List of political self-immolations

This is a list of notable self-immolations done for political reasons. Non-political self-immolations are not included in the list. Self-immolation was a relatively common protest tactic among Buddhists in South Vietnam, anti-communists in Czechoslovakia during the mid 20th century and continues to be used by Tibetans protesting rule of Tibet by China[1] and Crimean Tatars protesting forced deportation from their land.[2]

ListEdit

Before 1900Edit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
396 Fayu 45 Later Qin (today   China) the earliest recorded Chinese self-immolation.
577 Five unnamed Buddhist monks Northern Zhou (today   China) Persecution of Buddhism by Emperor Wu
1780 Kuyili (First suicide bomber) Sivaganga (today   India) Against the British Empire She applied ghee, set herself ablaze and jumped into the armoury of the British, securing victory for Velu Nachiyar

1940sEdit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
1948 Kuo-shun   China Persecution of Buddhists and destruction of sacred objects by the government of Mao Zedong Buddhist monk from Vietnam.[3] In the city of Harbin, he sat in the lotus position on a pile of sawdust and soybean oil and set himself on fire.[4][5]

1950sEdit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
December 8, 1959 Poh Kwong   Thailand Loss of money intended to build a new hospital, was possibly swindled through government corruption Buddhist monk from China. In the city of Bangkok, he sat on a five-foot pyre and attempted to self-immolate before being stopped by police.[3][6]

1960sEdit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
June 11, 1963 Thích Quảng Đức 66   South Vietnam Persecution of Buddhists by the government of Ngô Đình Diệm Led to several other monks and nuns committing the same act before Diệm was toppled. The photo, photographed by Malcolm Browne, became well-associated with his political protest.
August 4, 1963 Thích Mguyen Huong 20s Buddhist monk. Self-immolated in the town center of Phan Thiết. Government soldiers removed his body before other monks could recover it.[7]
August 13, 1963 Thích Thanh Tuck 17 Buddhist novice monk.[7]
August 15, 1963 Dieti Quảng Buddhist nun. Self-immolated in the courtyard of Từ Đàm Pagoda in Huế.[7]
August 16, 1963 Thích Tieu 71 Buddhist monk. He soaked his robes in gasoline and self-immolated in the courtyard of Từ Đàm Pagoda in Huế. Before, he announced over the loudspeaker that he was going to kill himself in demand for Buddhist rights. After his death (the third self-immolation in one week), the government declared martial law, sparking more Buddhist protests.[7]
January 25, 1964 Kizappazuvur Chinnasamy 27   India Imposition of Hindi over the Tamil language Inspired 5 other self-immolations.[7][8]
1965 Keeranoor Muthu 21 Hotel worker[7]
January 26, 1965 Kodambakkam Sivalingam 21 Madras city government employee[7]
January 27, 1965 Virugambakkam Aranganathan 33 Worked in Madras for the Telephone Department.[7]
February 11, 1965 Ayampalayam Veerappan 26 School headmaster[7]
February 1965 Satyamangalam Muthu 21 Farmer[7]
March 1965 Mayavaram Sarangapani 20 Student[7]
March 16, 1965 Alice Herz 82   United States Vietnam War Women Strike for Peace member. Self-immolated on a street corner in Detroit, Michigan.[7]
July 23, 1965 Huh Jik 62   South Korea Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea Worked for a minor political party. Self-immolated on the steps of the Seoul Capitol.[7]
October 12, 1965 Hiroko Hayasaki 36   United States Vietnam War Japanese American Buddhist. Self-immolated in San Diego, California.[7]
November 2, 1965 Norman Morrison 31 Quaker from Baltimore, Maryland.[7] Committed act below Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's Pentagon office, in front of his one-year-old daughter.[9]
November 9, 1965 Roger Allen LaPorte 22 Catholic Worker. Self-immolated in front of the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York City.[10]
November 9, 1965 Celene Jankowski 24 Mother whose three-month-old baby died in October 1965. Her brother had also died in the Korean War. Self-immolated in front of her home in South Bend, Indiana.[7]
May 28, 1966 Thích Nữ Thanh Quảng 55   South Vietnam Government of Nguyễn Cao Kỳ and United States support of the regime Buddhist nun.[7][11]
May 28, 1966 Ho Thi Thieu 58 Buddhist laywoman. Self-immolated in pagoda in Saigon. Thousands were present, and monks covered her body with a Buddhist flag.[7][11]
May 28, 1966 Thích Nữ Vinh Ngoc 19 Buddhist nun. Self-immolated in Huế.[7][12]
May 29, 1966 Name missing Buddhist monk self-immolated in Da Lat.[11]
May 31, 1966 Nguyen Thi Van 17 Buddhist laywoman. Self-immolated outside a pagoda in Huế.[7][12]
May 31, 1966 Name missing Buddhist[12]
May 31, 1966 Name missing Buddhist[12]
June 4, 1966 Thích Nữ Dien Dinh 26 Buddhist nun. Self-immolated in the courtyard of a small pagoda in Da Nang.[7][12]
June 4, 1966 Thích Nữ Bao Luan 24 Buddhist nun. Self-immolated in the same location as Thích Du Dien Dinh in Da Nang.[7][12]
June 4, 1966 Thích Dieu Nữ Tri Buddhist nun. Self-immolated in the same location as Thích Du Dien Dinh in Da Nang.[7][12]
June 4, 1966 Name missing Novice Buddhist monk. Self-immolated in Quảng Trị[12]
June 17, 1966 Woman; name missing [7]
July 12, 1966 Liangqing 70   China Destruction of the Famen Temple Buddhist monk[13]
May 16, 1967 Nhất Chi Mai 34   South Vietnam Vietnam War Buddhist nun[7][14]
October 3, 1967 Thích Nữ Tri 1967 South Vietnamese presidential election Buddhist nun[7][15]
October 8, 1967 Woman; name missing
October 15, 1967 Florence Beaumont 55   United States Vietnam War [16]
October 22, 1967 Thích Nữ Hue   South Vietnam 1967 South Vietnamese presidential election Buddhist nun[7][15]
November 1, 1967 Thích Nữ Thuong
November 12, 1967 Yui Chunoshin [eo] 73   Japan Vietnam War Esperantist.[17][18][19]
December 4, 1967 Erik Thoen 27   United States Zen Buddhist. Self-immolated in Sunnyvale, California.[7]
March 19, 1968 Ronald Brazee 16 Student. Died in hospital five weeks later.[20]
September 8, 1968 Ryszard Siwiec 59   Poland Poland's participation in Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia Died in hospital four days later.
November 5, 1968 Vasyl Makukh 40   Soviet Union Soviet rule in Ukraine Set himself on fire on Khreshchatyk, Kiev's main street, while shouting "Colonialism out of Ukraine!" and "Long live a free Ukraine!"[21]
January 16, 1969 Jan Palach 20   Czechoslovakia Communist rule in Czechoslovakia Student. Inspired a number of self-immolations in protest of Soviet satellite states.
January 20, 1969 Sándor Bauer 17   Hungary Communist rule in Hungary Apprentice[7][22]
January 20, 1969 Josef Hlavatý 25   Czechoslovakia Communist rule in Czechoslovakia Blue-collar worker. Self-immolated in Plzeň and died five days later.[7][23]
January 22, 1969 Miroslav Malinka Blue-collar worker. Referenced Jan Palach. Self-immolated in Brno.[7][23]
January 26, 1969 Jan Bereš 16 Apprentice. Referenced Jan Palach. Self-immolated in Cheb.[23]
February 10, 1969 Mykola Bereslavsky 45   Soviet Union Soviet rule in Ukraine [7]
February 25, 1969 Jan Zajíc 19   Czechoslovakia Communist rule in Czechoslovakia Student.
April 2, 1969 Evžen Plocek 39 Businessman.
April 9, 1969 Eliyahu Rips 20   Soviet Union Survived, became professor of mathematics.
May 30, 1969 Bruce Mayrock 20   United States Genocide against Biafra in the Nigerian Civil War Columbia University student. Died in hospital several hours later.

