List of massacres in India
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A massacre is the deliberate slaughter of members of one group by one or more members of another more powerful group. A massacre may be indiscriminate or highly methodical in application. A massacre is a single event, though it may occur during the course of an extended military campaign or war. A massacre is separate from a battle (an event in which opposing sides fight), but may follow in its immediate aftermath, when one side has surrendered or lost the ability to fight, yet the victors persist in killing their opponents.
|Bakthiyar's invasion of Bihar||1202||Gahadavala||Unknown||Bakhtiyar Khalji attacked a fort, which he discovered was a Vihara, likely Nalanda. He also captured Vikramashila and wrought havoc there.|||
|Massacre in south Delhi||1265||South Delhi,||100,000 Hindu Rajputs of Mewat||Almost all the Rajputs of Mewat were completely exterminated by Delhi Sultan Ghiyas ud din Balban during the massacre.|||
|Siege of Chittorgarh (1303)||1303||Chittor, Guhila kingdom||30,000||Alauddin Khalji ordered the massacre of 30,000 people of Chittor after besieging and capturing it, according to Amir Khusrau.|||
|Massacre of Srirangam||1323||Srirangam, Pandyan kingdom||12,000 Hindu ascetics||12,000 Hindu ascetics at or around the temple were slaughtered by Muhammad bin Tughluq's soldiers while they city was sacked.|||
|Mass killings in Bengal by Firuz Shah Tughlaq||1353–13??||Bengal Sultanate||180,000 Hindus||Firuz Shah invaded Bengal after it rebelled and paid for the 180,000 heads of Hindus massacred by his soldiers.|||
|Battle of Mudgal||1365||Mudgal||Unknown||Bukka Raya I seized the town and put the garrison to the sword.|||
|Massacres around Vijayanagara||1365–1367||Areas surrounding Vijayanagara,||500,000 Hindus||500,000 inhabitants were massacred in all the districts surrounding Vijayanagara by the Bahmani Sultanate soldiers. In Raichur Doab alone, 70,000 Hindus were massacred by the army of the Bahmani Sultanate in response to killing of the garrison of Mudgal.|||
|Battle of Bhatner||1398||Bhatner fort,||10,000 Hindus||10,000 Hindu inhabitants were killed after some of them started resisting the demand of paying ransom to Timurid forces.|||
|Execution of slaves by Timurid forces||1398||Loni, Ghaziabad,||100,000 Hindu captives||Before the battle of Delhi commenced, Timur ordered his soldiers to kill all the 100,000 captives they caught to avoid a rebellion before the attack on Delhi.|||
|Timurid campaign in Haryana||1398||Haryana (then part of||Unknown||Thousands of residents who fled mostly non-Muslim town of Sarsuti (Sirsa) were chased and killed by Timur's forces. In Fatehabad, a large number of civilians staying behind were killed. Thousands of Ahirs resisting him at Ahruni were killed. In addition to 200 Jats at Tohana and further 2000 who fled were killed with their wives and children taken captive. Reaching Kaithal, he massacred or plundered many people. On the way he was joined by another wing of his army from Kabul which massacred or plundered villages that resisted. From there he went to the fort of Assandh whilst destroying all villages along the way.|||
|Timurid massacre of Delhi||1398||Delhi,||Unknown||Hindus of the city were killed or enslaved. After the massacre ended, the survivors either died of famine and disease and Timur's forces further enslaved many people.|||
|Battle of Meerut||1399||Meerut,||Unknown (all of the inhabitants)||The massacre took place during the battle for Meerut for with all the Hindus and the inhabitants of the fort being put to sword.|||
