1964 Haitian constitutional referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Haiti on 14 June 1964 alongside general elections. The new constitution made President François "Papa Doc" Duvalier President for Life, with absolute power and the right to name his successor. It also changed the country's flag from blue and red to black and red, with the black symbolising the country's ties to Africa.[1]

The referendum was rigged,[2] with all ballots already marked yes, and no limit on how many times each person could vote.[1] A total of 2.8 million people voted for the proposal and only 3,234 against.[1] The National Assembly approved the vote on 21 June and Duvalier was sworn in the following day.


Choice Votes %
For 2,800,000 99.9
No 3,234 0.1
Invalid/blank votes
Total 2,803,235 100
Source: Nohlen[3]


  1. ^ a b c Coleman, A. (2004) The devil you know: US-Haitian relations 1957-1968
  2. ^ Haiti - From Duvalier to Avril, 1957-89 Richard A. Haggerty, ed. Haiti: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1989
  3. ^ Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p388 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6