Heinrich Schliemann

Heinrich Schliemann (German: [ˈʃliːman]; 6 January 1822 – 26 December 1890) was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology. He was an advocate of the historicity of places mentioned in the works of Homer and an archaeological excavator of Hisarlik, now presumed to be the site of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns. His work lent weight to the idea that Homer's Iliad reflects historical events. Schliemann's excavation of nine levels of archaeological remains with dynamite has been criticized as destructive of significant historical artifacts, including the level that is believed to be the historical Troy.[1]

Heinrich Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann (HeidICON 28763) (cropped).jpg
Born(1822-01-06)6 January 1822
Died26 December 1890(1890-12-26) (aged 68)
NationalityGerman
Scientific career
FieldsArchaeology
InfluencedArthur Evans
V. Gordon Childe

Along with Arthur Evans, Schliemann was a pioneer in the study of Aegean civilization in the Bronze Age. The two men knew of each other, Evans having visited Schliemann's sites. Schliemann had planned to excavate at Knossos but died before fulfilling that dream. Evans bought the site and stepped in to take charge of the project, which was then still in its infancy.

Childhood and youthEdit

Schliemann was born January 6, 1822 Heinrich Schliemann in Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin (part of the German Confederation). His father, Ernst Schliemann, was a Lutheran minister. The family moved to Ankershagen in 1823 (today their home houses the Heinrich Schliemann Museum).[2]

Heinrich's father was a poor Pastor. His mother, Luise Therese Sophie Schliemann, died in 1831, when Heinrich was nine years old. After his mother's death, his father sent Heinrich to live with his uncle. When he was eleven years old, his father paid for him to enroll in the Gymnasium (grammar school) at Neustrelitz. Heinrich's later interest in history was initially encouraged by his father, who had schooled him in the tales of the Iliad and the Odyssey and had given him a copy of Ludwig Jerrer's Illustrated History of the World for Christmas in 1829. Schliemann later claimed that at the age of 7 he had declared he would one day excavate the city of Troy.[3][4]

However, Heinrich had to transfer to the Realschule (vocational school) after his father was accused of embezzling church funds[5] and had to leave that institution in 1836 when his father was no longer able to pay for it. His family's poverty made a university education impossible, so it was Schliemann's early academic experiences that influenced the course of his education as an adult. In his archaeological career, however, there was often a division between Schliemann and the educated professionals.

At age 14, after leaving Realschule, Heinrich became an apprentice at Herr Holtz's grocery in Fürstenberg. He later told that his passion for Homer was born when he heard a drunkard reciting it at the grocer's.[6] He laboured for five years, until he was forced to leave because he burst a blood vessel lifting a heavy barrel.[7] In 1841, Schliemann moved to Hamburg and became a cabin boy on the Dorothea, a steamer bound for Venezuela. After twelve days at sea, the ship foundered in a gale. The survivors washed up on the shores of the Netherlands.[8] Schliemann became a messenger, office attendant, and later, a bookkeeper in Amsterdam.

Career and familyEdit

 
Schliemann as a young man

On March 1, 1844, 22-year-old Schliemann took a position with B. H. Schröder & Co., an import/export firm. In 1846, the firm sent him as a General Agent to St. Petersburg.

In time, Schliemann represented a number of companies. He learned Russian and Greek, employing a system that he used his entire life to learn languages; Schliemann claimed that it took him six weeks to learn a language[9] and wrote his diary in the language of whatever country he happened to be in. By the end of his life, he could converse in English, French, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Swedish, Polish, Greek, Latin, and Arabic, besides his native German.[10]:28–30

Schliemann's ability with languages was an important part of his career as a businessman in the importing trade. In 1850, he learned of the death of his brother, Ludwig, who had become wealthy as a speculator in the California gold fields.