|Battle of Ahmednagar||1559-60||Ahmednagar Sultanate||Unknown||According to Firishta, the Vijayanagar army of Ram Raya allied with Bijapur laid waste to the Ahmednagar's country so thoroughly that from Parenda to Junnar and from Ahmednagar to Daulatabad, not a vestige of population left. They also massacred and looted Muslims in Ahmednagar. During the siege of Ahmednagar fort, Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur and Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah of Golconda also laid waste to the adjacent territory.|||
|Massacre of Garha||1560||Garha-Katanga Kingdom (now Narsinghpur district)||48,000 Hindu peasants and Rajputs||Ordered by Emperor Akbar, in the early years of his reign.|||
|Sack of Vijayanagara||1565||Vijayanagara,||Unknown||Vijayanagara was sacked and razed by Deccan Sultanates after Battle of Talikota. Widespread destruction of Hindu temples and buildings also took place in the city, destroying most of the large temple centres.|||
|Siege of Chittorgarh||February 1568||Chittor Fort,||30,000 Hindus||About 30,000 non-combatants were ordered to be executed while 8,000 Rajput women immolated themselves as part of jauhar.|||
|Massacres during Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire||1738–1740||Northern India,||300,000 Indians||Persian invaders massacred Indian civilians.|||
|Maratha expeditions in Bengal||1741–1751||Bengal Subah||Unknown (Est. 400,000 people)||A 1755 Dutch account estimates that over 400,000 people were killed in Bengal and Bihar including textile workers, merchants and other inhabitants.|||
|Chhōtā Ghallūghārā||1746||Lahore||10,000 Sikhs||7,000 Sikhs were killed in battle with armies of Diwan of Lahore. 3,000 were captured and executed in Lahore.|||
|Massacres after the Battle of Panipat||1761||Panipat, Haryana,||40,000–70,000 Maratha (Hindu) soldiers||About 22,000 Maratha women and young children enslaved by the Afghans.||[page needed]|
|Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā||1763||Punjab||Est. 25,000–30,000 Sikhs||Perpetrated by Afghan Muslim forces of Ahmad Shah Durrani.|||
|Mangalore Christian massacre||1784–1799||Srirangapatna,||5,600 Christians||Persecution of Mangalore Catholic Christians by Tipu Sultan.|||
|Massacre of Mandyam Iyengars||1784–1799||Srirangapatna, Mandya district,||700-800 Iyengars||About 800 men, women and children of Mandyam Iyengar community were killed by Tipu Sultan at Srirangapatna.||[better source needed]|
|Delhi Palace, peepal tree massacre||16 May 1857||Delhi, Mughal Empire||~ 40 - 52 Europeans||Bahadur Shah's palace servants executed the European civilians captured in the previous day's riots.|
|Massacres by General Neill||June–July 1857||Allahabad, Kanpur and surrounding areas, Company rule in India||Thousands of Indian mutineers, suspected rebels and civilians||The massacres at Allahabad took place before the Bibighar massacre; the ones at Kanpur after it|||
|Siege of Cawnpore,||5–25 June 1857||Kanpur, Company rule in India||~ 1,000||Europeans soldiers, merchants, engineers, their wives and children, along with the East India Company sepoys, who were either Christian or refused to mutiny, and join Nana Sahib|
|Satichaura Ghat massacre||27 June 1857||Kanpur, Company rule in India||~ 200 British officers||Massacre by Nana Sahib's forces|||
|Bibighar massacre||15 July 1857||Kanpur, Company rule in India||~ 200 British women and children||The victims were prisoners under Nana Sahib's forces. The massacre was carried out by a group of butchers, but who ordered it remains unclear.|||
|Kuka (Namdhari) massacre at Malerkotla||17–18 January 1872||Malerkotla, Punjab, British Raj||~ 65 Kuka (Namdhari) Killed||Mr. Cowan (the Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana) and Mr. Forsyth (the Commissioner of Ambala) ordered the Namdharis to be executed with cannons, without any trial, on 17 and 18 January 1872 respectively.|||
|Jallianwala Bagh massacre||13 April 1919||Amritsar, Punjab, British Raj||379-381 dead, ~1,100 Indians.||Reginald Edward Harry Dyer ordered a unit of the British Indian Army to open fire on a unarmed, nonviolent group of protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims.|
|Moplah Rebellion||Oct 1921||Malabar, Kerala, British Raj||2,337–10,000 Hindus (100,000 Hindus permanently migrated).||Khilafat Movement considered as main cause.|
|Kohat riots||9–11 September 1924||Kohat, North-West Frontier Province, British Raj||155 Hindus and Sikhs were killed (100,000 Hindus permanently migrated).|
|Calcutta riots||15 July 1926||Calcutta, Bengal, British Raj||100+ dead, 200+ injured||A Muslim mob attacked a Hindu possession, later broken up by a mounted police charge on the Muslim rioters.|||
|United Provinces riots||1923 to 1927||United Provinces, British Raj||thousands dead and injured||88 separate communal riots, including the: 4 September 1927 Nagpur riots, 3–7 May 1927 Lahore, November 1927 Lahore.|||
|Nagpur riots||4 September 1927||Nagpur, Bombay Presidency, British Raj||22 killed, 100+ injured|
|Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre||23 April 1930||Peshawar, British Raj||1 British Indian Army dispatch rider, and ~ 20 - 230 protesters||After a British Indian Army despatch rider was killed and burned in the Bizarre two armoured cars were ordered to drive in and open fire on the protesters.|
|Calcutta Riots||15 August – 17 September 1946||West Bengal, British Raj||7,000 to 10,000 Hindus and Muslims.||Hindus and Muslims clashed during a protest by All India Muslim League termed as Direct Action Day.|||
|Noakhali riots||September–October 1946||East Bengal, British Raj||5,000 Hindus||Muslim community attacked Hindu community for seizing wealth and forced conversion to Islam. Around 1,50,000 to 750,000 survivors were sheltered in temporary relief camps|||
|Bihar Massacre||30 October – 7 November 1946||Bihar, British Raj||2,000–3,000 Muslims||By Hindus in reaction to Noakhali riots|||
|Garhmukteshwar Anti-Muslim Violence||November 1946||United Provinces, British Raj||at least 214 Muslims||Partition of the country into India and Pakistan was looming.|||
|Partition of India||1947||Punjab, Delhi and Sindh, British Raj, Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan||~ 200,000 - 2,000,000 people||Massacre of Sikhs and Hindus by Muslims in West Punjab and of Muslims by Sikhs and Hindus in East Punjab. The communal violence resulted in the murder of 20,000–25,000 Muslims in Delhi by Hindus. UNHCR estimates 14 million were displaced by the violence.|
|Jammu massacres||September to November 1947||Jammu Division, Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)||20,000–100,000 Muslims|||
|Anti-Brahmin riots of 1948||January 1948||Paschim Maharashtra||Unknown||Post the Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi on 30 January 1948, at the hands of Nathuram Godse, a Chitpavan Brahmin, there were heavy reprisals on the community by Congress supporters in notable regions of Western Maharashtra like Pune, Satara, Kolhapur, Sangli, Ahmednagar, Solapur. Pre-existing social tensions between the castes, resentment among non-Brahmins, especially Marathas, towards the socio-political dominance of Brahmins in the region was said to be a major cause. Aspects of the violence included arson, looting of Brahmin households, assaults on Brahmins, the nature of which turned fatal in numerous instances.|||
|Hyderabad massacre of 1948||1948||Hyderabad State||27,000 - 40,000 Militant Razakars killed||Killed by army and police in the state to control rioting Muslims who were part of a radical militia called Razakars hired by Nizam Government, many were arrested after the Nizam was defeated.|||
|1966 anti-cow slaughter agitation||7 November 1966||New Delhi||375-5000 Hindus killed||Hindu Sadhus and protestors killed by government|||
|Kilvenmani massacre||25 December 1968||Nagapattinam Tamil Nadu||44 killed||Striking agricultural workers murdered by a gang, allegedly by their landlords.|
|1969 Gujarat riots||1969||Gujarat||Officially 660 total; 430 Muslims, 24 Hindus, 58 others/unidentified casualties||Hindu-Muslim riots. 1074 injured and over 48,000 lost their property. Unofficial reports claim as high as 2000 deaths. Muslim community suffered the majority of the losses. Out of the 512 deaths reported in the police complaints, 430 were Muslims. Property worth 42 million rupees destroyed during the riots, with Muslims losing 32 million worth of property.|||
|Turkman gate demolition and rioting||1976||Delhi||Officially 6, unofficially 15 killed by police (nearly all Muslims).||Killing of Delhi residents who refused to move residence.|||
|Marichjhapi incident||January 31, 1979||West Bengal||Official figures 2, Hindustan Times quotes 50 to 1000 Hindu refugees. Actual numbers estimated to be around 3000-5000.||Killing of refugees who came from East Pakistan.|||
|Moradabad riots||1980||Uttar Pradesh||Officially 400; unofficial estimates as high as 2500.||Started as a Muslim-Police conflict; later turned into a Hindu-Muslim riot.|||
|Mandai massacre||1980||Tripura||255-500 Bengali Hindu refugees|||
|Nellie massacre||18 February 1983||Assam||2,191 Bengali Muslims||In Assam|||
|Train Passenger massacre I (part of the terrorist incidents in Punjab)||23 February 1984||Punjab||11 Hindus|
|1984 anti-Sikh riots||31 October – 4 November 1984||Primarily Delhi but also other parts of India||2,800 to 8,000 Sikhs all over India||Series of pogroms by Congress supporters after Assassination of Indira Gandhi.|
|Hondh-Chillar massacre (part of the 1984 anti-Sikh riots)||2 November 1984||Hondh-Chillar, Haryana||32 Sikhs||Rioting by Indian National Congress Party members after Assassination of Indira Gandhi.|
|Desri Ground massacre (part of the terrorist incidents in Punjab)||28 March 1986||Ludhiana, Punjab||13 Hindus|
|Mallian massacre (part of the terrorist incidents in Punjab)||29 March 1986||Jalandhar, Punjab||20 Hindu labourers|
|Bus Passenger massacre III (part of the terrorist incidents in Punjab)||25 July 1986||Mukatsar, Punjab||15 Hindus|
|Bus Passenger massacre IV (part of the terrorist incidents in Punjab)||30 November 1986||Khudda, Punjab||24 Hindus|
|Hashimpura massacre||22 May 1987||Meerut, Uttar Pradesh||42 Muslims|
|Bus Passenger massacre V (part of the terrorist incidents in Punjab)||July 1987||Fatehbad, Haryana||80 Hindus|
|Jagdev Kalan massacre (part of the terrorist incidents in Punjab)||6 August 1987||Punjab||13 Hindus|
|Rajbah massacre (part of the terrorist incidents in Punjab)||31 March 1988||Punjab||18 Hindus belonging to 1 family|
|Train Passenger massacre II (part of the 1991 Punjab killings)||15 June 1988||Ludhiana, Punjab||80 (mostly Hindus)|
|Train Passenger massacre III (part of the 1991 Punjab killings)||December 1988||Ludhiana, Punjab||49 (mostly Hindus)|
|Hazaribagh massacre||September 1989||Hazaribag||53 Hindus and 20 Muslims|
|Bhagalpur riots||October 1989||Bhagalpur, Bihar||The total dead numbered around 1000, around 900 were Muslims; it was difficult to establish the religious identity of other victims.||Two false rumors about the killing of Hindu students started circulating: one rumor stated that nearly 200 Hindu university students had been killed by the Muslims, while another rumor stated that 31 Hindu boys had been murdered with their bodies dumped in a well at the Sanskrit College.|
|1990 Kashmiri Hindus killings||1990s||Kashmir Valley||Officially 219 Hindus; though estimates as high as 1,341 have been reported||Large numbers had fled since 1989 to escape targeted killings and abductions. 219 were killed from 1989 to 2004 according to government of Jammu and Kashmir, while an organization of the community in Kashmir carried out a survey whose data stated that 399 had been killed since 1990 with an estimated 75% killed in 1990 alone.|||
|Gawakadal massacre||20 January 1990||Srinagar, Kashmir||50 Kashmiri Protestors||Indian Forces opened fire, with heavy guns, on a group of Kashmiri protesters, who were pelting stones at the police|
|Ayodhya police firing||October 30, 1990||Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh||16 Hindus (official figure)||Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav ordered the police to open fire on kar sevaks who reached Ayodhya. The dead bodies were allegedly thrown in Saryu river.|||
|1991 Anti-Tamil violence of Karnataka||12–13 December 1991||Mainly Bangalore, Mysore but also other parts of southern Karnataka||18 Tamils||violent attacks originated in the demonstrations organised against the orders of the Cauvery Water Tribunal|
|Bombay riots||December 1992 – January 1993||Mumbai||575 Muslims, 275 Hindus, 45 unknown and 5 others||Hindu-Muslim communal riot as an effect of Demolition of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya.|
|Sopore massacre||6 January 1993||Sopore, Kashmir||55 Kashmiri students||Security forces fired on procession.|
|Bijbehara Massacre||October 22, 1993||Bijbehara, Kashmir||55 Kashmiri protestors||Indian armed forces fired upon unarmed Kashmiri protestors resulting in 55 civilian deaths.|
|1997 Ramabai killings||11 July 1997||Ramabai colony, Mumbai||10 people of the Dalit caste||A team of State Reserve Police Force members fired upon a crowd protesting the recent desecration of a statue of Dalit activist B. R. Ambedkar.|
|Laxmanpur Bathe massacre||1 December 1997||Arwal district, Bihar||58 people of the Dalit caste||Upper caste Ranvir Sena enter village at night and kill 58 Dalits, were sympathizers of the Maoists behind the killing of 37 upper caste men in Bara in Gaya district in 1992.|||
|1998 Wandhama massacre||25 January 1998||Wandhama, Jammu and Kashmir||23 Kashmiri Pandit||Unknown militants|
|1998 Prankote massacre||17 April 1998||Jammu and Kashmir||26 Hindus|
|1998 Chapnari massacre||19 June 1998||Chapnari, Jammu and Kashmir||25 Hindus||Allegedly perpetrated by Indian-backed insurgents.|
|1998 Chamba massacre||3 August 1998||Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh||35 Hindus||Attack by Islamic militant group|
|Chittisinghpura massacre||20 March 2000||Chittisinghpura, Anantnag district, Jammu and Kashmir||36 Sikhs||Attack by Islamic militant group|
|Gouranga Tilla massacre||2000||Tripura||16 non-tribal Hindus|||
|Bagber massacre||20 May 2000||Tripura||25 non-tribal Hindus|||
|Nanoor massacre||27 July 2000||West Bengal||11 labourers|
|2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre||1 August 2000||Jammu and Kashmir||30 (Hindu pilgrims)||Attack by Muslim militants|
|2001 Kishtwar massacre||3 August 2001||Jammu and Kashmir||19 Hindus||Attack by Muslim militants|
|Godhra massacre||27 February 2002||Godhra, Gujarat||59 Hindus||Hindu passengers (mostly women and children) burnt alive and pelted with rocks. Different commissions were set up; one was by the Government of Gujarat to investigate the train burning spent 6 years going over the details of the case, and concluded that the fire was arson committed by a mob of 1000–2000 people. But some reports say the cause of the Godhra train fire is still uncertain. The court convicted 31 muslims and another 63 were acquitted due to lack of evidence.|||
|2002 Gujarat Violence||28 February 2002||Ahmedabad||As per government reports, 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus killed, 223 reported missing, 2,500 injured. Unofficial estimates by groups like Human Rights Watch put the death toll to over 2,000.||Communal violence|||
|Gulbarg Society massacre (part of the 2002 Gujarat violence)||28 February 2002||Ahmedabad||69 (mostly Muslims)|
|Naroda Patiya massacre (part of the 2002 Gujarat violence)||28 February 2002||Naroda, Ahmedabad||97 Muslims|||
|March 2002 Raghunath attack (part of 2002 Raghunath temple attacks)||30 March 2002||Jammu & Kashmir||11 Hindus killed, 20 injured (Hindu devotees)||Muslim militant|
|2002 Qasim Nagar massacre||13 July 2002||Jammu and Kashmir||29 Hindus||Terrorist attack|
|Akshardham Temple attack||24 September 2002||Gujarat||29 killed, 79 injured (Hindus)||Terrorist attack|
|November 2002 Raghunath temple attack (part of 2002 Raghunath temple attacks)||24 November 2002||Jammu & Kashmir||14 killed, 45 injured (mostly Hindu devotees)||Blamed on Lashkar-e-Taiba|||
|2003 Nadimarg Massacre||23 March 2002||Jammu and Kashmir||24 Hindus||Terrorist attack|
|2002 Kaluchak massacre||14 May 2002||Jammu and Kashmir||31||Terrorist attack on a tourist bus and Army's family quarter.|
|Marad Massacre||May 2003||Kerala||8 killed, 58 injured - A.|
|2006 Varanasi bombings||March 2006||Uttar Pradesh||28 killed, 101 injured - Devotees of Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple targeted||Terrorist attack on a Hindu temple.|
|2006 Doda massacre||30 April 2006||Jammu & Kashmir||35 Hindus||Terrorist attack|
|2007 Samjhauta Express bombings||18 February 2007||Diwana station||68 people mostly Pakistani nationals and some Indians including some Railway employees|||
|26/11 Mumbai attacks||26 November 2008||Mumbai||Over 164 killed, over 600 injured||11 coordinated attacks by proven Pakistani terrorists; casualties include people of various nationalities, and Israeli victims were reportedly tortured before being killed.|||
|April 2010 Maoist attack in Dantewada||6 April 2010||Chhattisgarh||76||Maoist militant ambushed CRPF|
|2010 Dantewada bus bombing||17 May 2010||Chhattisgarh||44||Maoist militant attacked a civilian bus.|
|2012 Assam violence||July 2012||Assam||77||Racial sentiments of the majority Assamese and Bodo community towards the local Bengali speaking Bangladeshi Muslim community leads to several attempts to deport the minority Bengali Muslums to Bangladesh forcefully, thus with a protest in defence from the other party, Communal violence broke out between Assamese, Bodos (Tribal, Christian, and Hindu faith) and Bengali speaking Bangladeshi Muslims.|
|2013 Naxal attack in Darbha valley||25 May 2013||Chhattisgarh||28||28 people from a Congress Party motorcade|
|2013 Muzaffarnagar riots||25 August 2013 – 17 September 2013||Muzaffarnagar district, Uttar Pradesh||42 Muslims and 20 Hindus killed and 93 injured||Eve-teasing of Hindu Girls, murder of a Muslim boy, then public lynching of the murderers (two Hindu boys) triggered communal riot between the Hindu and the Muslim community.|
|2017 Amarnath Yatra attack||10 July 2017||Anantnag district, Jammu and Kashmir||8 Hindu pilgrims||A bus carrying Hindu pilgrims of Amarnath Yatra was attacked by Lashkar-e-Taiba, resulting in deaths of 8 pilgrims.|||
|2017 Haryana riots||25-26 August 2017||Panjab, Haryana, Chandigarh district, Northern India||41+ killed and 300+ injured||546 Arrested, Nearly 1000 Detained, Caused by Rape conviction of Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh, Charged Honeypreet Insan, Rioting and arson|
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