1970sEdit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
February 13, 1970 Márton Moyses 28   Romania Communist rule in Romania [7]
May 6, 1970 Robert Rex Vice 27   United States Vietnam War and Kent State Shootings Non-student protester at Wabash College demonstration.[24] Died of injuries in hospital. [1][2]
May 10, 1970 George Winne Jr. 23   United States Vietnam War Student at the University of California, San Diego. Died the next day.[25]
June 4, 1970 Thích Nữ Lien Tap 24   South Vietnam Buddhist nun[7][15]
September 19, 1970 Kostas Georgakis 22   Greece Military rule in Greece Student at the University of Genoa
September 19, 1970 Joseba Elosegi 54   Spain Bombing of Guernica in 1937. Independence of the Basque Country. Survived[7]
November 13, 1970 Jeon Tae-il 22   South Korea Labor conditions and the government's opposition to reform [7]
May 1971 Nguyen Thi Co   South Vietnam Vietnam War Buddhist nun[7][15]
Thích Nữ Tinh Nhuan
August 16, 1971 Man; name missing Vietnam War veteran[7]
Nguyen Minh Dang 37 Vietnam War veteran[7]
October 1971 Thích Nữ Tinh Cuong Buddhist nun[7][15]
1972 Thích Nữ Dien Han Buddhist nun[7][15]
May 14, 1972 Romas Kalanta 19   Soviet Union Communist rule in Lithuania Inspired largest post-war riots in occupied Lithuania and the USSR, and 13 other self-immolations
May 29, 1972 V. Stonys 24 Self-immolated in Varėna.[7]
June 6, 1972 Huguette Gaulin 28   Canada [26]
1974 Thích Nữ Du Dieu   South Vietnam Vietnam War Buddhist nun[7][15]
August 10, 1976 Antanas Kalinauskas 19   Soviet Union Communist rule in Lithuania In Soviet Army barracks in Gulbene, Latvia. Died next day.
August 22, 1976 Oskar Brüsewitz 47   East Germany Communist rule in East Germany Lutheran pastor
February 10, 1977 Alain Escoffier 27   France Communism Member of the Party of New Forces, a neo-fascist political party.
November 16, 1977 Hartmut Gründler 37   West Germany Atomic policy
January 21, 1978 Oleksa Hirnyk 65   Soviet Union Communist rule in Ukraine
June 23, 1978 Musa Mamut 46 Discrimination against Crimean Tatars in the Soviet residence permit system, which prohibited nearly all Crimean Tatars who were deported in 1944 from returning to their place of birth Mamut was born and raised Crimea until the NKVD deported all Crimean Tatars to Central Asia in May 1944. He returned to Crimea in 1975 and was later arrested and charged for not having a residence permit to live there, despite being born in the peninsula; the residence permit system was designed to prevent exiled Crimean Tatars from returning to their homeland. Then police came to arrest him on 23 June 1978 Mamut lit himself on fire rather than being deported again and died five days later.[27]
October 3, 1978 Lynette Phillips 24    Switzerland Social protest Lynette Phillips had previously planned to burn herself to death outside the British Houses of Parliament in London, but upon receiving word of this, British authorities deported her. She changed her plan and decided to self-immolate outside the United Nations headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. She protested against "inhumanity, injustice and irrationality prevalent in our society". She died on the spot.[28]

