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This article lists the heads of state of Haiti since the beginning of the Haitian Revolution in 1791. Full independence of Haiti was declared in 1804.

Between 1806 and 1820 Haiti was divided between the northern State, renamed Kingdom of Haiti in 1811, and the southern Republic of Haiti. Between 1822 and 1844 the Republic of Haiti ruled over the entire island of Hispaniola, during the period known as the unification of Hispaniola.

Contents

Heads of State of HaitiEdit

Saint-Domingue (1791–1804)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
N/A   Toussaint Louverture
(1743–1803)
1 January 1791 6 May 1802 Independent Leader of the Haitian Revolution (1 January 1791 – 6 May 1802)
Lieutenant Governor of Saint-Domingue (1797 – 7 July 1801)
Governor-General for Life of the entire island of Hispaniola (7 July 1801 – 6 May 1802)
Vacant (6 May 1802–1 January 1804)
N/A   Jean-Jacques Dessalines
(1758–1806)
1 January 1804 22 September 1804 Independent Governor-General of Haiti

First Empire of Haiti (1804–1806)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Coronation Title(s)
1   Jacques I
(1758–1806)
22 September 1804 17 October 1806 8 October 1804 Emperor of Haiti

State of Haiti (1806–1811)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
N/A   Henri Christophe
(1767–1820)
17 October 1806 28 March 1811 Independent Provisional Chief of the Haitian Government (17 October 1806 – 17 February 1807)
President (17 February 1807 – 28 March 1811)
[a]

Kingdom of Haiti (1811–1820)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Coronation Title(s)
N/A   Henri I
(1767–1820)
28 March 1811 8 October 1820 2 June 1811 King of Haiti[b]

Republic of Haiti (1806–1822)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
1   Alexandre Pétion
(1770–1818)
17 October 1806 29 March 1818 Independent President (17 October 1806 – 9 October 1816)
President for Life (9 October 1816 – 29 March 1818)
[c]
2   Jean-Pierre Boyer
(1776–1850)
30 March 1818 9 February 1822 Independent President for Life[d]

Republic of Haiti during the unification of Hispaniola (1822–1844)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
(2)   Jean-Pierre Boyer
(1776–1850)
9 February 1822 13 February 1843 Independent President for Life
3   Charles Rivière-Hérard
(1789–1850)
4 April 1843 27 February 1844 Independent President

Republic of Haiti (1844–1849)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
(3)   Charles Rivière-Hérard
(1789–1850)
27 February 1844 3 May 1844 Independent President
4   Philippe Guerrier
(1757–1845)
3 May 1844 15 April 1845 Independent President
5   Jean-Louis Pierrot
(1761–1857)
16 April 1845 24 March 1846 Independent President
6   Jean-Baptiste Riché
(1780–1847)
24 March 1846 28 February 1847 Independent President
7   Faustin Soulouque
(1782–1867)
2 March 1847 26 August 1849 Independent President

Second Empire of Haiti (1849–1859)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Coronation Title(s)
2   Faustin I
(1782–1867)
26 August 1849 22 January 1859 18 April 1852 Emperor of Haiti

