratic Party KDP.Iran. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  146. ^ "Profile: Sudan's Islamist leader".
  147. ^ "Kenneth Hale: Kenneth Locke Hale, a master of languages, died on October 8th, aged 67". The Economist. 1 November 2001. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  148. ^ Keyser, Jay (10 November 2001). "Kenneth Hale: The master of more than 50 languages, he fought to protect vanishing native traditions". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  149. ^ "Jayalalithaa to debut in Hindi for campaigns". The Economic Times. 8 April 2007.
  150. ^ Woodward, Richard B. (2006). "The Man Who Loved Languages". The American Scholar. 75 (4): 44–57. JSTOR 41222651.
  151. ^ Feldman, Noah (20 September 2015). "An Extraordinary Scholar Redefined Islam". Bloomberg.