1980sEdit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
March 21, 1980 Walenty Badylak 76   Poland Katyn massacre Home Army veteran set himself alight chained to a well in the Main Square, Kraków.[29][30]
March 21, 1981 Per-Axel Arosenius 60   Sweden Taxes
May 18, 1982 Mahmut Zengin Ferhat Kurtay

Eşref Anyık

Necmi Öner

  Turkey Detention conditions in Prison The four were members of the Kurdistan Workers' Party protesting the detention conditions in the Diyarbakır prison after the coup d'état in 1980.[31]
May 26, 1982 Semra Ertan 25   West Germany Racism in Germany Semra Ertan was a writer and poet.[32]
August 10, 1982 Artin Penik 61   Turkey ASALA attack at Esenboğa International Airport
November 2, 1983 Sebastián Acevedo   Chile Kidnapping of his children by the Chilean police during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet [33]
March 2, 1989 Liviu Cornel Babeş 47   Romania Communist rule in Romania Set himself on fire on ski slope, died at hospital two hours later.[34]
March 2, 1989 Vytautas Vičiulis 37   Soviet Union Communist rule in Lithuania
March 24, 1989 Kailash Pawar   India To draw attention to plight of Bhopal gas victims and protest public indifference Original story published in The Hindu, March 26, 1990.[35]
April 7, 1989 Cheng Nan-jung 41   Taiwan For freedom of speech and Taiwan independence
May 19, 1989 Chan I-hua 32 During funeral procession of Cheng Nan-jung.[36]
October 24, 1989 Shavkat Yarullin 40   Soviet Union In protest of exile and mistreatment of Crimean Tatars by the government Set himself on fire in front of a government building, later died.[37]
December 14, 1989 Seidamet Balji In protest of exile and mistreatment of Crimean Tatars by the government While being forced to leave Yalta he doused himself with gasoline and lit himself on fire, survived after being put out, but said he would do it again if he had to live in exile for longer.[37]

