Judaeo-Spanish(Redirected from Ladino language)
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish. Originally spoken in the former territories of the Ottoman Empire (the Balkans, Turkey, the Middle East, and North Africa) as well as in France, Italy, the Netherlands, Morocco, and the United Kingdom, today it is spoken mainly by Sephardic minorities in more than 30 countries, with most of the speakers residing in Israel. Although it has no official status in any country, it has been acknowledged as a minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Israel, France and Turkey. It is also formally recognised by the Royal Spanish Academy.
|Pronunciation||[dʒuˈð̺eo͜ s.paˈɲol] ( listen)[a]|
|Native to||Israel, Turkey, United States, France, Greece, Brazil, United Kingdom, Morocco, Bulgaria, Italy, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Uruguay, Serbia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Macedonia, Tunisia, Belgium, South Africa, Spain and others|
|Region||Mediterranean Basin (native region), North America, Western Europe and South America|
|Ethnicity||Sephardic Jews and Sabbateans|
|100,000 in Israel (2005)
10,000 in Turkey and 12,000 elsewhere (2007)
60,000 - 400,000 total speakers
|mainly Latin alphabet; also
the original Hebrew (normally using Rashi or Solitreo) and Cyrillic; rarely Greek & Arabic
The core vocabulary of Judaeo-Spanish is Old Spanish (as Old Portuguese is of Judaeo-Portuguese) and it has numerous elements from all the old Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula: Old Aragonese, Astur-Leonese, Old Catalan, Galician-Portuguese and Mozarabic. The language has been further enriched by Ottoman Turkish and Semitic vocabulary, such as Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic, especially in the domains of religion, law and spirituality and most of the vocabulary for new and modern concepts has been adopted through French and Italian. Furthermore, the language is influenced to a lesser degree by other local languages of the Balkans, such as Greek, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian.
Historically, the Rashi script and its cursive form Solitreo have been the main orthographies for writing Judaeo-Spanish. However today, it is mainly written with the Latin alphabet, though some other alphabets such as Hebrew and Cyrillic are still in use. Judaeo-Spanish is known by many different names, mostly: Español/Espanyol, Judió/Djudyo (or Jidió/Djidyo), Judesmo/Djudezmo, Sefaradhí/Sefaradi and Ḥaketilla/Haketia. In Turkey and formerly in the Ottoman Empire, it has been traditionally called Yahudice in Turkish, meaning the Jewish language. In Israel, Hebrew speakers usually call the language (E)spanyolit or Ladino.
Judaeo-Spanish, once the trade language of the Adriatic Sea, the Balkans and the Middle-East and renowned for its rich literature especially in Salonika, today is under serious threat of extinction. Most native speakers are elderly, and the language is not transmitted to their children or grandchildren for various reasons. In some expatriate communities in Latin America and elsewhere, there is a threat of dialect levelling resulting in extinction by assimilation into modern Spanish. It is experiencing, however, a minor revival among Sephardic communities, especially in music.
In recent decades in Israel, America and Spain, the language has come to be referred to as Ladino (לאדינו), literally meaning "Latin". However, some of its speakers consider that term to be incorrect. The language is also called judeo-espagnol,[note 1] judeo-español, Sefardí, Judío, and Espanyol or Español sefardita; Haquetía (from the Arabic ħaka حكى, "tell") refers to the dialect of North Africa, especially Morocco. The dialect of the Oran area of Algeria was called Tetuani, after the Moroccan city of Tétouan since many Orani Jews came from there. In Hebrew, the language is called Spanyolit.
An entry in Ethnologue claims, "The name 'Judesmo' is used by Jewish linguists and Turkish Jews and American Jews; 'Judeo-Spanish' by Romance philologists; 'Ladino' by laymen, especially in Israel; 'Haketia' by Moroccan Jews; 'Spanyol' by some others." That does not reflect the historical usage. In the Judeo-Spanish press of the 19th and 20th centuries the native authors referred to the language exclusively as Espanyol, which was also the name that its native speakers spontaneously gave to it for as long as it was their primary spoken language. More rarely, the bookish Judeo-Espanyol has also been used since the late 19th century. The term Judezmo is unknown and offensive to most native speakers, and it has never been used in print in the native press. However, in limited parts of Macedonia, its former use in the past as a low-register designation in informal speech by unschooled people has been documented.
The derivation of the name Ladino is complicated. Before the Expulsion of Jews from Spain, the word meant literary Spanish, as opposed to other dialects or Romance in general, as distinct from Arabic. (The first European language grammar and dictionary, of Spanish, referred to it as ladino or ladina. In the Middle Ages, the word Latin was frequently used to mean simply "language", particularly one understood: a latiner or latimer meant a translator.) Following the Expulsion, Jews spoke of "the Ladino" to mean the traditional oral translation of the Bible into Old Spanish. By extension, it came to mean that style of Spanish generally in the same way that (among Kurdish Jews) Targum has come to mean Judeo-Aramaic and (among Jews of Arabic-speaking background) sharħ has come to mean Judeo-Arabic.
Informally, especially in modern Israel, many speakers use Ladino to mean Judaeo-Spanish as a whole. The language used to be regulated by a body called the Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino in Israel. More strictly, however, the term is confined to the style used in translation. According to the website of the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki,
Ladino is not spoken, rather, it is the product of a word-for-word translation of Hebrew or Aramaic biblical or liturgical texts made by rabbis in the Jewish schools of Spain. In these translations, a specific Hebrew or Aramaic word always corresponded to the same Spanish word, as long as no exegetical considerations prevented this. In short, Ladino is only Hebrew clothed in Spanish, or Spanish with Hebrew syntax. The famous Ladino translation of the Bible, the Biblia de Ferrara (1553), provided inspiration for the translation of numerous Spanish Christian Bibles."
That Judaeo-Spanish ladino should not be confused with the ladino or Ladin language spoken in part of Northeastern Italy, which is closely related to the Romansh language of Swiss Grisons (it is disputed whether or not they form a common Rhaeto-Romance language) and has nothing to do with either Jews or Spanish beyond being a Romance language, a property that they share with French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian.