Schliemann went to California in early 1851 and started a bank in Sacramento buying and reselling over a million dollars' worth of gold dust in just six months. When the local Rothschild agent complained about short-weight consignments, he left California, pretending it was because of illness.[11] While he was there, California became the 31st state in September 1850, and Schliemann acquired United States citizenship. While this story was propounded in Schliemann's autobiography of 1881, Christo Thanos and Wout Arentzen,[12] state clearly that Schliemann was in St Petersburg that day, and "in actual fact, ...obtained his American citizenship only in 1869."

According to his memoirs, before arriving in California he dined in Washington, D.C. with President Millard Fillmore and his family,[13] but W. Calder III says that Schliemann didn't attend but simply read about a similar gathering in the papers.[14]

Schliemann also published what he said was an eyewitness account of the San Francisco Fire of 1851, which he said was in June although it took place in May. At the time he was in Sacramento and used the report of the fire in the Sacramento Daily Journal to write his report.[15]

On April 7, 1852, he sold his business and returned to Russia. There he attempted to live the life of a gentleman, which brought him into contact with Ekaterina Petrovna Lyschin (1826–1896), the niece of one of his wealthy friends. Schliemann had previously learned that his childhood sweetheart, Minna, had married.

Heinrich and Ekaterina married on October 12, 1852. The marriage was troubled from the start.

Schliemann next cornered the market in indigo dye and then went into the indigo business itself, turning a good profit. Ekaterina and Heinrich had a son, Sergey (1855–1941), and two daughters, Natalya (1859–1869) and Nadezhda (1861–1935).[11]

Schliemann made yet another quick fortune as a military contractor in the Crimean War, 1854–1856. He cornered the market in saltpeter, sulfur, and lead, constituents of ammunition, which he resold to the Russian government.

By 1858, Schliemann was 36 years old and wealthy enough to retire. In his memoirs, he claimed that he wished to dedicate himself to the pursuit of Troy.

As a consequence of his many travels, Schliemann was often separated from his wife and small children. He spent a month studying at the Sorbonne in 1866, while moving his assets from St. Petersburg to Paris to invest in real estate. He asked his wife to join him, but she refused.[16]

Schliemann threatened to divorce Ekaterina twice before doing so. In 1869, he bought property and settled in Indianapolis for about three months to take advantage of Indiana's liberal divorce laws, although he obtained the divorce by lying about his residency in the U.S. and his intention to remain in the state. He moved to Athens as soon as an Indiana court granted him the divorce and married again two months later.[17]

Life as an amateur-archaeologistEdit

Heinrich Schliemann was an amateur-archaeologist. He is often used as a good example for archaeology students of how it shouldn't be done.

Schliemann was obsessed with the stories of Homer and ancient Mediterranean civilizations. He dedicated his life's work to unveiling the actual physical remains of the cities of Homer's epic tales. Many refer to him as the "father of pre-Hellenistic archaeology."[18]

In 1868, Schliemann visited sites in the Greek world, published Ithaka, der Peloponnesus und Troja in which he asserted that Hissarlik was the site of Troy, and submitted a dissertation in Ancient Greek proposing the same thesis to the University of Rostock. In 1869, he was awarded a PhD in absentia[19] from the University of Rostock, in Germany, for that submission.[11] David Traill wrote that the examiners gave him his PhD on the basis of his topographical analyses of Ithaca, which were in part simply translations of another author's work or drawn from poetic descriptions by the same author.[20]

In 1869, Schliemann divorced his first wife, Ekaterina Petrovna Lyshin, whom he had married in 1852, and bore him three children. A former teacher and Athenian friend, Theokletos Vimpos, the Archbishop of Mantineia and Kynouria, helped Schliemann find someone "enthusiastic about Homer and about a rebirth of my beloved Greece...with a Greek name and a soul impassioned for learning." The archbishop suggested a young schoolgirl, Sophia Engastromenos, daughter of his cousin. They were married by the archbishop on 23 September 1869. They later had two children, Andromache and Agamemnon Schliemann.[21]:90–91,159–163

 
The 'Mask of Agamemnon', discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae now exhibited at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens.

