List of political parties in Taiwan
The organization of political parties in Taiwan are governed by the Political Parties Act, enacted on 6 December 2017. Prior to the passage of the Political Parties Act, political organizations in Taiwan followed the Civil Associations Act, promulgated in 1989. The Political Parties Act defines political parties as "political groups consisting of ROC citizens with a common political ideology who safeguard the free, democratic, constitutional order, assist in shaping the political will of the people, and nominate candidates for election to public office."
Groups established when the Civil Associations Act was in effect should have revised their charters to comply with the Political Parties Act by 7 December 2019. To be compliant with the Political Parties Act, political groups must additionally convene a representative assembly or party congress for four consecutive years and have followed relevant laws and regulations governing the nomination of candidates to campaign in elections for public office for the same time period. Within one year of filing for political party status, a political group must complete legal person registration. The Ministry of the Interior requires that political parties submit annual property and financial statements. Political organizations that do not meet these regulations were dissolved and removed from the registry of political parties.
Parties with national or local representationEdit
- National representation includes the President, the Vice President, and the 113 national legislator seats in the Legislative Yuan.
- Local representation includes the 22 mayors/magistrates executive positions and 912 local legislator (councils) seats of the 6 special municipalities, 3 cities and 13 counties.
|Party||Representation||Party leader||Blue–green position||Notes|
|Democratic Progressive Party
民主進步黨 Mínzhǔ Jìnbù Dǎng
Bîn-chú Chìn-pō͘ Tóng
|6||238||Cho Jung-tai||Centre to Centre-left||Liberalism, Taiwanese nationalism. Leader of the Pan-Green Coalition in Taiwan, also a member of Liberal International.|
中國國民黨 Zhōngguó Guómíndǎng
|38||15||394||Wu Den-yih||Centre-right||Conservatism, Chinese nationalism, Three Principles of the People. Leader of the Pan-Blue Coalition in Taiwan, also a member of International Democrat Union.|
|Taiwan People's Party
台灣民眾黨 Táiwān Mínzhòng Dǎng
Tâi-oân Bîn-chiòng Tóng
|5||1||—||Ko Wen-je||Centre||Big tent, Liberalism, Pluralism. Unaligned to any political coalitions in Taiwan.|
|New Power Party
時代力量 Shídài Lìliàng
|3||—||16||Hsu Yung-ming||Centre-left to Left-wing||Progressivism, Social liberalism, Taiwanese nationalism. Considered a third force, unaligned political party, though aspects of its ideology are shared with the Pan-Green Coalition.|
|Taiwan Statebuilding Party
台灣基進 Táiwān Jījìng
|1||—||—||Chen Yi-chi||Left-wing||Taiwanese nationalism. Considered a member of the Pan-Green Coalition.|
|People First Party
親民黨 Qīnmín Dǎng
|—||—||8||James Soong||Centre to Centre-right||Liberal conservatism, Chinese nationalism. Considered a member of the Pan-Blue Coalition, now functions more independently from the Kuomintang. Sometimes referred to as the Orange Group.|
|Non-Partisan Solidarity Union
無黨團結聯盟 Wúdǎng Tuánjié Liánméng
Bû-tóng Thoân-kiat Liân-bêng
|—||—||5||Lin Pin-kuan||Centre to Centre-right||Conservative liberalism. Considered a member of the Pan-Blue Coalition.|
|Taiwan Solidarity Union
台灣團結聯盟 Táiwān Tuánjié Liánméng
Tâi-oân Thoân-kiat Liân-bêng
|—||—||5||Liu Yi-te||Centre-left to Left-wing||Progressivism, Social liberalism, Taiwanese nationalism, Taiwan independence. A member of Pan-Green Coalition.|
|Green Party Taiwan
台灣綠黨 Táiwān Lǜ Dǎng
Tâi-ôan Le̍k Tóng
|Centre-left||Green politics. A member of the Social Welfare National Alliance in Taiwan, also a member of Global Greens.|
|Congress Party Alliance
國會政黨聯盟 Guóhuì Zhèngdǎng Liánméng
Kok-hōe Chèng-tóng Liân-bêng
|—||—||3||Wujue Miaotian||Right-wing||Liberal conservatism, Three Principles of the People. Considered a member of the Pan-Blue Coalition, closer to the Orange Group.|
勞動黨 Láodòng Dǎng
|—||—||2||Wu Rong-yuan||Far-left||Communism, Chinese nationalism, Chinese reunification, Anti-Taiwan independence. Unaligned to any political coalitions in Taiwan, also a member of International Communist Seminar.|