1990sEdit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
March 21, 1990 Zekiye Altan   Turkey Treatment of Kurds by Turkey Medical student who immolated herself on Newroz an important festivity for the Kurds[38][39]
April 26, 1990 Stanislovas Žemaitis 52   Soviet Union Communist rule in Lithuania Protesting Soviet economic blockade of Lithuania. Died next day in Moscow hospital.
April 29, 1990 Sunghee Park 19   South Korea Political situation in South Korea Self-immolated during students' protest against the South Korean regime. Died May 19, 1991.
May 9, 1990 Rimantas Daugintis 55   Soviet Union Communist rule in Lithuania Lithuanian sculptor self-immolated on Hungarian–Soviet border. Died after a few days.
September 19, 1990 Rajiv Goswami 19   India Reservation in India Survived.[40]
October 14, 1990 Thanawut Klingchuea 20   Thailand Government of Chatichai Choonhavan Ramkhamhaeng University student[41]
February 18, 1991 Gregory Levey 30   United States Gulf War Immolation took place in Amherst Common, Massachusetts.[42]
September 21, 1991 Giorgi Abesadze 35   Georgia Looming civil war in Georgia Physician[43]
March 21, 1992 Rahşan Demirel   Turkey Treatment of Kurds by Turkey She immolated herself on Newroz an important festivity for the Kurds.[39]
April 29, 1993 Graham Bamford 48   United Kingdom War in Bosnia and Herzegovina 'The British army must not be a guard of honour at a mass funeral. Bosnian babies, children, and womenfolk are waiting for the politicians to do what they know they should – give them military protection.'[44]
February 21, 1994 Homa Darabi 54   Iran Legal obligation under the Islamic Criminal Code (Art. 139) for women to wear the headscarf in public[45] Pediatrician, political activist. Died the next day
March 21, 1994 Berivan and Ronahi   Germany Treatment of Kurds by Turkey They immolated themselves on Newroz, an important festivity for the Kurds[39]
April 25, 1995 Reinhold Elstner [de] 75 "Slander and demonization" of German soldiers after World War II Wehrmacht veteran. Died in a Munich hospital 12 hours later.
September 3, 1995 Sabine Kratze 25   Vietnam Trial of six Buddhist monks
October 22, 1996 Kathy Change 46   United States For directly democratic community-based self-government
January 13, 1998 Alfredo Ormando 29   Italy Roman Catholic Church's condemnation of homosexuality
April 27, 1998 Thupten Ngodup 60   India Political situation in Tibet Ex-monk. In protest of police interference with unto-death hunger-strike in Delhi. Died two days later in hospital after visit by the Dalai Lama.[46][47][48]
February 16, 1999 Necla Coşkun 14   United Kingdom Arrest of Abdullah Öcalan Survived.[49]

2000sEdit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
January 21, 2001 various   China See Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident [50]
April 2, 2001 Shahraz Kayani 48   Australia Government refusal to grant entry to his wife and daughters Pakistani refugee[51]
November 15, 2002 Milos Redzepovic 34   Germany Planned deportation of his family to Serbia Doused himself in gasoline and set himself on fire inside the town hall of Syke. Died the next day.[52]
June 23, 2003 Neda Hassani 26   United Kingdom Raid on and arrest of members of the People's Mujahedin of Iran In front of the French embassy in London. Died on the spot. There were at least 4 other self-immolations protesting the same.[53]
July 21, 2004 Mordehai (Hamimo) Cohen 30   Israel Rejection of work license Set himself on fire during a City Hall assembly[54]
October 5, 2004 Maggy Mufu Delvaux 44   Luxembourg Protest against "institutionalized racism" Set herself on fire on a public place[55] Money problems had driven the woman to desperately plead her case at the Prime minister’s office early on the same day of the incident[56]
August 17, 2005 Yelena Businov 54   Israel Protest against the Israeli disengagement from Gaza [57]
August 31, 2005 Baruch Ben Menahem 21 [58]
March 28, 2006 El ieftheriya Fortulaki   Greece Treatment of Kurds in Turkey [59]
November 3, 2006 Malachi Ritscher 52   United States War in Iraq Died at the scene.[60]
June 11, 2006 Pravin Joshi 30   India Screening of Fanaa Died 9 days later.[61]
October 31, 2006 Roland Weisselberg 73   Germany Spread of Islam Former Lutheran pastor self-immolated in a former monastery in Erfurt. Died the following day.[62]
March 7, 2007 Uddhav Bhandari 40   United Kingdom Asylum policy Nepali asylum seeker[63]
April 1, 2007 Heo Se-uk 54   South Korea South Korea – United States Free Trade Agreement [64]
October 1, 2008 Ramiro Guillén Tapia 65   Mexico Local government in the city of Xalapa [65]
January 29, 2009 Kumar Muthukumar 26   India Killing of the Sri Lankan Tamils Inspired several other self-immolations[66]
February 12, 2009 Murugathasan Varnakulasingham 26    Switzerland Killing of the Sri Lankan Tamils Inspired several other self-immolations[67]
February 27, 2009 Tapey mid-20s   China Political situation in Tibet Monk, Kirti Monastery, Ngaba. Shot[68] by Chinese police while on fire, and then taken away by them. Status unknown.[68]
November 13, 2009 Tang Fu-zhen 47 Forced demolition of her home Died on November 29.[69]
December 3, 2009 Kasoju Srikanth Chary 24   India For statehood of Telangana Died on December 4.[70]

