|28th President of Haiti|
November 18, 1930 – May 15, 1941
|Preceded by||Louis Eugène Roy|
|Succeeded by||Élie Lescot|
|Minister of Interior and Public Works|
August 8, 1916 – April 17, 1917
|President||Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave|
|Preceded by||Constant Vieux|
|Succeeded by||Osmin Cham (Interior) |
Etienne Magloire (Public Works)
|Born||February 22, 1874|
|Died||September 3, 1959 (aged 85)|
New York, United States
In October 1930, while still under occupation by the United States, Haitians elected representatives to the national assembly for the first time since 1918. It elected Vincent as President of Haiti. He had graduated from law school at age 18 before ascending to head of Haiti's Chamber of Deputies by 1915. He ran a nationalist campaign for the presidency based on his fierce opposition to the United States occupation of Haiti.
From 1915 to 1934 Haiti was occupied by U.S. Marines; the United States had intervened after the murder of a president. In August 1934 U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt withdrew the Marines; however, the United States maintained direct fiscal control until 1941 and indirect control over Haiti until 1947.
In 1935, Vincent conducted a plebiscite about extending his term in office, receiving a favorable vote to extend it to 1941. The plebiscite also approved an amendment to the constitution so that future presidents would be elected by popular vote.
In 1936, the Haitian Communist Party was disbanded by Vincent.
In October 1937 troops and police from the Dominican Republic massacred thousands of Haitian labourers living near the border in the Parsley Massacre. Vincent had enjoyed a cooperative relationship with and financial support from the government of Dominican President Rafael Trujillo. After two years of relative quiet in Port-au-Prince, Vincent's failure to press for justice for the slain workers prompted protests in the capital. He took the case to the Dominican government, which agreed in 1938 to compensate the slain workers’ relatives the following year.
In 1941, Vincent declared his intention to step down. The presidency was peacefully transitioned to his successor, Élie Lescot.
- Profil de Sténio Vincent
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- Smith, Matthew J. Red & Black in Haiti: Radicalism, Conflict, and Political Change, 1934–1957. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.