Ghil'ad Zuckermann (Hebrew: גלעד צוקרמן, pronounced [ɡiˈlad ˈt͜sukeʁman]; 1 June 1971) is an Israeli-born language revivalist and linguist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity. Zuckermann is Professor of Linguistics and Chair of Endangered Languages at the University of Adelaide, Australia. He is the president of the Australian Association for Jewish Studies.
|Alma mater||University of Cambridge|
University of Oxford
Tel Aviv University
United World College of the Adriatic
|Known for||Hybridic theory of Israeli Hebrew, |
Classification of camouflaged borrowing,
Language reclamation and mental health
|Awards||President of the Australian Association for Jewish Studies (since 2017)|
|Institutions||The University of Adelaide |
Churchill College, Cambridge
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Weizmann Institute of Science
The University of Queensland
National University of Singapore
University of Texas at Austin
Zuckermann was born in Tel Aviv in 1971 and raised in Eilat. He attended the United World College (UWC) of the Adriatic in 1987–1989. In 1997 he received an M.A. in Linguistics from the Adi Lautman Program at Tel Aviv University. In 1997–2000 he was Scatcherd European Scholar of the University of Oxford and Denise Skinner Graduate Scholar at St Hugh's College, receiving a DPhil (Oxon.) in 2000. While at Oxford, he served as president of the Jewish student group L'Chaim Society. As Gulbenkian research fellow at Churchill College (2000–2004), he was affiliated with the Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Modern and Medieval Studies, University of Cambridge. He received a titular Ph.D. (Cantab.) in 2003. Zuckermann is a polyglot, with his past teaching positions ranging across universities in England, China, Australia, Singapore, Slovakia, Israel, and the United States. In 2010-2015 he was China's Ivy League Project 211 "Distinguished Visiting Professor", and "Shanghai Oriental Scholar" professorial fellow, at Shanghai International Studies University. He was Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Fellow in 2007-2011 and was awarded research fellowships at various universities in various countries. He was awarded a British Academy Research Grant, Memorial Foundation of Jewish Culture Postdoctoral Fellowship, Harold Hyam Wingate Scholarship and Chevening Scholarship.
Currently, Zuckermann is Professor of Linguistics and Chair of Endangered Languages at the University of Adelaide. He is elected member of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and the Foundation for Endangered Languages. He serves as Editorial Board member of the Journal of Language Contact (Brill), consultant for the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), and expert witness in (corpus) lexicography, (forensic) linguistics and trademarks (intellectual property). In 2013-2015 he was President of the Australasian Association of Lexicography (AustraLex). Since February 2017 he has been the president of the Australian Association for Jewish Studies (AAJS). In 2017 Zuckermann secured extensive research funding from Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) to study effects of Indigenous language reclamation on wellbeing.
Zuckermann applies insights from the Hebrew revival to the revitalization of Aboriginal languages in Australia. According to Yuval Rotem, the Israeli Ambassador to Australia, Zuckermann's "passion for the reclamation, maintenance and empowerment of Aboriginal languages and culture inspired [him] and was indeed the driving motivator of" the establishment of the Allira Aboriginal Knowledge IT Centre in Dubbo, New South Wales, Australia, on 2 September 2010.
He proposes Native Tongue Title, compensation for language loss, because "linguicide" results in "loss of cultural autonomy, loss of spiritual and intellectual sovereignty, loss of soul". He uses the term sleeping beauty to refer to a no-longer spoken language and urges Australia "to define the 330 Aboriginal languages, most of them sleeping beauties, as the official languages of their region", and to introduce bilingual signs and thus change the linguistic landscape of the country. "So, for example, Port Lincoln should also be referred to as Galinyala, which is its original Barngarla name." His edX MOOC Language Revival: Securing the Future of Endangered Languages has had 20,000 learners from 190 countries.
Zuckermann proposes a controversial hybrid theory of the emergence of Israeli Hebrew according to which Hebrew and Yiddish "acted equally" as the "primary contributors" to Modern Hebrew. Scholars including Yiddish linguist Dovid Katz (who refers to Zuckermann as a "fresh-thinking Israeli scholar"), adopt Zuckermann's term "Israeli" and accept his notion of hybridity. Others, for example author and translator Hillel Halkin, oppose Zuckermann's model. In an article published on 24 December 2004 in The Jewish Daily Forward, pseudonymous column "Philologos", Halkin accused Zuckermann of a political agenda. Zuckermann's response was published on 28 December 2004 in The Mendele Review: Yiddish Literature and Language.
As described by Reuters in a 2006 article, "Zuckermann's lectures are packed, with the cream of Israeli academia invariably looking uncertain on whether to endorse his innovative streak or rise to the defense of the mother tongue." According to Omri Herzog (Haaretz), Zuckermann "is considered by his Israeli colleagues either a genius or a provocateur".
Reclamation of the Barngarla language Edit
In 2012 Zuckermann started working with the Barngarla community to revive and reclaim the Barngarla language, based on the work of a German Lutheran pastor Clamor Wilhelm Schürmann, who worked at a mission in 1844 and created a Barngarla dictionary. This led to ongoing language revival workshops being held in Port Augusta, Whyalla, and Port Lincoln several times each year, with funding from the federal government's Indigenous Languages Support program.
Wardlada Mardinidhi / Barngarla Bush Medicines, a 24-page book, was published in July 2023. It is the third book co-written by Zuckermann and members of the Richards family of Port Lincoln, this time represented by Evelyn Walker. It records the names a number of native plants from around Port Lincoln in Barngarla, Latin, and English, and describes their use as bush medicine.
Adelaide Language Festival Edit
Contributions to linguistics Edit
Zuckermann argues that Israeli Hebrew, which he calls "Israeli", is a hybrid language that is genetically both Indo-European (Germanic, Slavic and Romance) and Afro-Asiatic (Semitic). He suggests that "Israeli" is the continuation not only of literary Hebrew(s) but also of Yiddish, as well as Polish, Russian, German, English, Ladino, Arabic and other languages spoken by Hebrew revivalists.
Zuckermann's hybridic synthesis is in contrast to both the traditional revival thesis (i.e. that "Israeli" is Hebrew revived) and the relexification antithesis (i.e. that "Israeli" is Yiddish with Hebrew words). While his synthesis is multi-parental, both the thesis and the antithesis are mono-parental.
Zuckermann introduces revivalistics as a new transdisciplinary field of enquiry surrounding language reclamation (e.g. Barngarla), revitalization (e.g. Adnyamathanha) and reinvigoration (e.g. Irish). Complementing documentary linguistics, revivalistics aims to provide a systematic analysis especially of attempts to resurrect no-longer spoken languages (reclamation) but also of initiatives to reverse language shift (revitalization and reinvigoration).
His analysis of multisourced neologization (the coinage of words deriving from two or more sources at the same time) challenges Einar Haugen's classic typology of lexical borrowing. Whereas Haugen categorizes borrowing into either substitution or importation, Zuckermann explores cases of "simultaneous substitution and importation" in the form of camouflaged borrowing. He proposes a new classification of multisourced neologisms such as phono-semantic matching.
Zuckermann's exploration of phono-semantic matching in Standard Mandarin and Meiji period Japanese concludes that the Chinese writing system is multifunctional: pleremic ("full" of meaning, e.g. logographic), cenemic ("empty" of meaning, e.g. phonographic – like a syllabary) and simultaneously cenemic and pleremic (phono-logographic). He argues that Leonard Bloomfield's assertion that "a language is the same no matter what system of writing may be used" is inaccurate. "If Chinese had been written using roman letters, thousands of Chinese words would not have been coined, or would have been coined with completely different forms".
Selected publications Edit
- 多源造词研究 (Multisourced Neologization). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press. 2021. ISBN 9787567598935.
- Revivalistics: From the Genesis of Israeli to Language Reclamation in Australia and Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020. ISBN 9780199812790 / ISBN 9780199812776.
- ישראלית שפה יפה (Israeli – A Beautiful Language). Tel Aviv: Am Oved. 2008. ISBN 9789651319631. (Israelit Safa Yafa)
- Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 9781403917232 / ISBN 9781403938695.
- Mangiri Yarda (Healthy Country: Barngarla Wellbeing and Nature), Revivalistics Press, 2021.
- Barngarlidhi Manoo (Speaking Barngarla Together). Australia: Barngarla Language Advisory Committee. 2019.
Barngarlidhi Manoo - Part 2
- Dictionary of the Barngarla Aboriginal Language, 2018.
- Engaging – A Guide to Interacting Respectfully and Reciprocally with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People, and their Arts Practices and Intellectual Property, 2015.
Books edited Edit
- Jewish Language Contact (Special Issue of the International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 226), 2014.
- Burning Issues in Afro-Asiatic Linguistics, 2012. ISBN 144384070X / ISBN 9781443840705.
Journal articles and book chapters Edit
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003). "Language Contact and Globalisation: The Camouflaged Influence of English on the World's Languages – with special attention to Israeli (sic) and Mandarin" (PDF). Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 16 (2): 287–307. doi:10.1080/09557570302045. S2CID 11791518.
- "Cultural Hybridity: Multisourced Neologization in "Reinvented" Languages and in Languages with "Phono-Logographic" Script" (PDF). Languages in Contrast. 4: 281–318. 2004. doi:10.1075/lic.4.2.06zuc.
- "A New Vision for "Israeli Hebrew": Theoretical and Practical Implications of Analysing Israel's Main Language as a Semi-Engineered Semito-European Hybrid Language" (PDF). Journal of Modern Jewish Studies. 5: 57–71. 2006. doi:10.1080/14725880500511175. S2CID 14682166.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2009). "Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns" (PDF). Journal of Language Contact. 2 (2): 40–67. doi:10.1163/000000009792497788.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad; Walsh, Michael (2011). "Stop, Revive, Survive: Lessons from the Hebrew Revival Applicable to the Reclamation, Maintenance and Empowerment of Aboriginal Languages and Cultures" (PDF). Australian Journal of Linguistics. 31: 111–127. doi:10.1080/07268602.2011.532859. S2CID 145627187.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad; Quer, Giovanni; Shakuto, Shiori (2014). "Native Tongue Title: Proposed Compensation for the Loss of Aboriginal Languages". Australian Aboriginal Studies. 2014/1: 55–71.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad; Walsh, Michael (2014). ""Our Ancestors Are Happy!": Revivalistics in the Service of Indigenous Wellbeing". Foundation for Endangered Languages. XVIII: 113–119.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2006). ""Etymythological Othering" and the Power of "Lexical Engineering" in Judaism, Islam and Christianity. A Socio-Philo(sopho)logical Perspective" (PDF). In Tope Omoniyi; Joshua A Fishman (eds.). Explorations in the Sociology of Language and Religion. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 237–258.
- Fry's Planet Word, Stephen Fry interviews Zuckermann about the revival of Hebrew
- The Politics of Language, Stephen Fry interviews Zuckermann about language
- SBS: Living Black: S18 Ep9 - Linguicide
- Babbel: Why Revive A Dead Language? - Interview with Ghil'ad Zuckermann
- edX MOOC: Language Revival: Securing the Future of Endangered Languages
- Alex Rawlings, March 22, 2019, BBC Future, The man bringing dead languages back to life ("Ghil'ad Zuckermann has found that resurrecting lost languages may bring many benefits to indigenous populations – with knock-on effects for their health and happiness"), accessed May 5, 2019.
- "edX". Professor Ghil'ad Zuckermann. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Sarah Robinson, March 11, 2019, The LINGUIST List, Featured Linguist: Ghil‘ad Zuckermann Archived 25 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine, accessed May 4, 2020
- Five outstandingly successful stories, UWC of the Adriatic, 2018.
- "Researcher Profile: Professor Ghil'ad Zuckermann". The University of Adelaide. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- Dr Anna Goldsworthy on the Barngarla language reclamation, The Monthly, September 2014
- The Weizmann International Magazine of Science and People Archived 21 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine 8, pp. 16-17
- "Professor Ghil'ad Zuckermann". Wingate Scholarships. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- "Department of Linguistics | School of Humanities | University of Adelaide". arts.adelaide.edu.au.
- "Journal of Language Contact: Evolution of Languages, Contact and Discourse". Brill. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- "Consultants, Advisers and Contributors". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Federal Court of Australia
- Australasian Association of Lexicography (AustraLex) Archived 24 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine, accessed May 5, 2019.
- AAJS, accessed November 26, 2020.
- NITV/SBS News by Claudianna Blanco: Could language revival cure diabetes?, 21 February 2017.
- NHMRC Grants.
- Grant awarded for research into the link between language revival and well-being Archived 15 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Aboriginal languages deserve revival". The Australian. 26 August 2009.
- Revivalistics: From the Genesis of Israeli to Language Reclamation in Australia and Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press. 2020. ISBN 9780199812790.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad; Walsh, Michael (2011). "Stop, Revive, Survive: Lessons from the Hebrew Revival Applicable to the Reclamation, Maintenance and Empowerment of Aboriginal Languages and Cultures". Australian Journal of Linguistics. 31 (1): 111–127. doi:10.1080/07268602.2011.532859. S2CID 145627187. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
- Ambassador Yuval Rotem - Address for the opening of the Allira Aboriginal Knowledge IT Centre, Dubbo, NSW, Australia, September 2, 2010, accessed August 24, 2016.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad, "Stop, revive and survive", The Australian Higher Education, June 6, 2012.
- "Australia's first chair of endangered languages, Professor Ghil'ad Zuckermann from the University of Adelaide puts it bluntly: Those policies have resulted in 'linguicide'", Shyamla Eswaran, Aboriginal languages a source of strength, Green Left Weekly, 6 December 2013.
- "As put by Professor Ghil'ad Zuckermann, language is part of the 'Intellectual Sovereignty' of Indigenous people", p. 2 in Priest, Terry (2011) Submission to the Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, Language Learning in Indigenous Communities, Research Unit, Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, August 2011.
- Arnold, Lynn (2016), Lingua Nullius: A Retrospect and Prospect about Australia's First Languages Archived 2016-08-22 at the Wayback Machine (Transcript), Lowitja O'Donoghue Oration, May 31, 2016.
- See pp. 57 & 60 in Zuckermann's A New Vision for "Israeli Hebrew": Theoretical and Practical Implications of Analysing Israel's Main Language as a Semi-Engineered Semito-European Hybrid Language, Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 5: 57–71 (2006).
- Sophie Verass (NITV) Indigenous meanings of Australian town names, 10 August 2016.
- Hillel Halkin ("Philologos") (24 December 2004). "Hebrew vs. Israeli". The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- John-Paul Davidson (2011), Planet Word, Penguin. pp. 125-126.
- Katz, Dovid (2004). Words on Fire. The Unfinished Story of Yiddish. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465037285.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (28 December 2004). "The Genesis of the Israeli Language: A Brief Response to 'Philologos'". The Mendele Review: Yiddish Literature and Language. 8 (13). Retrieved 4 May 2020.
- See, for example, YouTube - השפה הישראלית: רצח יידיש או יידיש רעדט זיך? פרופ' גלעד צוקרמן The Israeli Language: Hebrew Revived or Yiddish Survived? - PART 1, PART 2, PART 3
- "Hebrew or Israeli? Linguist stirs Zionist debate: Ghil'ad Zuckermann argues that modern Hebrew should be renamed 'Israeli'". Reuters. 29 November 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Omri Herzog (26 September 2008). עברית בשתי שקל [Hebrew for two Shekels]. Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved 19 September 2014.
הוא נחשב על ידי עמיתיו הישראלים גאון, או פרובוקטור
- Goldsworthy, Anna (1 September 2014). "Voices of the land". The Monthly. Retrieved 27 July 2023.
- John Power, June 29, 2018, Al Jazeera: Starting from scratch: Aboriginal group reclaims lost language, "With the help of a linguistics professor, Barngarla, which has not been spoken for 60 years, is being pieced together", accessed May 5, 2019.
- See Section 282 in FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA: Croft on behalf of the Barngarla Native Title Claim Group v State of South Australia (2015, FCA 9), File number: SAD 6011 of 1998; John Mansfield (judge).
- Hamilton, Jodie (26 June 2021). "Kindy kids learning Barngarla Indigenous language, spread joy as they talk". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
- Hamilton, Jodie (24 July 2023). "Barngarla bush medicine book healing hearts and helping stolen children reconnect with country". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 27 July 2023.
- Ellis, David (1 May 2014). "Adelaide Language Festival celebrates diversity".
- Savage, Crispin (22 November 2017). "One-Day Festival Offers taste of 26 Languages". Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2006). "Complement Clause Types in Israeli" (PDF). In R. M. W. Dixon; Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.). Complementation: A Cross-Linguistic Typology. Oxford University Press. pp. 72–92. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003). Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1403917232.
- Haugen, Einar (1950). "The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing". Language. 26 (2): 210–231. doi:10.2307/410058. JSTOR 410058.
- Bloomfield, Leonard (1933), Language, New York: Henry Holt, p. 21.