2010sEdit

Date Name Age Country Protesting Notes and references
February 20, 2010 Siripur Yadaiah 19   India For statehood of Telangana Student. Self immolated at the main gate of Osmania University, Hyderabad. Died the next day in hospital.[71][72]
July 31, 2010 Eshan Reddy 20s Student; set himself on fire as an offering for a deity for the cause of statehood.[73]
September 10, 2010 Ye Zhongcheng 79   China Forced demolition of their home Zhongcheng self-immolated with two family members and died on September 18.[74]
December 17, 2010 Tarek el-Tayeb Mohamed Bouazizi 26   Tunisia Corruption in government Inspired the Tunisian revolution leading to ouster of President Ben Ali and further revolutions of the Arab Spring. Died January 4, 2011.[75]
January 16, 2011 Venugopala Reddy 20s   India For statehood of Telangana MCA student immolated himself near his university auditorium,died on the spot.[76]
January 16, 2011 Mohsen Bouterfif   Algeria Unemployment and housing Inspired by Bouazizi's self-immolation in Tunisia.[77]
January 16, 2011 Bhavani 18   India For statehood of Telangana [78]
January 17, 2011 Yacoub Ould Dahoud 43   Mauritania Political situation in Mauritania [79]
January 23, 2011 Unnamed man 60s   Saudi Arabia Political situation in Saudi Arabia [80]
February 21, 2011 Mustafa 40   India For statehood of Telangana [81]
March 16, 2011 Rigzin Phuntsog 21   China Political situation in Tibet Monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Beaten by police before they extinguished the flames. Died in hospital.[82][83][84]
June 15, 2011 Thomas James Ball 58   United States Father's rights and family court injustice Self immolated on the steps of a family courthouse in New Hampshire. Died on the spot.[85]
August 15, 2011 Tsewang Norbu 29   China Political situation in Tibet Monk of Nyitso monastery in Kham Tawu. In Tawu. Died soon afterwards.[82][84][86]
August 28, 2011 Senkodi 27   India Convictions in the Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi case A Tamil woman immolated herself in front of a tahsil office at Kanchipuram to protest death sentences of A. G. Perarivalan, V. Sriharan (alias Murugan), and T. Suthendraraja (alias Santhan). She died the same day.[87]
September 16, 2011 Apostolos Polyzonis 55   Greece European sovereign-debt crisis Man set himself on fire in front of a bank in Thessaloniki.[88]
September 23, 2011 Andrzej Żydek 49   Poland Irregularities in the capital's treasury Occurred in front of the Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland. A letter to Donald Tusk was found attached to a bench in the park.[89][90]
September 26, 2011 Lobsang Kunchok 18   China Political situation in Tibet Monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Set fire to himself, together with Lobsang Kelsang.[84][91]
September 26, 2011 Lobsang Kelsang 18 Monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Set fire to himself, together with Lobsang Kunchok.[84][92]
October 3, 2011 Kelsang Wangchuk 17 Monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Beaten and taken away by security personnel.[93]
October 7, 2011 Kayang 17 Former monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Clasped hands with Choepel; died.[84][94]
October 7, 2011 Choepel 19 Former monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Clasped hands with Kayang; died.[84][95] China Daily reported they were "slightly injured".[96]
October 15, 2011 Norbu Damdrul 19 Former monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Kicked and removed from scene by authorities. Current status unknown.[84][97]
October 17, 2011 Tenzin Wangmo 20 Nun of Mame Dechen Chokorling. In Ngaba, Amdo. Died.[84][98]
October 21, 2011 Wang 42 Legal inequalities in China At Tiananmen Square, Beijing. Taken to hospital by police; evidence at scene erased immediately.[84][99]
October 26, 2011 Dawa Tsering 38 Political situation in Tibet Monk of Kardze Monastery. In Kardze, Amdo. Current status unknown.[84][100]
November 3, 2011 Palden Choetso 35 Nun in Tawu, Kardze. Reported deceased by Xinhua.[84][101][102]
November 4, 2011 Sherab Tsedor 25 Layperson. Outside Chinese embassy in New Delhi. Overpowered by police and hospitalized with minor burns.[103][104][105]
November 11, 2011 Yenesew Gebre 29   Ethiopia Corruption of dictatorship government Inspired by Bouazizi's self-immolation in Tunisia.[106]
December 1, 2011 Tenzin Phuntsok 46[107]   China Political situation in Tibet Ex-monk, Karma Monastery, Chamdo.[108][109] Died on December 6, 2011, in Chamdo Hospital in Tibet[107] Reported in China Daily, as a "farmer" who "is considered eccentric".[110]
December 7, 2011 Sondang Hutagalung 22   Indonesia Disputed [111]
January 6, 2012 Tennyi Around 20   China Political situation in Tibet [112]
January 6, 2012 Tsultrim Around 20 [113]
January 8, 2012 Sopa Tulku/Sonam Wangyal 42 [114][115]