In modern Spanish, the Royal Spanish Academy gives "Ladino" nine meanings, including five as an adjective and four as a noun, but two are obsolete:
1. Adj. Astute, sagacious, cunning
2. Adj. Pertaining or relating to the Ladin language.
3. Adj. In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, describing a mestizo person who speaks only Spanish.
4. Adj. In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, a Mestizo person.
5. Adj. Obsolete: A person with facility in languages other than his/her own.
6. Noun. The Ladin language spoken in South Tyrol.
7. Noun. The religious language of Sephardic Jews.
8. Noun. Judeo-Spanish.
9. Noun. Obsolete: The archaic literary form of Spanish called "romance" or "romantic Spanish".
At the time of the expulsion from Spain, the day-to-day language of the Jews of different regions of the peninsula was hardly, if at all, different from that of their Christian neighbours, but there may have been some dialect mixing to form a sort of Jewish lingua franca. There was however, a special style of Spanish used for purposes of study or translation, featuring a more archaic dialect, a large number of Hebrew and Aramaic loanwords and a tendency to render Hebrew word order literally (ha-laylah ha-zeh, meaning "this night", was rendered la noche la esta instead of the normal Spanish esta noche). As mentioned above, some authorities would confine the term "Ladino" to that style.
Following the Expulsion, the process of dialect mixing continued, but Castilian Spanish remained by far the largest contributor. The daily language was increasingly influenced both by the language of study and by the local non-Jewish vernaculars, such as Greek and Turkish. It came to be known as Judesmo and, in that respect, the development is parallel to that of Yiddish. However, many speakers, especially among the community leaders, also had command of a more formal style, castellano, which was nearer to the Spanish at the time of the Expulsion.
The grammar, the phonology and about 60% of the vocabulary of Judaeo-Spanish are basically Spanish but, in some respects, it resembles the dialects in southern Spain and South America, rather than the dialects of Central Spain. For example, it has yeísmo ("she" is eya/ella [ˈeja] (Judaeo-Spanish), instead of ella) as well as and seseo.
In many respects, it reproduces the Spanish of the time of the Expulsion, rather the modern variety, as it retains some archaic features such as the following:
- Modern Spanish j, pronounced [x], corresponds to two different phonemes in Old Spanish: x, pronounced /ʃ/, and j, pronounced /ʒ/. Judaeo-Spanish retains the original sounds. Similarly, g before e or i remains /ʒ/, not [x].
- Contrast baṣo/baxo ("low" or "down", with /ʃ/, modern Spanish bajo) and mujer ("woman" or "wife", spelled the same, with /ʒ/).
- Modern Spanish z (c before e or i), pronounced [s] or [θ], like the "th" in English "think", corresponds to two different phonemes in Old Spanish: ç (c before e or i), pronounced [ts]; and z (in all positions), pronounced [dz]. In Judaeo-Spanish, they are pronounced [s] and [z], respectively.
- Contrast korasón/coraçón ("heart", with /s/, modern Spanish corazón) and dezir ("to say", with /z/, modern Spanish decir).
- In modern Spanish, the use of the letters b and v is determined partly on the basis of earlier forms of the language and partly on the basis of Latin etymology: both letters represent one phoneme (/b/), realised as [b] or as [β], according to its position. In Judaeo-Spanish, /b/ and /v/ are different phonemes: /bɔs/ voice vs. /vɔs/ you. v is a labiodental "v", like in English, rather than a bilabial.
Portuguese and other Iberian languagesEdit
However, the phonology of both the consonants and part of the lexicon is, in some respects, closer to Galician-Portuguese and Catalan than to modern Spanish. That is explained by direct influence but also because all three languages retained some of the characteristics of mediaeval Ibero-Romance languages that Spanish later lost.
Contrast Judaeo-Spanish daínda ("still") with Portuguese ainda (Galician aínda, Asturian aína or enaína) and Spanish aún or the initial consonants in Judaeo-Spanish fija, favla ("daughter", "speech"), Portuguese filha, fala (Galician filla, fala, Asturian fía, fala, Aragonese filla, fabla, Catalan filla), Spanish hija, habla. It sometimes varied with dialect, as in Judaeo-Spanish popular songs, both fijo and hijo ("son") are found.
The Judaeo-Spanish pronunciation of s as "[ʃ]" before a "k" sound or at the end of certain words (such as seis, pronounced [seʃ], for six) is shared with Portuguese (as spoken in Portugal, most of Asia and Africa, and in a plurality of Brazilian registers with either partial or total forms of coda |S| palatalization) but not with Spanish.
Hebrew and AramaicEdit
Like other Jewish vernaculars, Judaeo-Spanish incorporates many Hebrew and Aramaic words, mostly for religious concepts and institutions. Examples are Haham (rabbi, from Hebrew ḥakham) and kal/cal (synagogue, from Hebrew qahal).
Judaeo-Spanish has absorbed some words from the local languages but sometimes Hispanicised their form: bilbilico (nightingale), from Persian (via Turkish) bülbül. It may be compared to the Slavic elements in Yiddish. It is not always clear whether some of these words were introduced before the Expulsion because of the large number of Arabic words in Spanish generally.
|Stop||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||(β)||f v||(ð)||s z||ʃ ʒ||x (ɣ)|
Phonological differences from SpanishEdit
As exemplified in the Sources section above, much of the phonology of Judaeo-Spanish is similar to that of standard modern Spanish. Here are some exceptions:
- It is claimed that unlike all other non-creole varieties of Spanish, Judaeo-Spanish does not contrast the trill /r/ and the tap/flap /ɾ/. However, that claim is not universally accepted.
- The Spanish /nue-/ is /mue-/ in some dialects of Judaeo-Spanish: nuevo, nuestro → muevo, muestro.
- The Judaeo-Spanish phoneme inventory includes separate [d͡ʒ] and [ʒ]: /ʒuɾˈnal/ ('newspaper') vs /d͡ʒuˈgar/ ('to play'). Neither phoneme is used in modern Spanish.
- There is a tendency to drop [s] at the end of a word or syllable, as in Andalusian Spanish: Dios -> Dio (God), amargasteis -> amargateş (you have embittered).
Judaeo-Spanish is distinguished from other Spanish dialects by the presence of the following features:
- Judaeo-Spanish maintains the second-person pronouns tú (informal singular), vos (formal singular) and vosotros (plural); the third-person el/eya/eyos/eyas are also used in the formal register. The Spanish pronouns usted and ustedes do not exist.
- In verbs, the preterite indicates that an action taken once in the past was also completed at some point in the past. That is as opposed to the imperfect, which refers to any continuous, habitual, unfinished or repetitive past action. Thus, "I ate falafel yesterday" would use the first-person preterite form of eat, komí/comí but "When I lived in Izmir, I ran five miles every evening" would use the first-person imperfect form, koría/corría. Though some of the morphology has changed, usage is just as in normative Spanish.
- In general, Judaeo-Spanish uses the Spanish plural morpheme /-(e)s/. The Hebrew plural endings /-im/ and /-ot/ are used with Hebrew loanwords, as well as with a few words from Spanish: ladrón (thief): ladrones/ladroním; ermano (brother): ermanos/ermaním.  Similarly, some loaned feminine nouns ending in -á can take either the Spanish or Hebrew plural: keilá (synagogue): keilás/keilot.