新黨 Xīn Dăng
|—||—||2||Yok Mu-ming||Right-wing||Conservatism, Chinese nationalism, Chinese reunification. A member of the Pan-Blue Coalition.|
|For Public Good Party
中華民族致公黨 Zhōnghuá Mínzú Zhìgōng Dǎng
Tiong-hôa Bîn-cho̍k Tì-kong Tóng
|—||—||1||Tsai Chun-sheng||Right-wing||Chinese nationalism, Chinese reunification. Unaligned to any political coalitions in Taiwan.|
|Social Democratic Party
社會民主黨 Shèhuì Mínzhǔ Dǎng
Siā-hōe Bîn-chú Tóng
|—||—||1||Ting Yung-yan||Centre-left||Social democracy. A member of the Social Welfare National Alliance in Taiwan.|
Full list of registered political partiesEdit
Here is a full list of registered political parties according to the Ministry of the Interior, by order of registration. Dates indicate date of founding.
Taiwan under Japanese ruleEdit
Political party movements in Taiwan started in the late 1910s after World War I, during the Taishō period (Taishō Democracy). Taiwanese political movements at this time were to modify the discriminatory colonial laws established in earlier years, and to setup local autonomy systems like in Mainland Japan. The largest political movement at this time was the Petition Movement for the Establishment of a Taiwanese Parliament. At the same time, the International Communist Movement also influenced Taiwan, many Left-wing parties and organizations were also established.
Notable Taiwanese parties during this time are:
- Taiwan Dōkakai (臺灣同化會, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tâi-oân Tông-hòa-hōe, Japanese: Taiwan Dōkakai)
- New People Society (新民會, Taiwanese Hokkien: Sin-bîn-hōe, Japanese: Shinminkai)
- Taiwanese Cultural Association (臺灣文化協會, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tâi-oân Bûn-hòa Hia̍p-hōe, Japanese: Taiwan Bunka Kyōkai)
- Taiwanese Federation of Workers' Unions (臺灣工友總聯盟, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tâi-oân Kang-iú Chóng Liân-bêng, Japanese: Taiwan Kōyū Sōrenmei)
- Taiwanese Peasants Union (臺灣農民組合, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tâi-oân Lông-bîn Cho͘-ha̍p, Japanese: Taiwan Nōmin Kumiai)
- Taiwanese Communist Party (臺灣共產黨, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tâi-oân Kiōng-sán Tóng, Japanese: Taiwan Kyōsan-tō)
- Taiwanese People's Party (臺灣民眾黨, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tâi-oân Bîn-chiòng Tóng, Japanese: Taiwan Minshu-tō)
- Taiwan Local Autonomy Union (臺灣地方自治聯盟, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tâi-oân Tē-hng Chū-tī Liân-bêng, Japanese: Taiwan Tihō-jiti Renmei)
At the same time, the political parties in Mainland Japan also affected Taiwan. Those who served as Governor-General of Taiwan were also members of the House of Peers of the Imperial Diet (帝国議会). Party affiliations of the Governor-Generals were:
- Rikken Seiyūkai (立憲政友会, Taiwanese Hokkien: Li̍p-hiàn Chèng-iú-hōe)
- Kenseikai (憲政会, Taiwanese Hokkien: Hiàn-chèng-hōe)
- Rikken Minseitō (立憲民政党, Taiwanese Hokkien: Li̍p-hiàn Bîn-chèng Tóng)
- Imperial Rule Assistance Association (大政翼贊會, Taisei Yokusankai, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tāi-chèng-i̍k-chàn-hōe)
with its Taiwanese branch
Taiwan after World War IIEdit
Taiwan was ceded back to the Republic of China, founded in 1912 on the mainland, on 25 October 1945. From 1945 until 1949, political parties in China which had operated covertly under Japanese rule were permitted to operate in Taiwan province. The ruling Kuomintang set up formal branches in Taiwan, and so did other major political parties including the Communist Party of China (in 1946). Although it had no formal connection with the Taiwanese Communist Party suppressed by Japanese authorities in the 1930s (which was instead affiliated with the Communist Party of Japan), the Taiwan branch of the Communist Party of China absorbed many former members of the Taiwanese Communist Party. However, against the backdrop of the Chinese Civil War which erupted soon after the retrocession of Taiwan, the Kuomintang-controlled Republic of China government attempted to restrict the operation of Communist Party of China cells in Taiwan, and other opposition parties.