January 14, 2012 Jamyang Losang 20s Former monk of Andu monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Deceased.[116]
February 3, 2012 Tsaptai Tsering, Kyarel, and unknown name 60, 30, unknown Three laypersons. In Serthar. Incident published in several places, but unconfirmed.[117][118]
February 8, 2012 Rigzin Dorje (Rinzin) Around 18 Former monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Died February 21 in hospital.[119]
February 9, 2012 Sonam Rabyang 30s Monk of Lab Monastery. In Tridu town, Yushu County, Kham. Taken to hospital; condition unclear.[120]
February 11, 2012 Tenzin Choedron 18 Nun of Mame Dechen Chokorling. In Ngaba, Amdo. Taken away by soldiers and police, and died shortly afterward.[121][122]
February 13, 2012 Lobsang Gyatso 19 Monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Current status unknown.[123][124]
March 4, 2012 Rinchen 32 Occupation unknown. In Ngaba, Amdo. Died on the spot.[125]
March 5, 2012 Dorje (Dorjee) 18 Occupation unknown. In Ngaba, Amdo. Deceased.[126]
March 10, 2012 Gapey (Gepey) 18 Monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Died on the spot.[127]
March 13, 2012 Jamyang Palden 30s Monk of Rongpo monastery, Rebkong, Amdo. Current status unknown.[128]
March 16, 2012 Lobsang Tsultrim 20 Monk of Kirti Monastery. In Ngaba, Amdo. Died in custody.[129]
March 17, 2012 Sonam Thargyal (Dargye, Dhargay) 44 Farmer in Rebkong, Amdo. Died on the spot.[130][131]
March 24, 2012 L Bhoja Naik 21   India For statehood of Telangana MBA student set himself on fire in front of his college. Died on the spot.[132]
March 26, 2012 Jampel Yeshi 20 Political situation in Tibet Layperson in Delhi. Died 2 days later in hospital.[133][134]
March 26, 2012 Rajmouli 40 For statehood of Telangana [135][136]
March 26, 2012 B.R. Goud n/a [135]
March 27, 2012 Pallavi 17 Later died in hospital.[137]
March 27, 2012 Kalakanchi Ilaiah 30 Scrap dealer.[138]
March 28, 2012 K Uppalaiah 30 [139]
March 28, 2012 Lobsang Sherab 20   China Political situation in Tibet Monk of Kirti Monastery.[140] In Ngaba, Amdo. Died on the spot.[141][142]
March 28, 2012 Sripuram Srikanth 23   India For statehood of Telangana Died on March 30 at the Osmania General Hospital.[143]
March 30, 2012 Tenpa Dhargyal (Darjey) 22   China Political situation in Tibet Monk of Tsodun monastery, Barkham, Amdo. Forcibly removed to hospital by Chinese security forces. Current status unknown.[144][145]
March 30, 2012 Chimey Palden (Chime) 21 Monk of Tsodun monastery, Barkham, Amdo. Forcibly removed to hospital by Chinese security forces.[145][146] Died later that day around midnight.[147]
March 30, 2012 Shyamapuri Shankar 24   India For statehood of Telangana [148]
March 30, 2012 Bandavath Suresh 25 For statehood of Telangana Suffered 50% burns.[149]
May 27, 2012 Dorjee Tseten and Dargye 19 & 25   China Political situation in Tibet In front of the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa[150]
July 14, 2012 Moshe Silman 57   Israel Social justice march in Tel Aviv Social justice activist, suffered 90% burns.[151] Died of his wounds on July 20 in an Israeli hospital.[152]
July 16, 2012 Zion Vaknin[153] 46 Social injustice protest At Beersheba's city hall, in protest of debts.[154]
July 18, 2012 Valentina Gerasimovna 57   Russia A woman attempted to self-immolate at the public reception center of the ruling United Russia party in Novosibirsk. Earlier, she addressed the party's public reception center for legal advice as an apartment buyer.[155][156] Died in a hospital.[157]
July 20, 2012 Akiva Mafi 45   Israel Social injustice protest Akiva Mafi[158] (45) Disabled IDF veteran sets himself on fire in Yehud, on behalf of wounded veterans.[159][160] Died August 1, 2012.[161] New agency established to prevent more cases.
July 30, 2012 Đặng Thị Kim Liêng 64   Vietnam Against 2011 crackdown on Vietnamese youth activists[162] Tạ Phong Tần's mother. Set herself on fire in the early morning, died en route to the hospital in the afternoon of the same Monday.[163]
February 18, 2013 Trayan Marechkov 26   Bulgaria Part of the 2013 Bulgarian protests Died on the spot, at a central crossroads, in front of the central office of a private bank in Veliko Tarnovo.[164][165]
February 20, 2013 Plamen Goranov 36 Part of the 2013 Bulgarian protests against the Borisov cabinet Protested corruption and monopolies,[166] and demanded the resignation of Varna's mayor Kiril Yordanov and the Municipal Council.[167] Mountain climber and photographer. Set himself alight in front of the Varna municipality. Died 11 days later in hospital.[168][169]
February 26, 2013 Ventzislav Vasilev 53 Part of the 2013 Bulgarian protests Father of five.[170] Set himself on fire in Radnevo. Died in hospital two weeks later.