- Judaeo-Spanish contains more gendering cases than standard Spanish, prominently in adjectives, (grande/-a, inferior/-ra) as well as in nouns (vozas, fuentas) and in the interrogative kualo/kuala.
Here is the regular conjugation for the present tense:
(comer: "to eat")
(bivir: "to live")
(favlar: "to speak")
|yo||-o : como/komo, bivo, favlo|
|tú||-es : comes/komes, bives||-as : favlas|
|el, eya/ella||-e : come/kome, bive||-a : favla|
|mozotros/nosotros||-emos : comemos/komemos||-imos : bivimos||-amos : favlamos|
|vos, vozotros/vosotros||-éş/éx : coméş/éx; koméş/éx||-íş/íx : bivíş/íx||-áş/áx : favláş/áx|
|eyos/ellos, eyas/ellas||-en : comen/komen, biven||-an : favlan|
Regular conjugation in the preterite:
|yo||-í : comí/komí, biví, favlí|
|tu||-ites : comites/komites, bivites||-ates : favlates|
|el, eya/ella||-yó : comió/komió, bivió||-ó : favló|
|mozotros/nosotros||-imos : comimos/komimos, bivimos, favlimos|
|vos, vozotros/vosotros||-iteş/itex : comiteş/itex; komiteş/itex, bivites/itex||-ateş/atex : favlateş/atex|
|eyos/ellos, eyas/ellas||-ieron : comieron/komieron, bivieron||-aron : favlaron|
Judaeo-Spanish follows Spanish for most of its syntax. (That is not true of the written calque language involving word-for-word translations from Hebrew, which some scholars refer to as Ladino, as described above.) Like Spanish, it generally follows a subject–verb–object word order, has a nominative-accusative alignment, and is considered a fusional or inflected language.
The following systems of writing Judaeo-Spanish have been used or proposed.
- Traditionally, especially in Ladino religious texts, Judaeo-Spanish was printed in Hebrew writing (especially in Rashi script), a practice that was very common, possibly almost universal, until the 19th century. That was called aljamiado, by analogy with the equivalent use of the Arabic script. It occasionally persists, especially in religious use. Everyday written records of the language used Solitreo, a semi-cursive script similar to Rashi script that shifted to square letter for Hebrew/Aramaic words. Solitreo is clearly different from the Ashkenazi Cursive Hebrew used today in Israel, but it is also related to Rashi script. (A comparative table is provided in the article on Cursive Hebrew.) Hebrew writing of the language freely uses matres lectionis: final -a is written with ה (heh) and ו (waw) can represent /o/ or /u/. Both s (/s/) and x (/ʃ/) are generally written with ש, as ס is generally reserved for c before e or i and ç. However, borrowed Hebrew words retain their Hebrew spelling, without vowels.
- The Greek alphabet and the Cyrillic script were used in the past, but this is rare or nonexistent nowadays.
- In Turkey, Judaeo-Spanish is most commonly written in the Turkish variant of the Latin alphabet. That may be the most widespread system in use today, as following the decimation of Sephardic communities throughout much of Europe (particularly in Greece and the Balkans) during the Holocaust, the greatest proportion of speakers remaining were Turkish Jews. However, the Judaeo-Spanish page of the Turkish Jewish newspaper Şalom now uses the Israeli system.
- The Israeli Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino promotes a phonetic transcription in the Latin alphabet, without making any concessions to Spanish orthography, and uses the transcription in its publication Aki Yerushalayim. The songs Non komo muestro Dio and Por una ninya, below, and the text in the sample paragraph, below, are written using the system.
- Works published in Spain usually adopt the standard orthography of modern Spanish to make them easier for modern Spaniards to read. The editions often use diacritics to show where the Judaeo-Spanish pronunciation differs from modern Spanish.
- Perhaps more conservative and less popular, others, including Pablo Carvajal Valdés suggest for Judaeo-Spanish to adopt the orthography that was used at the time of the Expulsion.
Arguments for and against the 1492 orthographyEdit
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The Spanish orthography of 1492 was later standardized and eventually changed by a series of spelling reforms from 1726 to 1815 to become the spelling of modern Spanish. Judaeo-Spanish has retained some of the pronunciations that had become archaic in Standard Spanish by then. Adopting 15th-century Spanish orthography, which was similar to modern Portuguese orthography, would therefore closely fit the pronunciation of Judaeo-Spanish.
- The old spelling would reflect
- the /s/ (originally /ts/) – c (before e and i) and ç (cedilla), as in caça,
- the /s/ – ss, as in passo, and
- the /ʃ/ – x, as in dixo.
- The letter j would be retained but only when the pronunciation is /ʒ/ in Judaeo-Spanish, as in mujer.
- The spelling of /z/, originally /dz/, as z would be restored in words like fazer and dezir.
- The difference between b and v would be made phonetically, as in Old Spanish, rather than in accordance with the Latin etymology, as in modern Spanish. For example, Latin DEBET >, in modern Spanish debe, would return to its Old Spanish spelling, deve.
Some old spellings could be restored for the sake of historical interest, rather than to reflect Judaeo-Spanish phonology:
- The old digraphs ch, ph and th (today c/qu – /k/, f – /f/ and t – /t/ in standard Spanish respectively), formally abolished in 1803, would be used in words like orthographía, theología.
- Latin and Old Spanish q before words like quando, quanto and qual (modern Spanish cuando, cuanto and cual) would also be used.
Supporters argue that classical and Golden Age Spanish literature might gain renewed interest and better appreciation and understanding.
It remains uncertain how to treat sounds that Old Spanish spelling failed to render phonetically:
- The s between vowels, as in casa, was probably pronounced /z/ in Old Spanish, as it is in Judaeo-Spanish. The same is true of s before m, d and other voiced consonants, as in mesmo or desde. Supporters of Carvajal's proposal are unsure about whether it should be written s, as in Old Spanish, or z in accordance with pronunciation.
- The distinctive Judaeo-Spanish pronunciation of s as /ʃ/ before a /k/ sound, as in buscar, cosquillas, mascar and pescar, or in -is, as in séis, favláis and sois, is probably derived from Portuguese: it is uncertain whether it occurred in Old Spanish. It is debated whether that should be written s, as in Old Spanish, or x, in accordance with the sound.
- There is some dispute about the Spanish ll, which in Judaeo-Spanish (as in most areas of Spain) is pronounced like a y. Following Old Spanish orthography, it should be written ll; however, Judaeo-Spanish often writes it y in Ladino to avoid ambiguity and reflect the Hebrew spelling. The conservative option is to follow the etymology: caballero but Mayorca.[note 2]
- It is uncertain how loanwords from Hebrew and other languages should be rendered.