Taiwan after 1949Edit
With the Republic of China government rapidly losing the Chinese civil war against the Communist Party of China, the ruling Kuomintang began preparing to move the government to Taiwan in 1949. Taiwan was placed under martial law from 19 May 1949 to 15 July 1987. The Taiwan provincial branch of the Communist Party of China was particularly targeted, and by 1952 had been completely destroyed.
- Kuomintang (Chinese: 中國國民黨; pinyin: Zhōngguó Guómíndǎng; Taiwanese Hokkien: Tiong-kok Kok-bîn-tóng)[note 2]
- Chinese Youth Party (中國青年黨; pinyin: Zhōngguó Qīngniándǎng; Taiwanese Hokkien: Tiong-kok Chheng-liân-tóng)
- China Democratic Socialist Party (中國民主社會黨 pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínzhǔ Shèhuìdǎng, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tiong-kok Bîn-chú Siā-hoē-tóng)[note 3]
All other oppositions who were not allowed not form a political party could only be listed as "independent candidate". These movements were called Tangwai movement (黨外, literally outside of Kuomintang). A notable exception in this era was
- Democratic Progressive Party (民主進步黨; Taiwanese Hokkien: Bîn-chú Chìn-pō͘ Tóng; pinyin: Mínzhǔ Jìnbù Dǎng).
It was established "illegally" in 28 September 1986, then was legalized in the next year by the lifting of the martial law.
As Taiwan democratized in the late 1980s, the number of legally registered political parties in Taiwan had increased exponentially and continued to increase year by year, indicating a liberal democracy and high political freedom in Taiwan.
In recent decades, Taiwan's political campaigns can be classified to two ideological blocs
- The Pan-Green Coalition, led by Democratic Progressive Party, favors Taiwanization and the Taiwan independence movement, eventually aiming to establish a Taiwanese sovereign state.
- The Pan-Blue Coalition, led by Kuomintang, is in favor of building closer ties with China and the eventual Chinese unification under the Government of the Republic of China.
The majority in both coalitions state a desire to maintain the status quo for now. Many minor parties in Taiwan are unaligned with either coalition.
On December 6, 2017, the Political Parties Act (政黨法) was enforced. The Act requires the political parties to maintain a number of compliance, including
- File a declaration to the Ministry of the Interior, AND register as a legal person to a District Court,
- Convene representative assembly or party congress at least once in a four-year period,
- Nominate candidates in national or local elections at least once in a four-year period, and
- Compliance on funding source, accounting, and financial transparency.
By the end of 2018, among the 343 existing political party declarations: 220 have met the new compliance, 56 chose to dissolve or transformed to a national political association.
- named after the vision 天下為公 (about the Great Unity) in the Book of Rites
- KMT's prior body was Revive China Society (興中會; xīngzhōnghuì), founded on 24 November 1894. It officially renamed itself as China Nationalist Party (中國國民黨) in 1919.
- The prior body of China Democratic Socialist Party (中國民主社會黨) was China National Socialist Party (中國國家社會黨), which was founded on 16 April 1932. It renamed itself as China Democratic Socialist Party (中國民主社會黨) on 15 August 1946.
- Chen, Chun-hua; Liu, Kuan-lin (10 November 2017). "Legislature passes Political Party Act". Central News Agency. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- Ku, Chuan; Kao, Evelyn (17 November 2019). "46 groups yet to transition to political parties as required by law". Central News Agency. Retrieved 18 November 2019. Republished as: "2020 ELECTIONS: MOI says 46 political groups have yet to make shift". Taipei Times. 19 November 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.