Schliemann was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1880.[22]

Troy and MycenaeEdit

 
Sophia Schliemann (née Engastromenos) wearing treasures recovered at Hisarlik

Schliemann's first interest of a classical nature seems to have been the location of Troy. At the time he began excavating in Turkey, the site commonly believed to be Troy was at Pınarbaşı, a hilltop at the south end of the Trojan Plain.[23] The site had been previously excavated by archaeologist and local expert, Frank Calvert. Schliemann performed soundings at Pınarbaşı but was disappointed by his findings.[23] It was Calvert who identified Hissarlik as Troy and suggested Schliemann dig there on land owned by Calvert's family.[24]

Schliemann was at first skeptical about the identification of Hissarlik with Troy but was persuaded by Calvert.[25] Schliemann began digging at Hissarlik in 1870, and by 1873 had discovered nine buried cities. The day before digging was to stop on 15 June 1873, was the day he discovered gold, which he took to be Priam's treasure trove.[10]:36–39[21]:131,153,163–213

A cache of gold and several other objects appeared on or around May 27, 1873; Schliemann named it "Priam's Treasure". He later wrote that he had seen the gold glinting in the dirt and dismissed the workmen so that he and Sophia could excavate it themselves; they removed it in her shawl. However, Schliemann's oft-repeated story of the treasure's being carried by Sophia in her shawl was untrue. Schliemann later admitted fabricating it; at the time of the discovery Sophia was in fact with her family in Athens, following the death of her father.[26] Sophia later wore "the Jewels of Helen" for the public.

Schliemann smuggled the treasure out of Turkey into Greece. The Turkish government sued Schliemann in a Greek court, and Schliemann was forced to pay a 10,000 gold franc indemnity. Schliemann ended up sending 50,000 gold francs to the Constantinople Imperial Museum, and some of the artifacts. Schliemann published Troy and Its Remains in 1874. Schliemann at first offered his collections, which included Priam's Gold, to the Greek government, then the French, and finally the Russians. However, in 1881, his collections ended up in Berlin, housed first in the Ethnographic Museum, and then the Museum for Pre- and Early History, until the start of WWII. In 1939, all exhibits were packed and stored in the museum basement, then moved to the Prussian State Bank vault in January 1941. Later in 1941, the treasure was moved to the Flakturm located at the Berlin Zoological Garden, called the Zoo Tower. Dr. Wilhelm Unverzagt protected the three crates containing the Trojan gold when the Battle for Berlin commenced, right up until SMERSH forces took control of the tower on 1 May. On 26 May 1945, Soviet forces, led by Lt. Gen. Nikolai Antipenko, Andre Konstantinov, deputy head of the Arts Committee, Viktor Lazarev, and Serafim Druzhinin, took the three crates away on trucks. The crates were then flown to Moscow on 30 June 1945, and taken to the Pushkin Museum ten days later. In 1994, the museum admitted the collection was in their possession.[10][27][21]

In 1876, he began digging at Mycenae. There, he discovered the Shaft Graves, with their skeletons and more regal gold (including the so-called Mask of Agamemnon). These findings were published in Mycenae in 1878.[10]:57–58[21]:226–252,385

Although he had received permission in 1876 to continue excavation, Schliemann did not reopen the dig site at Troy until 1878–1879, after another excavation in Ithaca designed to locate a site mentioned in the Odyssey. This was his second excavation at Troy. Emile Burnouf and Rudolf Virchow joined him there in 1879. [28]

Schliemann began excavation of the Treasury of Minyas at Orchomenus (Boeotia) in 1880.[29]

Schliemann made a third excavation at Troy in 1882–1883, an excavation of Tiryns with Wilhelm Dörpfeld in 1884, and a fourth excavation at Troy, also with Dörpfeld (who emphasized the importance of strata), in 1888–1890.[30]

DeathEdit

 
Schliemann's grave in the First Cemetery of Athens.
 