Aki Yerushalayim orthographyEdit
|Letter||A a||B b||Ch ch||D d||Dj dj||E e||F f||G g||H h||I i||J j||K k||L l||M m||N n||Ny ny||O o||P p||R r||S s||Sh sh||T t||U u||V v||X x||Y y||Z z|
- A dot is written between s and h (s·h) to represent [sx] to avoid confusion with [ʃ]: es·huenyo [esˈxweɲo] (dream).
- Unlike Spanish, stressed diacritics are not represented.
- Loanwords and foreign names retain their original spelling, and q or w would be used only for such words.
Judaeo-Spanish is traditionally written in a Hebrew-based script, specially in Rashi script. The Hebrew orthography is not regulated, but sounds are generally represented by the following letters:
In the medieval Iberian peninsula, now Spain and Portugal, Jews spoke a variety of Romance dialects. Following the 1490s expulsion from Spain and Portugal, most the Iberian Jews resettled in the Ottoman Empire. Jews in the Ottoman Balkans, Turkey, Middle East, and North Africa (especially Morocco) developed their own Romance dialects, with some influence from Hebrew and other languages, which became what is now known as Judaeo-Spanish. Later on, many Portuguese Jews also escaped to France, Italy, the Netherlands and England, establishing small groups in those nations as well, but these spoke early modern Spanish or Portuguese rather than Judaeo-Spanish.
Jews in the Middle Ages were instrumental in the development of Spanish into a prestige language. Erudite Jews translated Arabic and Hebrew works, often translated earlier from Greek, into Spanish. Christians translated them again into Latin for transmission to Europe.
Until recent times, the language was widely spoken throughout the Balkans, Turkey, the Middle East and North Africa, as Judaeo-Spanish had been brought there by the Jewish refugees.
The contact among Jews of different regions and languages, including Catalan, Leonese and Portuguese developed a unified dialect, differing in some aspects from the Spanish norm that was forming simultaneously in Spain, but some of the mixing may have already occurred in exile rather than in the Iberian Peninsula. The language was known as Yahudice (Jewish language) in the Ottoman Empire. In the late 18th century, Ottoman poet Enderunlu Fazıl (Fazyl bin Tahir Enderuni) wrote in his Zenanname: "Castilians speak the Jewish language but they are not Jews."
The closeness and mutual comprehensibility between Judaeo-Spanish and Spanish favoured trade among Sephardim, often relatives, from the Ottoman Empire to the Netherlands and the conversos of the Iberian Peninsula.
Over time, a corpus of literature, both liturgical and secular, developed. Early literature was limited to translations from Hebrew. At the end of the 17th century, Hebrew was disappearing as the vehicle for rabbinic instruction. Thus, a literature appeared in the 18th century, such as Me'am Lo'ez and poetry collections. By the end of the 19th century, the Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire studied in schools of the Alliance Israélite Universelle. French became the language for foreign relations, as it did for Maronites, and Judaeo-Spanish drew from French for neologisms. New. secular genres appeared, with more than 300 journals, history, theatre, biographies.
Given the relative isolation of many communities, a number of regional dialects of Judaeo-Spanish appeared, many with only limited mutual comprehensibility, largely because of the adoption of large numbers of loanwords from the surrounding populations, including, depending on the location of the community, from Greek, Turkish, Arabic and, in the Balkans, Slavic languages, especially Bosnian, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. The borrowing in many Judaeo-Spanish dialects is so heavy that up to 30% of their vocabulary of non-Spanish origin. Some words also passed from Judaeo-Spanish into neighbouring languages. For example, the word palavra "word" (Vulgar Latin = "parabola"; Greek = "parabole"), passed into Turkish, Greek and Romanian with the meaning "bunk, hokum, humbug, bullshit" in Turkish and Romanian and "big talk, boastful talk" in Greek (compare the English word "palaver").
Judaeo-Spanish was the common language of Salonika during the Ottoman period. The city became part of Greece in 1912 and was subsequently renamed Thessaloniki. Despite the Great Fire of Thessaloniki, economic oppression by Greek authorities and mass settlement of Christian refugees, the language remained widely spoken in Salonika until the deportation of 50,000 Salonikan Jews in the Holocaust during the Second World War. According to the 1928 census, the language had 62,999 native speakers in Greece. The figure drops down to 53,094 native speakers in 1940, but 21,094 citizens "usually" spoke the language.
Judaeo-Spanish was also a language used in Donmeh rites (Dönme being a Turkish word for "convert" to refer to adepts of Sabbatai Tsevi converting to Islam in the Ottoman Empire). An example is Sabbatai Tsevi esperamos a ti. Today, the religious practices and the ritual use of Judaeo-Spanish seems confined to elderly generations.
The Castilian colonisation of Northern Africa favoured the role of polyglot Sephards, who bridged between Spanish -colonizers and Arab and Berber speakers.
From the 17th to the 19th centuries, Judaeo-Spanish was the predominant Jewish language in the Holy Land, but its dialect was different in some respects from the one in Greece and Turkey. Some families have lived in Jerusalem for centuries and preserve Judaeo-Spanish for cultural and folklore purposes although they now use Hebrew in everyday life.
An often-told Sephardic anecdote from Bosnia-Herzegovina has it that as a Spanish consulate was opened in Sarajevo in the interwar period, two Sephardic women passed by. Upon hearing a Catholic priest who was speaking Spanish, they thought that his language meant that he was Jewish.
In the 20th century, the number of speakers declined sharply: entire communities were murdered in the Holocaust, and the remaining speakers, many of whom emigrated to Israel, adopted Hebrew. The governments of the new nation-states encouraged instruction in the official languages. At the same time, Judaeo-Spanish aroused the interest of philologists, as it conserved language and literature from before the standardisation of Spanish.
Judaeo-Spanish is in a serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly olim (immigrants to Israel), who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. Nevertheless, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardic communities, especially in music. In addition, Sephardic communities in several Latin American countries still use Judaeo-Spanish. There, an additional danger is the asimilation to modern Spanish.
Kol Yisrael and Radio Nacional de España hold regular radio broadcasts in Judaeo-Spanish. Law & Order: Criminal Intent showed an episode, titled "A Murderer Among Us", with references to the language. Films partially or totally in Judaeo-Spanish include Mexican film Novia que te vea (directed by Guita Schyfter), The House on Chelouche Street, and Every Time We Say Goodbye.
Efforts have been made to gather and publish modern Judaeo-Spanish fables and folktales. In 2001, the Jewish Publication Society published the first English translation of Judaeo-Spanish folktales, collected by Matilda Koén-Sarano, Folktales of Joha, Jewish Trickster: The Misadventures of the Guileful Sephardic Prankster. A survivor of Auschwitz, Moshe Ha'elyon, issued his translation into Ladino of the ancient Greek epic The Odyssey in 2012, in his 87th year, and he is now translating the sister epic, the Iliad, into his mother tongue.