Republic of Haiti (1859–1957)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Party Title(s)
8   Fabre Geffrard
(1806–1878)
22 January 1859 13 March 1867 Independent President
  Nissage Saget
(1810–1880)
20 March 1867 2 May 1867 Independent Provisional President
9   Sylvain Salnave
(1827–1870)
4 May 1867 27 December 1869 Independent President
10   Nissage Saget
(1810–1880)
27 December 1869 14 May 1874 Liberal Party President
  Council of Secretaries of State 14 May 1874 14 June 1874 Independent Council of Secretaries of State
11   Michel Domingue
(1813–1877)
14 June 1874 15 April 1876 Independent President
12   Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
23 April 1876 17 July 1879 Liberal Party Provisional President (23 April 1876 – 17 July 1876)
President (17 July 1876 – 17 July 1879)
  Joseph Lamothe
(?–1891)
26 July 1879 2 October 1879 Independent Provisional President
13   Lysius Salomon
(1815–1888)
2 October 1879 10 August 1888 National Party President
  Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
10 August 1888 16 October 1888 Liberal Party Provisional President
14   François Denys Légitime
(1841–1935)
16 October 1888 23 August 1889 Liberal Party President
  Monpoint Jeune
(1830–1905)
23 August 1889 17 October 1889 Independent Provisional President
15   Florvil Hyppolite
(1828–1896)
17 October 1889 24 March 1896 National Party President
16   Tirésias Simon Sam
(1835–1916)
31 March 1896 12 May 1902 National Party President
  Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
26 May 1902 17 December 1902 Liberal Party Provisional President
17   Pierre Nord Alexis
(1820–1910)
21 December 1902 2 December 1908 Military President
18   François C. Antoine Simon
(1843–1923)
6 December 1908 3 August 1911 Liberal Party President
19   Cincinnatus Leconte
(1854–1912)
15 August 1911 8 August 1912 National Party President[e]
20   Tancrède Auguste
(1856–1913)
8 August 1912 2 May 1913 National Party President
21   Michel Oreste
(1859–1918)
12 May 1913 27 January 1914 Independent President
22   Oreste Zamor
(1861–1915)
8 February 1914 29 October 1914 Military President
23   Joseph Davilmar Théodore
(1847–1917)
7 November 1914 22 February 1915 Military President
24   Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
(1859–1915)
25 February 1915 28 July 1915 Military President[f]
25   Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave
(1863–1926)
12 August 1915 15 May 1922 Independent President[g]
26   Louis Borno
(1865–1942)
15 May 1922 15 May 1930 Independent President[g]
27   Louis Eugène Roy
(1861–1939)
15 May 1930 18 November 1930 Independent President[g]
28   Sténio Vincent
(1874–1959)
18 November 1930 15 May 1941 Independent President[h]
29   Élie Lescot
(1883–1974)
15 May 1941 11 January 1946 Liberal Party President
  Franck Lavaud
(1903–1986)
11 January 1946 16 August 1946 Military Chairman of the Military Executive Committee
30   Dumarsais Estimé
(1900–1953)
16 August 1946 10 May 1950 Independent President
  Franck Lavaud
(1903–1986)
10 May 1950 6 December 1950 Military Chairman of the Government Junta
31   Paul Magloire
(1907–2001)
1950 6 December 1950 12 December 1956 Peasant Worker Movement President
  Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis
(1900–1966)
12 December 1956 3 February 1957 Independent Provisional President
  Franck Sylvain
(1909–1987)
7 February 1957 2 April 1957 Independent Provisional President
  Executive Government Council 2 April 1957 25 May 1957 Independent Executive Government Council
  Daniel Fignolé
(1913–1986)
25 May 1957 14 June 1957 Peasant Worker Movement Provisional President
  Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau
(1909–1963)
14 June 1957 22 October 1957 Military Chairman of the Military Council

Republic of Haiti during the Duvalier dynasty (1957–1986)Edit

Symbols
  • P Presidential referendum
  • C Constitutional referendum
  • Died in office
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Party Title(s)
32   François Duvalier
(1907–1971)
1957
1961[P]
1964[C]
22 October 1957 21 April 1971[†] National Unity Party President (22 October 1957 – 22 June 1964)
President for Life (22 June 1964 – 21 April 1971)
33   Jean-Claude Duvalier
(1951–2014)
1971[C]
1985[C]
21 April 1971 7 February 1986[i] National Unity Party President for Life

Republic of Haiti (1986–present)Edit

Symbols
  • I Indirect election
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Party Title(s)
  Henri Namphy
(1932–2018)
7 February 1986 7 February 1988 Military President of the National Council of Government
34   Leslie Manigat
(1930–2014)
1988 7 February 1988 20 June 1988[j] Rally of Progressive National Democrats President
35   Henri Namphy
(1932–2018)
20 June 1988 17 September 1988[k] Military President
36   Prosper Avril
(1937–)
17 September 1988 10 March 1990 Military President
  Hérard Abraham
(1940–)
10 March 1990 13 March 1990 Military Acting President
  Ertha Pascal-Trouillot
(1943–)
13 March 1990 7 February 1991 Independent Provisional President
37   Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
1990–91 7 February 1991 29 September 1991[l] Lavalas Political Organization President
N/A   Raoul Cédras
(1949–)
29 September 1991 8 October 1991 Military Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces[m]
  Joseph Nérette
(1924–2007)
8 October 1991 19 June 1992 Independent Provisional President
  Marc Bazin
(1932–2010)
19 June 1992 15 June 1993 Movement for the Instauration of Democracy in Haiti Acting President
37   Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
15 June 1993 12 May 1994 Lavalas Political Organization President[n]
  Émile Jonassaint
(1913–1995)
12 May 1994 12 October 1994 Independent Provisional President
37   Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
12 October 1994 7 February 1996 Lavalas Political Organization President[o]
38   René Préval
(1943–2017)
1995 7 February 1996 7 February 2001 Fanmi Lavalas President
39   Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
2000 7 February 2001 29 February 2004[p] Fanmi Lavalas President
  Boniface Alexandre
(1936–)
29 February 2004 14 May 2006 Independent Provisional President
40   René Préval
(1943–2017)
2006 14 May 2006 14 May 2011 Lespwa[q] President
(40) Inite
41   Michel Martelly
(1961–)
2010–11 14 May 2011 7 February 2016 Repons Peyizan President
  Council of Ministers 7 February 2016 14 February 2016 Independent Council of Ministers
  Jocelerme Privert
(1953–)
2016 (Feb)[I] 14 February 2016 7 February 2017 Inite Provisional President[r]
42   Jovenel Moïse
(1968–)
2016 (Nov) 7 February 2017 Incumbent Haitian Tèt Kale Party President

Foreign governors and military commandersEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Title(s) Country
United States occupation of Haiti
  William Banks Caperton
(1855–1941)
28 July 1915 15 August 1915 Commander cruiser squadron, Atlantic Fleet   United States
  Littleton Waller
(1856–1926)
15 August 1915 21 November 1916 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Eli K. Cole
(1867–1929)
22 November 1916 27 November 1917 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  John H. Russell Jr.
(1872–1947)
28 November 1917 6 December 1918 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Albertus W. Catlin
(1868–1933)
7 December 1918 14 July 1919 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Louis M. Little
(1878–1960)
15 July 1919 1 October 1919 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  John H. Russell Jr.
(1872–1947)
2 October 1919 14 January 1922 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  George O. Van Orden
(1878–1957)
14 January 1922 28 March 1922 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Theodore P. Kane
(1868–1943)
29 March 1922 15 November 1923 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  William N. McKelvy
(1869–1933)
16 November 1923 21 January 1924 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Ben H. Fuller
(1870–1937)
21 January 1924 11 June 1925 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  William N. McKelvy
(1869–1933)
12 June 1925 25 June 1925 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Harold Courtland Snyder
(1872–1933)
26 June 1925 29 July 1925 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Ben H. Fuller
(1870–1937)
30 July 1925 7 December 1925 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  John T. Myers
(1871–1952)
8 December 1925 24 January 1928 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Presley M. Rixey Jr.
(1879–1953)
25 January 1928 22 February 1928 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Louis Mason Gulick
(1879–1933)
23 February 1928 24 June 1929 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Richard M. Cutts
(1878–1934)
25 June 1929 11 May 1931 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Louis M. Little
(1878–1960)
3 July 1931 15 August 1934 Commander, Expeditionary Forces Operating in Haiti   United States
  Arthur Bailly-Blanchard
(1855–1925)
15 November 1915 26 September 1921 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary   United States
  John H. Russell Jr.
(1872–1947)
11 February 1922 16 November 1930 High Commissioner to Haiti   United States
  Dana Gardner Munro
(1892–1990)
16 November 1930 14 September 1932 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary   United States
  Norman Armour
(1887–1982)
7 November 1932 4 March 1933 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary   United States
11 April 1933 21 March 1935
  George A. Gordon
(1885–1959)
6 September 1935 21 July 1937 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary   United States
Operation Uphold Democracy
  Hugh Shelton
(1942–)
19 September 1994 25 October 1994 Commander of the Multinational Forces Haiti (MNF)   United States
  David C. Meade
(1941?–)
25 October 1994 14 January 1995 Commander of the Multinational Forces Haiti (MNF)   United States
  George A. Fisher Jr.
(1942–)
14 January 1995 31 March 1995 Commander of the Multinational Forces Haiti (MNF)   United States
  Joseph W. Kinzer
(1939–)
31 March 1995 5 March 1996 Commander of the United Nations Mission in Haiti Force (UNMIH)   United States
  J. R. Pierre Daigle
(1950–)
5 March 1996 30 June 1997 Commander of the United Nations Mission in Haiti Force (UNMIH)   Canada
  Robin Gagnon
(1950–)
1 August 1997 30 November 1997 Commander of the United Nations Mission in Haiti Force (UNMIH)   Canada
2004 Haitian coup d'état
  Ronald S. Coleman
(1948–)
29 February 2004 1 June 2004 Commanding General, Combined Joint Task Force Haiti and Commander of the Multinational Interim Force in Haiti (MIF)   United States
  Augusto Heleno
(1947–)
1 June 2004 1 September 2005 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar
(1947–2006)
1 September 2005 7 January 2006 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Eduardo Aldunate Herman
(1948–)
Interim
7 January 2006 20 January 2006 Interim Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Chile
  José Elito Carvalho de Siqueira
(1946–)
20 January 2006 9 January 2007 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Carlos Alberto Dos Santos Cruz
(1952–)
9 January 2007 9 April 2009 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Floriano Peixoto Vieira Neto
(1954–)
9 April 2009 11 April 2010 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Luiz Guilherme Paul Cruz
(1957–)
11 April 2010 30 March 2011 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Luiz Eduardo Ramos Pereira
(1956–)
30 March 2011 27 March 2012 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Fernando Rodrigues Goulart
(1958–)
27 March 2012 27 March 2013 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Edson Leal Pujol
(1955–)
27 March 2013 15 March 2014 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  José Luiz Jaborandy Jr.
(1958–2015)
15 March 2014 30 August 2015 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
  Jorge Peña Leiva
(1961–)
Acting
4 September 2015 13 October 2015 Acting Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Chile
  Ajax Porto Pinheiro
(1956–)
13 October 2015 15 October 2017 Commander, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti Force (MINUSTAH)   Brazil
2010 Haiti earthquake
  P. K. "Ken" Keen
(c. 1953–)
14 January 2010 18 April 2010 Commander of the Joint Task Force for Haiti (JTF–H)   United States
  Simeon G. Trombitas
(1948–)
18 April 2010 1 June 2010 Commander of the Joint Task Force for Haiti (JTF–H)   United States

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Rule limited to the northern State of Haiti
  2. ^ Rule limited to the northern Kingdom of Haiti
  3. ^ Rule limited to the southern Republic of Haiti
  4. ^ United the northern Kingdom and the southern Republic in 1820
  5. ^ Great-Grandson of Jean-Jacques Dessalines (Emperor of Haiti 1804–1806)
  6. ^ Son of Tirésias Simon Sam (President of Haiti 1896–1902). Also the inspiration for Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones
  7. ^ a b c Served under the United States occupation
  8. ^ Served under the United States occupation until 1934
  9. ^ Deposed in the Anti-Duvalier protest movement
  10. ^ Deposed in the June 1988 coup d'état
  11. ^ Deposed in the September 1988 coup d'état
  12. ^ Deposed in the 1991 coup d'état
  13. ^ De facto leader of Haiti (29 September 1991 – 12 October 1994)
  14. ^ In exile, but recognized in Haiti
  15. ^ Served under the United States occupation until 1995
  16. ^ Deposed in the 2004 coup d'état
  17. ^ Until November 2009
  18. ^ Presidential term expired on 14 June 2016

See alsoEdit