The Schliemann mansion in Athens, ca. 1910, now housing the Numismatic Museum of Athens

On August 1, 1890, Schliemann returned reluctantly to Athens, and in November travelled to Halle, where his chronic ear infection was operated upon, on November 13. The doctors deemed the operation a success, but his inner ear became painfully inflamed. Ignoring his doctors' advice, he left the hospital and travelled to Leipzig, Berlin, and Paris. From the latter, he planned to return to Athens in time for Christmas, but his ear condition became even worse. Too sick to make the boat ride from Naples to Greece, Schliemann remained in Naples but managed to make a journey to the ruins of Pompeii. On Christmas Day 1890, he collapsed into a coma; he died in a Naples hotel room the following day; the cause of death was cholesteatoma.

His corpse was then transported by friends to the First Cemetery in Athens. It was interred in a mausoleum shaped like a temple erected in ancient Greek style, designed by Ernst Ziller in the form of an amphiprostylee temple on top of a tall base. The frieze circling the outside of the mausoleum shows Schliemann conducting the excavations at Mycenae and other sites.

Schliemann's magnificent residence in the city centre of Athens, the Iliou Melathron (Ιλίου Μέλαθρον, "Palace of Ilium") houses today the Numismatic Museum of Athens.

CriticismEdit

Further excavation of the Troy site by others indicated that the level he named the Troy of the Iliad was inaccurate, although they retain the names given by Schliemann. In an article for The Classical World, D.F. Easton wrote that Schliemann "was not very good at separating fact from interpretation"[31] and claimed that, "Even in 1872 Frank Calvert could see from the pottery that Troy II had to be hundreds of years too early to be the Troy of the Trojan War, a point finally proven by the discovery of Mycenaean pottery in Troy VI in 1890."[31] "King Priam's Treasure" was found in the Troy II level, that of the Early Bronze Age, long before Priam's city of Troy VI or Troy VIIa in the prosperous and elaborate Mycenaean Age. Moreover, the finds were unique. The elaborate gold artifacts do not appear to belong to the Early Bronze Age.

His excavations were condemned by later archaeologists as having destroyed the main layers of the real Troy. Kenneth W. Harl, in the Teaching Company's Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor lecture series, sarcastically claimed that Schliemann's excavations were carried out with such rough methods that he did to Troy what the Greeks could not do in their times, destroying and levelling down the entire city walls to the ground.[32]

In 1972, Professor William Calder of the University of Colorado, speaking at a commemoration of Schliemann's birthday, claimed that he had uncovered several possible problems in Schliemann's work. Other investigators followed, such as Professor David Traill of the University of California.[33]

An article published by the National Geographic Society called into question Schliemann's qualifications, his motives, and his methods:

In northwestern Turkey, Heinrich Schliemann excavated the site believed to be Troy in 1870. Schliemann was a German adventurer and con man who took sole credit for the discovery, even though he was digging at the site, called Hisarlik, at the behest of British archaeologist Frank Calvert. [...] Eager to find the legendary treasures of Troy, Schliemann blasted his way down to the second city, where he found what he believed were the jewels that once belonged to Helen. As it turns out, the jewels were a thousand years older than the time described in Homer's epic.[1]

Another article presented similar criticisms when reporting on a speech by University of Pennsylvania scholar C. Brian Rose:

German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann was the first to explore the Mound of Troy in the 1870s. Unfortunately, he had had no formal education in archaeology, and dug an enormous trench "which we still call the Schliemann Trench," according to Rose, because in the process Schliemann “destroyed a phenomenal amount of material." [...] Only much later in his career would he accept the fact that the treasure had been found at a layer one thousand years removed from the battle between the Greeks and Trojans, and thus that it could not have been the treasure of King Priam. Schliemann may not have discovered the truth, but the publicity stunt worked, making Schliemann and the site famous and igniting the field of Homeric studies in the late 19th century. During this period he was criticized and ridiculed of claims to fathering an offspring with a local Assyrian Girl sparking infidelity and adultery which Schliemann did not confirm or deny. '[34]