The earliest Judaeo-Spanish books were religious in nature, mostly created to maintain religious knowledge for exiles who could not read Hebrew; the first of the known texts is Dinim de shehitah i bedikah (The Rules of Ritual Slaughter and Inspection of Animals; Istanbul, 1510). Texts continued to be focussed on philosophical and religious themes, including a large body of rabbinic writings, until the first half of the 19th century. The largest output of secular Judaeo-Spanish literature occurred during the latter half of the 19th and the early 20th centuries in the Ottoman Empire. The earliest and most abundant form of secular text was the periodical press: between 1845 and 1939, Ottoman Sephardim published around 300 individual periodical titles. The proliferation of periodicals gave rise to serialised novels: many of them were rewrites of existing foreign novels into Judaeo-Spanish. Unlike the previous scholarly literature, they were intended for a broader audience of educated men and less-educated women alike. They covered a wider range of less weighty content, at times censored to be appropriate for family readings. Popular literature expanded to include love stories and adventure stories, both of which had been absent from Judaeo-Spanish literary canon. The literary corpus mesnwhile also expanded to include theatrical plays, poems and other minor genres.
The Jewish communities of Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Belgrade, Serbia, still chant part of the Sabbath Prayers (Mizmor David) in Judaeo-Spanish. The Sephardic Synagogue Ezra Bessaroth in Seattle, Washington, United States, was formed by Jews from Turkey and the Greek island of Rhodes, and it uses the language in some portions of its Shabbat services. The Siddur is called Zehut Yosef and was written by Hazzan Isaac Azose.
At Congregation Etz Ahaim of Highland Park, New Jersey, a congregation founded by Sephardic Jews from Salonika, a reader chants the Aramaic prayer B'rikh Shemay in Judaeo-Spanish before he takes out the Torah on Shabbat. That is known as Bendichu su Nombre in Judaeo-Spanish. Additionally, at the end of Shabbat services, the entire congregation sings the well-known Hebrew hymn Ein Keloheinu, which is Non Como Muestro Dio in Judaeo-Spanish.
Modern education and useEdit
As with Yiddish Judaeo-Spanish is seeing a minor resurgence in educational interest in colleges across the United States and in Israel. Almost all American Jews are Ashkenazi, with a tradition based on Yiddish, rather than Judaeo-Spanish, and so institutions that offer Yiddish are more common. As of 2011[update] the University of Pennsylvania and Tufts University offered Judaeo-Spanish courses among colleges in the United States. In Israel, Moshe David Gaon Center for Ladino Culture at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev is leading the way in education (language and literature courses, Community oriented activities) and research (a yearly scientific journal, international congresses and conferences etc.). Hebrew University also offers courses. The Complutense University of Madrid also used to have courses. Prof. David Bunis taught Ladino at the University of Washington, in Seattle during the 2013–14 academic year.
In Spain, the Spanish Royal Academy (RAE) in 2017 announced plans to create a Judaeo-Spanish branch in Israel in addition to 23 existing academies, in various Spanish-speaking countries, that are associated in the Association of Spanish Language Academies. Its stated purpose is to preserve Judaeo-Spanish. The move was seen as another step to make up for the Expulsion, following the offer of Spanish citizenship to Sephardim who had some connection with Spain.
Comparison with other languagesEdit
- Note: Judaeo-Spanish samples in this section are generally written in the Aki Yerushalayim orthography unless otherwise specified.
|Judaeo-Spanish||El djudeo-espanyol, djudio, djudezmo es la lingua favlada de los djudios sefardim arondjados de la Espanya enel 1492. Es una lingua derivada del espanyol i favlada de 150.000 personas en komunitas en Israel, la Turkia, antika Yugoslavia, la Gresia, el Maruekos, Mayorka, las Amerikas, entre munchos otros.|
|Spanish||El judeo-español, djudio, djudezmo es la lengua hablada por los judíos sefardíes expulsados de España en 1492. Es una lengua derivada del español y hablada por 150.000 personas en comunidades en Israel, Turquía, la antigua Yugoslavia, Grecia, Marruecos, Mallorca, las Américas, entre muchos otros.|
|Catalan||El judeocastellà, djudiu, djudezmo és la llengua parlada pels jueus sefardites expulsats d'Espanya al 1492. És una llengua derivada de l'espanyol i parlada per 150.000 persones en comunitats a Israel, Turquia, antiga Iugoslàvia, Grècia, el Marroc, Mallorca, les Amèriques, entre moltes altres.|
|Asturian||El xudeoespañol, djudio, djudezmo ye la llingua falada polos xudíos sefardinos expulsados d'España en 1492. Ye una llingua derivada del español y falada por 150.000 persones en comunidaes n'Israel, Turquía, na antigua Yugoslavia, Grecia, Marruecos, Mayorca, nes Amériques, entre munchos otros.|
|Galician||O xudeo-español, djudio, djudezmo é a lingua falada polos xudeos sefardís expulsados de España en 1492. É unha lingua derivada do español e falada por 150.000 persoas en comunidades en Israel, en Turquía, na antiga Iugoslavia, Grecia, Marrocos, Maiorca, nas Américas, entre moitos outros [lugares].|
|Portuguese||O judeo-espanhol, djudio, djudezmo é a língua falada pelos judeus sefarditas expulsos da Espanha em 1492. É uma língua derivada do espanhol e falada por 150.000 pessoas em comunidades em Israel, na Turquia, na antiga Jugoslávia, na Grécia, Marrocos, Maiorca, nas Américas, entre muitos outros [locais].|
|English||Judaeo-Spanish, Djudio, Judezmo, is the language spoken by Sephardi Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. It is a language derived from Spanish and spoken by 150,000 people in communities in Israel, Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, Greece, Morocco, Majorca, the Americas, among many others [places].|
Folklorists have been collecting romances and other folk songs, some dating from before the expulsion. Many religious songs in Judeo-Spanish are translations of Hebrew, usually with a different tune. For example, here is Ein Keloheinu in Judeo-Spanish:
- Non komo muestro Dio,
- Non komo muestro Sinyor,
- Non komo muestro Rey,
- Non komo muestro Salvador.
Other songs relate to secular themes such as love:
|Tu madre kuando te pario
Y te kito al mundo,
|Va, bushkate otro amor,
Aharva otras puertas,
|Por una Ninya||For a Girl (translation)|
|Por una ninya tan fermoza
l'alma yo la vo a dar
un kuchilyo de dos kortes
en el korason entro.
|For a girl so beautiful
I will give my soul
a double-edged knife
pierced my heart.
|No me mires ke'stó kantando
es lyorar ke kero yo
los mis males son muy grandes
no los puedo somportar.
|Don't look at me; I am singing,
it is crying that I want,
my sorrows are so great
I can't bear them.
|No te lo kontengas tu, fijika,
ke sos blanka komo'l simit,
ay morenas en el mundo
ke kemaron Selanik.
|Don't hold your sorrows, young girl,
for you are white like bread,
there are dark girls in the world
who set fire to Thessaloniki.
|Quando el Rey Nimrod (Adaptation)||When King Nimrod (translation)|
|Quando el Rey Nimrod al campo salía
mirava en el cielo y en la estrellería
vido una luz santa en la djudería
que havía de nascer Avraham Avinu.
|When King Nimrod was going out to the fields
He was looking at heaven and at the stars
He saw a holy light in the Jewish quarter
[A sign] that Abraham, our father, must have been born.
|Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael.
|Abraham Avinu [our Father], dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.
|Luego a las comadres encomendava
que toda mujer que prenyada quedara
si no pariera al punto, la matara
que havía de nascer Abraham Avinu.
|Then he was telling all the midwives
That every pregnant woman
Who did not give birth at once was going to be killed
because Abraham our father was going to born.
|Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael.
|Abraham Avinu, dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.
|La mujer de Terach quedó prenyada
y de día en día le preguntava
¿De qué teneix la cara tan demudada?
ella ya sabía el bien que tenía.
|Terach's wife was pregnant
and each day he would ask her
Why do you look so distraught?
She already knew very well what she had.
|Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael.
|Abraham Avinu, dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.
|En fin de nueve meses parir quería
iva caminando por campos y vinyas,
a su marido tal ni le descubría
topó una meara, allí lo pariría
|After nine months she wanted to give birth
She was walking through the fields and vineyards
Such would not even reach her husband
She found a manger; there, she would give birth.
|Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael.
|Abraham Avinu, dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.
|En aquella hora el nascido avlava
"Andavos mi madre, de la meara
yo ya topó quen me alexara
mandará del cielo quen me accompanyará
porque so criado del Dio bendicho."
|In that hour the newborn was speaking
'Get away of the manger, my mother
I will somebody to take me out
He will send from the heaven the one that will go with me
Because I am raised by the blessed God.'
|Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael
|Abraham Avinu, dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.
Anachronistically, Abraham—who in the Bible is the very first Hebrew and the ancestor of all who followed, hence his appellation "Avinu" (Our Father)—is in the Judeo-Spanish song born already in the "djudería" (modern Spanish: judería), the Jewish quarter. This makes Terach and his wife into Hebrews, as are the parents of other babies killed by Nimrod. In essence, unlike its Biblical model, the song is about a Hebrew community persecuted by a cruel king and witnessing the birth of a miraculous saviour—a subject of obvious interest and attraction to the Jewish people who composed and sang it in Medieval Spain.
The song attributes to Abraham elements that are from the story of Moses's birth, the cruel king killing innocent babies, with the midwives ordered to kill them, the 'holy light' in the Jewish area, as well as from the careers of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego who emerged unscathed from the fiery furnace. Nimrod is thus made to conflate the role and attributes of two archetypal cruel and persecuting kings:Nebuchadnezzar and Pharaoh.
Selected words by originEdit
This section needs expansion with: Greek. You can help by adding to it. (January 2017)
Words derived from Arabic:
- Alforría – "liberty", "freedom"
- Alhát – "Sunday"
- Atemar – to terminate
- Saraf – "money changer"
- Shara – "wood"
- Ziara – "cemetery visit"
Words derived from Hebrew:
- Alefbet – "alphabet" (from the Hebrew names of the first two letters of the alphabet)
- Anav – "humble", "obedient"
- Arón – "grave"
- Atakanear – to arrange
- Badkar – to reconsider
- Beraxa – "blessing"
- Din – "religious law"
- Kal – "community", "synagogue"
- Kamma – to ask "how much?", "how many?"
- Maaráv – "west"
- Maasé – "story", "event"
- Maabe – "deluge", "downpour", "torrent"
- Mazal – "star", "destiny"
- Met – "dead"
- Niftar – "dead"
- Purimlik – "Purim present" (Derived from the Hebrew "Purim" + Turkic ending "-lik")
- Sedaka – "charity"
- Tefilá – "prayer"
- Zahut – "blessing"
Words derived from Persian:
- Chay – "tea"
- Chini – "plate"
- Paras – "money"
- Shasheo – "dizziness"
Words derived from Portuguese:
- Abastádo – "almighty", "omnipotent" (referring to God)
- Aínda – "yet"
- Chapeo – "hat"
- Preto – "black" (in color)
- Trocar – to change
Words derived from Turkish:
- Balta – "axe"
- Biterear – to terminate
- Boyadear – to paint, color
- Innat – "whim"
- Kolay – "easy"
- Kushak – "belt", "girdle"
- Maalé – "street", "quarters", "neighbourhood"; Maalé yahudí – Jewish quarters
Jennifer Charles and Oren Bloedow from the New York-based band Elysian Fields released a CD in 2001 called La Mar Enfortuna, which featured modern versions of traditional Sephardic songs, many sung by Charles in Judeo-Spanish. The American singer Tanja Solnik has released several award-winning albums that feature songs in the languages: From Generation to Generation: A Legacy of Lullabies and Lullabies and Love Songs. There are a number of groups in Turkey that sing in Judeo-Spanish, notably Janet – Jak Esim Ensemble, Sefarad, Los Pasharos Sefaradis and the children's chorus Las Estreyikas d'Estambol. There is a Brazilian-born singer of Sephardic origins, Fortuna, who researches and plays Judeo-Spanish music.
The Jewish Bosnian-American musician Flory Jagoda recorded two CDs of music taught to her by her grandmother, a Sephardic folk singer, among a larger discography.
The Israeli singer Yasmin Levy has also brought a new interpretation to the traditional songs by incorporating more "modern" sounds of Andalusian Flamenco. Her work revitalising Sephardi music has earned Levy the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation Award for promoting cross-cultural dialogue between musicians from three cultures: In Yasmin Levy's own words:
I am proud to combine the two cultures of Ladino and flamenco, while mixing in Middle Eastern influences. I am embarking on a 500 years old musical journey, taking Ladino to Andalusia and mixing it with flamenco, the style that still bears the musical memories of the old Moorish and Jewish-Spanish world with the sound of the Arab world. In a way it is a ‘musical reconciliation’ of history.
Notable music groups performing in Judeo-Spanish include Voice of the Turtle, Oren Bloedow and Jennifer Charles' "La Mar Enfortuna" and Vanya Green, who was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship for her research and performance of this music. She was recently selected as one of the top ten world music artists by the We are Listening International World of Music Awards for her interpretations of the music.
Robin Greenstein, a New York-based musician, received a federal CETA grant in the 1980s to collect and perform Sephardic Ladino Music under the guidance of the American Jewish Congress. Her mentor was Joe Elias, noted Sephardic singer from Brooklyn. She recorded residents of the Sephardic Home for the Aged, a nursing home in Coney Island, New York, singing songs from their childhood. The voices recorded included Victoria Hazan, a well known Sephardic singer who recorded many 78's in Judaeo-Spanish and Turkish from the 1930s and 1940s. Two Judaeo-Spanish songs can be found on her "Songs of the Season" holiday CD, released in 2010 on Windy Records.
German band In Extremo also recorded a version of the above-mentioned song Avram Avinu.
- Aki Yerushalayim, an Israeli magazine in Judaeo-Spanish published 2–3 times a year
- Jewish languages
- Judaeo-Spanish Wikipedia
- Judaeo-Romance languages
- Mozarabic language
- Şalom, a Turkish newspaper with a Judaeo-Spanish page
- Sephardi Jews
- Tetuani Ladino
- Knaanic language
- Los Serenos Sefarad, Judaeo-Spanish hip-hop
- Cicurel family
- Pallache family
- History of the Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Laura Papo Bohoreta
- Pronounced [dʒu-, ʒu- / -ˈð̺eo͜-, -ˈdeo͜-, -ˈð̺eu͜-, -ˈdeu͜- / -(e)s.pa-, -(e)ʃ.pa- / -ˈɲol, -ˈɲoɫ, -ˈnjol, -ˈnjoɫ] in different dialects.
- Speakers use different orthographical conventions depending on their social, educational, national and personal backgrounds, and there is no uniformity in spelling although some established conventions exist. The endonym Judeo-Espanyol is also spelled as Cudeo-Espanyol, Djudeo-Espanyol, Djudeo-Espagnol, Judeo-Español, Judeo-Espaniol, Džudeo-Espanjol, Dzhudeo-Espanyol, Tzoudeo-Espaniol, Dschudeo-Espanjol, Dżudeo-Espańol, Giudeo-Espagnol, Giudeo-Espaneol, Xhudeo-Espanjol, Dzsudeo-Eszpanyol, Ġudeo-Espanjol, Ǧudéo-Españól, Judeo-Espanýol, Ĵudeo-Español and Jūdeo-Esupanyōru. See the infobox for parallel spellings in scripts other than Latin.
- The modern Spanish spelling Mallorca is a hypercorrection.
- Ladino at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Peim, Benjamin. "Ladino Lingers on in Brooklyn - Barely". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Ladino". The Endangered Languages Project. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- Quintana Rodríguez, Alidina (2006). Geografía lingüística del judeoespañol: estudio sincrónico y diacrónico (in Spanish). ISBN 3-03910-846-8.
- "Ladino". MultiTree. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ladino". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Koen, Hajim Mordehaj (1927). ЛЕКУТЕ ТЕФИЛОТ (ОРАСJОНИС ЕСКУЖИДАС) (in Judaeo-Spanish). Belgrade.
- Sam Jones (1 August 2017). "Spain honours Ladino language of Jewish exiles". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- Minervini, Laura (2006). "El desarollo histórico del judeoespañol". Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana.
- Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Jmth.gr. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- Real Academia Española dictionary, entry: Judeo-Español in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE).
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). "Ladino". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. SIL International. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
- Harris, Tracy (1994). Death of a language: The history of Judeo-Spanish. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.
- (in Spanish) DRAE: Ladino, 2nd sense. Buscon.rae.es. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- Historia 16, 1978
- Real Academia Española dictionary (2001), entry: Ladino Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy of the Spanish tongue, Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, Espasa.
- "Clearing up Ladino, Judeo-Spanish, Sephardic Music" Judith Cohen, HaLapid, winter 2001; Sephardic Song at the Wayback Machine (archived 16 April 2008), Judith Cohen, Midstream July/August 2003
- The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive
- Penny, Ralph (2000). Variation and Change in Spanish. Cambridge University Press. pp. 179–189. ISBN 0 521 60450 8.
- Travis G. Bradley and Ann Marie Delforge, Phonological Retention and Innovation in the Judeo-Spanish of Istanbul in Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, ed. Timothy L. Face and Carol A. Klee, 73-88. 2006. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
- The change is traditionally explained as being either in order to emphasise the unity of God (through a mistaken interpretation of the "s" as a plural marker: in fact dios is singular and derives from Latin deus) or as a borrowing from Italian.
- Batzarov, Zdravko. "Judeo-Spanish: Noun". www.orbilat.com. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Verba Hispanica X: Los problemas del estudio de la lengua sefardí Archived 7 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Katja Šmid, Ljubljana, pages 113–124: Es interesante el hecho que en Bulgaria se imprimieron unas pocas publicaciones en alfabeto cirílico búlgaro y en Grecia en alfabeto griego. [...] Nezirović (1992: 128) anota que también en Bosnia se ha encontrado un documento en que la lengua sefardí está escrita en alfabeto cirilico. The Nezirović reference is: Nezirović, M., Jevrejsko-Španjolska književnost. Institut za književnost, Svjetlost, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1992.
- See preface by Iacob M Hassán to Romero, Coplas Sefardíes, Cordoba, pp. 23–24.
- "Ladinoikonunita: A quick explanation of Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish). Sephardicstudies.org. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- palavră in the Dicționarul etimologic român, Alexandru Ciorănescu, Universidad de la Laguna, Tenerife, 1958–1966: Cuvînt introdus probabil prin. iud. sp: "Word introduced probably through Judaeo-Spanish.
- Συγκριτικός πίνακας των στοιχείων των απογραφών του 1928, 1940 ΚΑΙ 1951 σχετικά με τις ομιλούμενες γλώσσες στην Ελλάδα. – Μεινοτικές γλώσσες στην Ελλάδα Κωνσταντίνος Τσιτσελίκης (2001), Πύλη για την Ελληνική Γλώσσα
- Eliezer Papo: From the Wailing Wall (in Bosnian)
- Reka Network: Kol Israel International Archived 23 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Radio Exterior de España: Emisión en sefardí
- Nir Hasson, Holocaust survivor revives Jewish dialect by translating Greek epic, at Haaretz, 9 March 2012.
- Borovaya, Olga (2012). Modern Ladino Culture: Press, Belles Lettres, and Theater in the Late Ottoman Empire. Indiana University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978 0 253 35672 7.
- Borovaya, Olga (2012). Modern Ladino Culture: Press, Belles Lettres, and Theater in the Late Ottoman Empire. Indiana University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978 0 253 35672 7.
- Borovaya, Olga (2012). Modern Ladino Culture: Press, Belles Lettres, and Theater in the Late Ottoman Empire. Indiana University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978 0 253 35672 7.
- Borovaya, Olga (2012). Modern Ladino Culture: Press, Belles Lettres, and Theater in the Late Ottoman Empire. Indiana University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978 0 253 35672 7.
- Etz Ahaim home page
- Frishman, Elyse D., ed. (2007). Mishkan T'filah : a Reform siddur: services for Shabbat. New York: Central Conference of American Rabbis. p. 327. ISBN 0-88123-104-5.
- > Events > Exhibitions > Rare Book Library Collection Restoration Project – Ladino. American Sephardi Federation (23 April 1918). Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- Yalkut May'Am Loez, Jerusalem 5736 Hebrew translation from Ladino language.
- Price, Sarah. (2005-08-25) Schools to Teach Ein Bisel Yiddish | Education. Jewish Journal. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- The Mendele Review: Yiddish Literature and Language, Volume 11, No. 10. Yiddish.haifa.ac.il (30 September 2007). Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- EJP | News | Western Europe | Judaeo-Spanish language revived Archived 29 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Ejpress.org (19 September 2005). Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- Jewish Studies Program. Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- Ladino Class at Penn Tries to Resuscitate Dormant Language. The Jewish Exponent (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- Department of German, Russian & Asian Languages and Literature – Tufts University. Ase.tufts.edu. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- For love of Ladino – The Jewish Standard. Jstandard.com. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- Courses – Ladino Studies At The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Pluto.huji.ac.il (30 July 2010). Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- "Hebrew Philology courses (in Spanish)". UCM. UCM. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Why I'm teaching a new generation to read and write Ladino". Jewish Studies.
- "2008 Event Media Release – Yasmin Levy". Sydney Opera House. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- "BBC – Awards for World Music 2007 – Yasmin Levy". BBC. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- Åžalom Gazetesi – 12.10.2011 – Judeo-Espanyol Ä°Ã§erikleri Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Salom.com.tr. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.
- Barton, Thomas Immanuel (Toivi Cook) (2010) Judezmo Expressions. USA ISBN 978-89-00-35754-7
- Barton, Thomas Immanuel (Toivi Cook) (2008) Judezmo (Judeo-Castilian) Dictionary. USA ISBN 978-1-890035-73-0
- Bunis, David M. (1999) Judezmo: an introduction to the language of the Sephardic Jews of the Ottoman Empire. Jerusalem ISBN 978-965-493-024-6
- Габинский, Марк А. (1992) Сефардский (еврейской-испанский) язык (M. A. Gabinsky. Sephardic (Judeo-Spanish) language, in Russian). Chişinău: Ştiinţa
- Harris, Tracy. 1994. Death of a language: The history of Judeo-Spanish. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.
- Hemsi, Alberto (1995) Cancionero Sefardí; edited and with an introduction by Edwin Seroussi (Yuval Music Series; 4.) Jerusaelem: The Jewish Music Research Centre, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Hualde, José Ignacio and Mahir Saul (2011) "Istanbul Judeo-Spanish" Journal of the International Phonetic Association 41(1): 89-110.
- Hualde, José Ignacio (2013) “Intervocalic lenition and word-boundary effects: Evidence from Judeo-Spanish”. Diachronica 30.2: 232-26.
- Kohen, Elli; Kohen-Gordon, Dahlia (2000) Ladino-English, English-Ladino: concise encyclopedic dictionary. New York: Hippocrene Books
- Markova, Alla (2008) Beginner's Ladino with 2 Audio CDs. New York: Hippocrene Books ISBN 0-7818-1225-9
- Markus, Shimon (1965) Ha-safa ha-sefaradit-yehudit (The Judeo-Spanish language, in Hebrew). Jerusalem
- Minervini, Laura (1999) “The Formation of the Judeo-Spanish koiné: Dialect Convergence in the Sixteenth Century”. In Proceedings of the Tenth British Conference on Judeo-Spanish Studies. Edited by Annete Benaim, 41-52. London: Queen Mary and Westfield College.
- Minervini, Laura (2006) “El desarollo histórico del judeoespañol,” Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana 4.2: 13-34.
- Molho, Michael (1950) Usos y costumbres de los judíos de Salónica
- Quintana Rodriguez, Aldina. 2001. Concomitancias lingüisticas entre el aragones y el ladino (judeoespañol). Archivo de Filología Aragonesa 57–58, 163–192.
- Quintana Rodriguez, Aldina. 2006. Geografía lingüistica del judeoespañol: Estudio sincrónico y diacrónico. Bern: Peter Lang.
- Varol, Marie-Christine (2004) Manuel de Judéo-Espagnol, langue et culture (book & CD, in French), Paris: L'Asiathèque ISBN 2-911053-86-9
- Lleal, Coloma (1992) "A propósito de una denominación: el judeoespañol", available at Centro Virtual Cervantes, http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=19944
- Saporta y Beja, Enrique, comp. (1978) Refranes de los judíos sefardíes y otras locuciones típicas de Salónica y otros sitios de Oriente. Barcelona: Ameller
|Ladino edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Judaeo-Spanish test of Wiktionary at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Judaeo-Spanish at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
- Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino (in Judaeo-Spanish)
- Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki
- Ladino Center
- Ladinokomunita, an email list in Ladino
- La pajina djudeo-espanyola de Aki Yerushalayim
- The Ladino Alphabet
- Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) at Orbis Latinus
- Ladino music by Suzy and Margalit Matitiahu
- Socolovsky, Jerome. "Lost Language of Ladino Revived in Spain", Morning Edition, National Public Radio, 19 March 2007.
- A randomly selected example of use of ladino on the Worldwide Web: La komponente kulinaria i linguístika turka en la kuzina djudeo-espanyola
- Israeli Ladino Language Forum (Hebrew)
- LadinoType – A Ladino Transliteration System for Solitreo, Meruba, and Rashi
- Habla Ladino? Sephardim meet to preserve language Friday 9 January 1998
- Edición SEFARAD, Radio programme in Ladino from Radio Nacional de España
- Etext of Nebrija's Gramática de la lengua castellana, showing orthography of Old Spanish.
- Sefarad, Revista de Estudios Hebraicos, Sefardíes y de Oriente Próximo, ILC, CSIC
- Judæo-Spanish Language (Ladino) and Literature, Jewish Encyclopedia
- Dr Yitshak (Itzik) Levy An authentic documentation of Ladino heritage and culture
- Sephardic Studies Digital Library & Museum – UW Stroum Jewish Studies
- An inside look into the Portuguese corpus of words in Nehama's Dictionnaire du Judeo-Espagnol Yossi Gur, 2003.