March 13, 2013 Dimitar Dimitrov 51 Set himself on fire in front of the Presidential Palace in Sofia. Hospitalized with life-threatening injuries.[171][172]
March 20, 2013 Todor Yovchev 40 Died on March 22[173]
May 24, 2013 Bowatte Indarathana 30   Sri Lanka Against the slaughtering of cattle and forced conversion of Buddhists to other religions in Sri Lanka[174]
June 12, 2013 Andrzej Filipiak 56   Poland Unemployed receiving no help from the state Occurred across the street from the Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland[175][176][177]
June 20, 2014 Thu Hoang 71   United States In apparent response to the Hai Yang Shi You 981 standoff Apparent protest by a Vietnamese man of a Chinese state-owned oil rig being placed into waters contested by Vietnam in the South China Sea[178]
June 23, 2014 Charles R. Moore 79 Social injustice[179] Set himself alight in a strip mall parking lot, died upon arrival at hospital.
November 3, 2014 Lidia Petrova 38   Bulgaria Social injustice protest In Sofia. Her motives for self-immolation currently remains unknown. She died a few days later.
March 14, 2015 Younes Asakere 34   Iran Discrimination of Ahwazi Arabs Self-immolated after local authorities confiscated his vendor stall in Khorramshahr. Died on March 22.[180] Inspired a mass protest which resulted in arrests of some 1,000 people and further self-immolations.[181]
August 12, 2015 Choi Yeon-yeol 80   South Korea Japanese colonization of Korea and military conduct during World War II[182] Set himself on fire in a flower bed near the Japanese embassy in Seoul during an anti-Japan protest by "comfort women" (survivors of WWII Japanese military brothels). Injuries sustained were not life-threatening. Condition Pending.[183]
October 18, 2015 Khodayar Amini 30   Australia Australian refugee policy He self-immolated in Melbourne during a video call to his advocates.[184]
October 24, 2015 Erlan Bektibaev 20   Kazakhstan Social injustice Doused himself with gasoline and set himself on fire on October 24 in front of the Taraz headquarters of the ruling Nur Otan party in Taraz. Bektibayev was rushed to hospital, but later died of his burns.
February 28, 2016 Dorjee Tsering 16   India Political situation in Tibet Survived and recovered in a New Delhi hospital. American presidential candidate Hillary Clinton held up his photograph while speaking to a Tibetan advocacy group.[185]
February 28, 2016 Kalsang Wangdu 18   China Political situation in Tibet Died en route to a hospital in Chengdu.[185]
March 19, 2016 Charles Ingram 51   United States Corruption at the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Military veteran walked nine miles to a military veteran hospital and self-immolated in the hospital's parking lot.[186]
April 27, 2016 Omid Masoumali 23   Nauru Australian refugee policy Iranian refugee self-immolated at an Australian refugee detention camp during a visit to the camp by representatives of a UNHCR fundraising arm (Australia for UNHCR) who told the refugees to expect to remain on Nauru for "another ten years".[187] After more than 24 hours without adequate medical attention he was airlifted by private contractor to Brisbane, Australia where he died on 29 April 2016 from his burns.[188]
May 2, 2016 Hodan Yasi 21 In an Australian refugee detention camp. Woman from Somalia (variously referred to as Hadon/Hodan and Yasin/Yasi) was airlifted from Nauru to Brisbane[189] but her condition as at late May 2016 is shrouded in secrecy. It seems she may still be alive, since her death would have to be reported under Queensland Law and an inquest into her death held as she would be deemed to be a "Death in Custody" had she died.[citation needed]
May 19, 2017 Unknown 54   Germany Islamization of Germany Died in hospital. Police said the man had scrawled slogans on his car along the lines of "Never again war on German soil" and "Amri is only the tip of the iceberg" — a reference to Anis Amri, the Tunisian who attacked a Christmas market in Berlin and whom authorities had previously been unable to deport.[190]
July 15, 2017 Tenzin Choeying 20   India Political situation in Tibet He survived but suffered 50% burns, but died nine days later from his injuries.[191]
July 29, 2017 Pasang Dhondup 49 Died in Dharamshala[192]
October 19, 2017 Piotr Szczęsny 54   Poland Rule of Law and Justice political party Leaflets[193][194] were strewn around him on the ground outside of the Palace of Culture and Science, and a speaker was broadcasting a song by a 1990s Polish rock band titled "I love freedom".[195][196][197]
January 15, 2018 Dmitry Rudov 39   Russia Corruption of government After being sacked from Gazprom's subsidiary and unsuccessfully appealing to President Putin, he set himself on fire in front of Ishimbay's City Hall in Bashkortostan. Died in hospital the next day.[198]
April 14, 2018 David Buckel 60   United States Environmental pollution

Buckel was involved in environmental causes, which he alluded to in a note sent to The New York Times as the reason he decided to end his life by self-immolation with fossil fuels.[199][200]

May 20, 2018 Fathi Harb 20   Palestine Economic situation in Gaza Died on May 23.[201][202]
June 20, 2018 Chloe Sagal 31   United States Homelessness and mental health issues Several days after threatening self-harm with a machete, Sagal walked into a downtown Oregon Park, read a statement regarding homelessness and mental health before covering herself with fluid and setting herself alight.[203]
June 26, 2018 John Watts 58 Corruption at the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Military veteran self-immolated on the steps of the Georgia state Capitol to protest corruption at the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.[204]
August 3, 2018 Vatan Karabash 47–48 Crimea (disputed) Russian annexation of Crimea and repressions of the Crimean Tatars Karabash set himself on fire in public, declaring Russia policies to be lawless; he had previously expressed anger at plans for demolition of Crimean Tatar houses in Russian-annexed Crimea, which had been deemed "illegal" since they were built before deported Crimean Tatars were permitted to return. Bystanders put out the flames and the injuries were reported to be non-fatal.[205]
August 15, 2018 Unknown 50s   United Kingdom Housing, homelessness A woman in her fifties (later identified under the pseudonym "Melanie Smith"), under threat of eviction and suffering from mental health issues set herself on fire at the housing office of Barnet London Borough Council. She died in intensive care several months later, with council employees reportedly having been ordered not to discuss the incident with journalists.[206][207]
September 19, 2018 Nicholas McCrary 29   United States Involuntary celibacy and mental health McCrary was a prolific YouTuber who had autism and whose videos were popular with “blackcels” (black incels). He also used the pseudonym Baraka Mckray, and accused black women of being “prejudiced” against autistic men such as himself. [208][209]
January 18, 2019 Name missing 54   Czech Republic In memory of Jan Palach who burned himself to death in 1969, protesting the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia He suffered 30% burns after setting himself on fire at the central Wenceslas Square of Prague on the 50th anniversary of Jan Palach's death from his self-immolation protest against the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia. According to Czech authorities, "he said it was only a remembrance to Jan Palach".[210]
May 29, 2019 Arnav Gupta 33   United States An Indian-origin resident of Bethesda, Maryland died in hospital that day after setting himself on fire near the White House in Washington, D.C. while wearing a USA T-shirt. The Washington Post described his actions as "an unmistakable protest, the loudest, most spectacular cry that people in pain can come up with."[211]
July 19, 2019 Unknown 70s   South Korea Unknown A man used 20 liters of fuel to set himself on fire in his car in the early morning outside the Japanese embassy in Seoul. He died several hours later in the hospital.[212]
September 9, 2019 Sahar Khodayari 29   Iran The right for women in Iran to attend a soccer match alongside men The Iranian female soccer fan died that day, one week after setting herself on fire outside an Iranian court, reportedly after learning she may have to serve a six-month sentence for trying to enter a soccer stadium (alongside men).[213]
September 10, 2019 Albert Razin 79   Russia The declining status and use of the Udmurt language in Russia. The scholar and activist set himself on fire outside the State Council building in Izhevsk, Udmurt Republic, as the regional government was considering passing a bill to reduce the status of the indigenous Udmurt language in the republic. Razin died the same day.[214][215]
October 23, 2019 unknown    Switzerland In protest of the Turkish invasion of Syria A Syrian Kurdish man set himself on fire in front of the seat of the UNHCR in Geneva.[216]
November 10, 2019 Anas K. 22   France Student living costs, anti-fascism A 22 year-old man enrolled at Lyon 2 University set himself on fire in front of a university restaurant in response to being unable to sustain himself on €450 a month. In a post on Facebook, he blamed Emmanuel Macron, François Hollande, Nicolas Sarkozy and the EU for having "killed" him, and also attacked Marine Le Pen and media figures for creating fear, also urging readers to "Fight against the rise of fascism which divides us, and against liberalism which creates inequalities". He was admitted to hospital with 90% burns over his body.[217][218]
June 16, 2020 unknown 48   Poland Unknown A 48-year-old man set himself on fire shortly after talking to journalists outside of the Sejm building in Warsaw, Poland. [219]
July 27, 2020 Arie den Dekker 54   Netherlands Murder witness, removed from family, turned homeless Den Dekker had witnessed a murder in 2018. Following this, his house was torched multiple times and he was put into a witness protection program. Unable to be with his family and having his pleas ignored by the municipality and the government, Den Dekker protested in front of Oss' city hall multiple times, throwing dead fish inside, dousing himself in cow fecies and committing other acts of despair on multiple occasions. On July 27th he committed suicide by self-immolation in front of the city hall.[220]

See alsoEdit

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External linksEdit

  • "The Self Immolators" – a chronological list of biographies and last statements of known self immolators 1967 to 2013