Schliemann's methods have been described as "savage and brutal. He plowed through layers of soil and everything in them without proper record keeping—no mapping of finds, few descriptions of discoveries." Carl Blegen forgave his recklessness, saying "Although there were some regrettable blunders, those criticisms are largely colored by a comparison with modern techniques of digging; but it is only fair to remember that before 1876 very few persons, if anyone, yet really knew how excavations should properly be conducted. There was no science of archaeological investigation, and there was probably no other digger who was better than Schliemann in actual field work."[35]

In 1874, Schliemann also initiated and sponsored the removal of medieval edifices from the Acropolis of Athens, including the great Frankish Tower. Despite considerable opposition, including from King George I of Greece, Schliemann saw the project through.[36] The eminent historian of Frankish Greece William Miller later denounced this as "an act of vandalism unworthy of any people imbued with a sense of the continuity of history",[37] and "pedantic barbarism".[38]

In popular cultureEdit

Peter Ackroyd's novel The Fall of Troy (2006) is based on Schliemann's excavation of Troy. Schliemann is portrayed as "Heinrich Obermann".

Schliemann is also the subject of Chris Kuzneski's novel The Lost Throne.[citation needed]

Schliemann is the subject of Irving Stone's novel The Greek Treasure (1975), which was the basis for the 2007 German television production Der geheimnisvolle Schatz von Troja (Hunt for Troy).

Schliemann is a peripheral character in the historical mystery, A Terrible Beauty. It is the 11th book in a series of novels featuring Lady Emily Hargreaves by Tasha Alexander. [39]

Schliemann is also mentioned in the 2005 TV film The Magic of Ordinary Days by the character Livy.

The questionable authenticity of Schliemann’s discovery of Priam’s Treasure is a central plot point to Lian Dolan’s novel Helen of Pasadena.

Schliemann is also mentioned in 2011 book UNCHARTED: The Fourth Labyrinth by the character Ian Welch.

PublicationsEdit

 
Bust of Schliemann in Neues Museum, Berlin
  • La Chine et le Japon au temps présent (1867)
  • Ithaka, der Peloponnesus und Troja (1868) (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01682-7)
  • Trojanische Altertümer: Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in Troja (1874) (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01703-9)
  • Troja und seine Ruinen (1875). Translated into English as Troy and its Remains (1875) (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01717-6)
  • Mykena (1878). Translated into English as Mycenae: A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries at Mycenae and Tiryns (1878) (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01692-6)
  • Ilios, City and Country of the Trojans (1880) (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01679-7)
  • Orchomenos: Bericht über meine Ausgrabungen in Böotischen Orchomenos (1881) (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01718-3)
  • Tiryns: Der prähistorische Palast der Könige von Tiryns (1885) (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01720-6). Translated into English Tiryns: The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings of Tiryns (1885)
  • Bericht über de Ausgrabungen in Troja im Jahre 1890 (1891) (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01719-0).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Stefan Lovgren. "National Geographic News". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  2. ^ Cornelia Maué, www.cornelia-maue.de. "website of schliemann-museum Ankershagen" (in German). Schliemann-museum.de. Archived from the original on 27 April 2018.
  3. ^ Schliemann, Heinrich (1881). Ilios: The City and Country of the Trojans: the Results of Researches and Discoveries on the Site of Troy and Through the Troad in the Years 1871-72-73-78-79; Including an Autobiography of the Author. Harper & Brothers. p. 3.
  4. ^ Cottrell, Leonard (1984). The Bull of Minos: The discoveries of Schliemann and Evans. Bell & Hyman Ltd. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7135-2432-1.
  5. ^ Robert Payne, The Gold of Troy: The Story of Heinrich Schliemann and the Buried Cities of Ancient Greece, 1959, repr. New York: Dorset, 1990, p. 15.
  6. ^ Payne, p. 70.
  7. ^ "Schliemann, Heinrich" in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, at de.wikisource. (in German)
  8. ^ Payne, p. 25.
  9. ^ Payne, p. 30.
  10. ^ a b c d Ceram, C.W. (1994). Gods, Graves & Scholars. New York: Wingd Books. pp. 39, 54–55. ISBN 9780517119815.
  11. ^ a b c Allen, Susan Heuck (1999). Finding the walls of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlík. University of California Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-520-20868-1.
  12. ^ Schliemann and The California Gold Rush,Leiden, Sidestone Press, 2014, ISBN 978-90-8890-255-0, pp. 46–47
  13. ^ Leo Deuel, Memoirs of Heinrich Schliemann: A Documentary Portrait Drawn from his Autobiographical Writings, Letters, and Excavation Reports, New York: Harper, 1977, ISBN 0-06-011106-2, p. 67; he also mentions meeting President Andrew Johnson, p. 126.
  14. ^ W. Calder III, "Schliemann on Schliemann: A Study in the Use of Sources," GRBS 13 (1972) 335-353.
  15. ^ Traill, David A. "Schliemann's Mendacity: Fire and Fever in California." The Classical Journal 74, no. 4 (1979): 348-55. Accessed April 23, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/3297144.
  16. ^ Allen, p. 114.
  17. ^ Taylor, Stephen J. (11 March 2015). ""So She Went": Heinrich Schliemann Came to Marion County for a "Copper Bottom Divorce"". Hoosier State Chronicles: Indiana's Digital Newspaper Program. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  18. ^ Duchêne, Hervé (1996). The Golden Treasures of Troy: The Dream of Heinrich Schliemann. Thames & Hudson.
  19. ^ Bernard, Wolfgang. "Homer-Forschung zu Schliemanns Zeit und heute". Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-24.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) (in German).
  20. ^ Allen, p. 312.
  21. ^ a b c d Deuel, Leo (1977). Memoirs of Heinrich Schliemann. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 212–219, 385. ISBN 9780060111069.
  22. ^ "MemberListS".
  23. ^ a b Easton, D.F. (May–June 1998). "Heinrich Schliemann: Hero or Fraud?". The Classical World. 91 (5): 335–343. doi:10.2307/4352102. JSTOR 4352102.
  24. ^ Allen, p. 3.
  25. ^ Bryce, Trevor (2005). The Trojans and their neighbours. Taylor & Francis. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-34959-8.
  26. ^ Moorehead, Caroline, The Lost Treasures of Troy (1994) p. 133, ISBN 0-297-81500-8
  27. ^ Akinsha, Konstantin; Kozlov, Grigorii (1995). Beautiful Loot. New York: Random House. pp. 6–11, 20, 41, 60–63, 78, 223, 255. ISBN 9780679443896.
  28. ^ "Heinrich Schliemann | Biography, Excavations, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  29. ^ "The scientific work". Archaeological Museum of Thebes. Retrieved 2017-11-23.
  30. ^ Kerns, Ann (2008). Troy. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 9780822575825.
  31. ^ a b Easton, D.F. (May–June 1998). "Heinrich Schliemann: Hero or Fraud?". The Classical World. 91 (5): 335–343. doi:10.2307/4352102. JSTOR 4352102.
  32. ^ Kenneth W. Harl. "Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor". Retrieved November 23, 2012.
  33. ^ Cline, Eric H. (2013-04-12). The Trojan War: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-933365-3.
  34. ^ Lauren Stokes (2005-11-23). "Trojan wars and tourism: a lecture by C. Brian Rose". Swarthmore College Daily Gazette. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  35. ^ Rubalcaba, Jill; Cline, Eric (2011). Digging for Troy. Charlesworth. pp. 30, 41. ISBN 978-1-58089-326-8.
  36. ^ Baelen 1959, pp. 242–243.
  37. ^ Miller 1908, p. 401.
  38. ^ Baelen 1959, p. 242.
  39. ^ Alexander, Tasha (2016). A Terrible Beauty. New York: Minotaur Books. pp. 91, 100–102, 145. ISBN 978-1-4104-9613-3.

SourcesEdit

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit