List of defunct automobile manufacturers of the United States

This is a list of defunct automobile manufacturers of the United States. They were discontinued for various reasons, such as bankruptcy of the parent company, mergers, or being phased out.

AEdit

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REdit

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ZEdit

  • Zehr (1912–1915)[3]
  • Zent (1900–1902, 1904–1906)[3]
  • Zentmobile (1903)[3]
  • Zimmer Motorcars (1978–1988)
  • Zimmerman (1908–1915)[3]
  • Zip (1913–1914)[3]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Kimes and Clark, p. 11
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p. 190.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx Clymer, p. 210.
  4. ^ Clymer, p. 205; Kimes 1985, p. 18
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946–1959 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2008), p. 1016.
  6. ^ "Allen Touring Car 37 Fiche Info 1916". www.plandegraissage.org. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  7. ^ "The Allen Automobile & The Allen Iron & Steel Company". american-automobiles.com. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  8. ^ "Flyer". www.bessermuseum.org. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  9. ^ Kimes, p. 29
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Clymer, p. 205.
  11. ^ "Another Flash In The Pan….The Shaw". www.theoldmotor.com. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Clymer, p. 170.
  13. ^ "The American Automobile & The American Motors Corporation". www.american-automobiles.com. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  14. ^ Clymer, p. 31.
  15. ^ "F.A. Ames Co., Ames Body Corp., Ames Speedster, Ames Buggy Co., Carriage Woodstock Co., Ford Model T, Ames Motor Car Co". www.coachbuilt.com. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  16. ^ a b Kimes, p. 47
  17. ^ Clymer, p. 205; Kimes 1985, p. 19
  18. ^ a b c d e Clymer, pp. 170-171.
  19. ^ Kimes, p. 50
  20. ^ Kimes, p. 57
  21. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 205.
  22. ^ a b c Kimes, p. 74
  23. ^ Clymer, pp. 178, 205.
  24. ^ Clymer, pp. 153, 205.
  25. ^ a b c Clymer, pp. 190, 205.
  26. ^ Clymer, pp. 38, 205.
  27. ^ Clymer, p. 193.
  28. ^ Clymer, p. 115.
  29. ^ Clymer, pp. 5, 61, 205.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb Clymer, p. 23.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz Clymer, p. 206.
  32. ^ Clymer, pp. 5, 190.
  33. ^ a b c Clymer, p. 178.
  34. ^ a b Suman-Hreblay, Marián (2000). Automobile Manufacturers Worldwide Registry. McFarland. p. 56. ISBN 9781476611402. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  35. ^ Clymer, pp. 16, 170, 206.
  36. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 206. One of three companies by this name.
  37. ^ a b Clymer, p. 153.
  38. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 252
  39. ^ Clymer, pp. 22, 178.
  40. ^ Clymer, pp. 25, 206.
  41. ^ Clymer, p. 178. Built in Little Rock, Arkansas.
  42. ^ a b c Kimes 1985, p. 331
  43. ^ Clipper Division, Studebaker-Packard Corp.; Packard, A History of the Motor Car and the Company (General edition), Beverly Rae Kimes, editor (1978), "Automobile Quarterly", ISBN 0-915038-11-0
  44. ^ Triumph and Tragedy: The Last Real Packards by Richard M. Langworth, in Collectible Automobile, September 1984 issue; pp. 6-25; (ISSN 0742-812X)
  45. ^ Clymer, p. 87.
  46. ^ Clymer, p. 104.
  47. ^ a b Clymer, p. 63.
  48. ^ Clymer, p. 145.
  49. ^ Clymer, p. 67.
  50. ^ "Electric car for the average Joe not far away". Wheels.ca. September 14, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  51. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 357
  52. ^ Clymer, p. 158.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt Clymer, p. 209.
  54. ^ Clymer, pp. 170, 206.
  55. ^ Clymer, pp. 190, 206.
  56. ^ Clymer, pp. 158, 206. One of two companies by this name.
  57. ^ Clymer, p. 178. Named for the horse, built in Minneapolis.
  58. ^ Clymer, p. 93. Built in St. Louis, Missouri.
  59. ^ a b Clymer, pp. 5, 206.
  60. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 403
  61. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 403–404
  62. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 404–405
  63. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 405
  64. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 405–406
  65. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 406
  66. ^ Clymer, p. 206. Distinct from the tractor.
  67. ^ Clymer, pp. 190, 206. Built in Cleveland.
  68. ^ Clymer, p. 178. Built in Indiana. Distinct from DeSoto.
  69. ^ Clymer, p. 178. Distinct from DeSoto Motor Car Company.
  70. ^ Clymer, pp. 38, 205. Offered an electric phaeton before 1916.
  71. ^ Clymer, p. 206. Distinct from Diamond T.
  72. ^ Clymer, p. 206. Tourist was a model.
  73. ^ a b Clymer, p. 5.
  74. ^ Clymer, p. 206. By Alberto Santos-Dumont
  75. ^ Clymer, p. 206. Founder was later the author of Dyke's Automobile and Gasoline Engine Encyclopedia.
  76. ^ Conceived by Buckminster Fuller.
  77. ^ Clymer, p. 153. Built in Wisconsin, distinct from the Michigan company.
  78. ^ Clymer, p. 190. Steam and electric cars, built in Cleveland.
  79. ^ Clymer, p. 206. No connection to Eaton's.
  80. ^ Clymer, p. 38.
  81. ^ Clymer, p. 206. No connection to Electric Launch Company.
  82. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 207. Johnson model. Distinct from the Elite steam automobile company.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn Clymer, p. 207.
  84. ^ a b Clymer, pp. 170–171, 207.
  85. ^ Clymer, p. 104. Built in Cincinnati, Ohio.
  86. ^ Clymer, p. 207. Later Halladay or Streator, eventually Barley.
  87. ^ Clymer, p. 190. Car and truck maker, based in Cleveland.
  88. ^ Clymer, p. 104. Built in Chicago.
  89. ^ "Early American Automobiles 1904 Models". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  90. ^ http://www.northfield.org/files/REGuide031908.pdf
  91. ^ Clymer, p. 166.
  92. ^ Clymer, p. 40.
  93. ^ a b c d Kimes and Clark, Standard Catalog, p. 574.
  94. ^ Kimes and Clark, Standard Catalog, p. 574. Not counting the Blair-Forth, of 1908.
  95. ^ Kimes and Clark, Standard Catalog, pp. 574-575. Not counting the Blair-Forth, of 1908.
  96. ^ Kimes and Clark, Standard Catalog, p. 575.
  97. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1289
  98. ^ Clymer, p. 16.
  99. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 593
  100. ^ a b Clymer, p. 190. Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland.
  101. ^ Clymer, p. 51.
  102. ^ Kimes and Clark (1996), p. 625.
  103. ^ Clymer, p. 207. Distinct from the Gearless steamer.
  104. ^ Made by the multinational as experimental models.
  105. ^ Clymer, p. 207. Distinct from the multinational.
  106. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 190. Gasoline and steam.
  107. ^ Flory, p. 1016, credits them only for 1950.
  108. ^ Clymer, p. 207. Supposedly from Atlanta, Georgia.
  109. ^ Clymer, p. 190. Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland 1916–1922.
  110. ^ Clymer, pp. 14, 22.
  111. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1447
  112. ^ Clymer, p. 207. One of two companies by this name.
  113. ^ a b Clymer, p. 190. Truck maker, based in Cleveland.
  114. ^ Clymer, pp. 170, 190.
  115. ^ Schwarzkopf, E.E. (1910). Automobile Topics. volume 19. p. 1456. Retrieved December 5, 2019. |volume= has extra text (help) (Google books)
  116. ^ Sherron, Chas. B. (1907). American Vehicle: Devoted to the Interests of the Vehicle and Accessory Trades. volume 20. p. 26. Retrieved December 5, 2019. |volume= has extra text (help) Google books: (Automobile Notes)
  117. ^ Clymer, p. 170. No relation to the school.
  118. ^ "Indiana Truck History Report". Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  119. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 652, 761
  120. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 682 Distinct from Hatfield Motor Vehicle Company and the Hatfield Company truck manufacturer.
  121. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1524
  122. ^ Clymer, p. 23. An air-cooled, built in Wisconsin, sold for US$2000.
  123. ^ Clymer, p. 112.
  124. ^ Clymer, p. 207. Distinct from Hewitt-Lindstrom.
  125. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 190. Steam and gasoline, based in Cleveland.
  126. ^ Distinct from the Australian company.
  127. ^ Clymer, p. 207. Distinct from Holley.
  128. ^ a b Clymer, pp. 23, 207.
  129. ^ a b Clymer, pp. 5, 23.
  130. ^ Clymer, pp. 170, 207.
  131. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 742
  132. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 769, 1407 In Boston.
  133. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 769 In New York City.
  134. ^ Clymer, p. 207; Kimes 1985, p. 769
  135. ^ Clymer, p. 23; Kimes 1985, p. 769. In Toledo, Ohio.
  136. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 769 In Buffalo, New York.
  137. ^ a b Clymer, pp. 18, 23.
  138. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 153. Built in Wisconsin.
  139. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de Clymer, p. 208.
  140. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Not to be confused with Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  141. ^ Clymer, p. 53. Also sold commercial vans of 1, 2, 3, & 6 tons.
  142. ^ Clymer, p. 131.
  143. ^ Clymer, p. 208. One of three companies by this name.
  144. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 769
  145. ^ Flory, pp. 1011–12.
  146. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 774
  147. ^ Clymer, p. 158. Based in Toledo, Ohio.
  148. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 782
  149. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Clymer, p. 190. Based in Cleveland.
  150. ^ a b c Clymer, p. 153. Built in Wisconsin.
  151. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Electrette was a model.
  152. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Distinct from LaSalle.
  153. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Distinct from Lewis Motocycle.
  154. ^ a b c Horseless Age 1895.
  155. ^ Clymer, p. 8. A four-wheeler, despite the name.
  156. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 828
  157. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 635
  158. ^ Clymer, p. 90. Before 1912, the cars were called Sears.
  159. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 859–860
  160. ^ a b Kimes 1975, p. 1004
  161. ^ began with steam autos
  162. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clymer, p. 22.
  163. ^ Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p. 890
  164. ^ Clymer, pp. 190, 208. Based in Cleveland.
  165. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Distinct from the Mason steamer.
  166. ^ Clymer, p. 93. Built in Waterloo, Iowa.
  167. ^ Clymer, p. 84.
  168. ^ Clymer, p. 153. Built in Wisconsin by Joe Merkel, who later built the Merkel Motorcycle.
  169. ^ Clymer, p. 23. Distinct from the Meteor steamer and the Ford division.
  170. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Distinct from the Nash
  171. ^ Clymer, p. 145. Built in Waltham, Massachusetts.
  172. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 929
  173. ^ Clymer, p. 93. Built in Moline, Illinois.
  174. ^ Clymer, pp. 36, 153. Built in Racine, Wisconsin.
  175. ^ Clymer, p. 57.
  176. ^ Clymer, p. 208. One of two companies by this name, distinct from Moline-Knight.
  177. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Not to be confused with Moggie.
  178. ^ Clymer, pp. 22. 208.
  179. ^ Lewis, Mary Beth. "Ten Best First Facts", in Car and Driver, 1/88, p. 92.
  180. ^ Flory, p. 1016, dates it to 1950.
  181. ^ Clymer, pp. 170, 178. Built in Traverse City, Michigan.
  182. ^ Not to be confused with the producers of the Ruxton.
  183. ^ Clymer, pp. 170–171, 208.
  184. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Often misspelled as Neilson.
  185. ^ a b c Kimes 1975, p. 1003
  186. ^ Clymer, p. 208. Not to be confused with the motorcycle.
  187. ^ Kimes 1975, p. 1005
  188. ^ Clymer, p. 153. Built in Milwaukee.
  189. ^ Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945 (1985), p. 1013
  190. ^ Clymer, pp. 170, 209.
  191. ^ a b c Clymer, pp. 190, 209. Based in Cleveland.
  192. ^ Clymer, pp. 190, 209. Based in Cleveland. Distinct from Owen Magnetic.
  193. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1063 Built in Salem, Mass.; 1 gasoline & 2 electric cars
  194. ^ Clymer, p. 102. Built in Indianapolis, Indiana.
  195. ^ Clymer, p. 151. Built in Chicago.
  196. ^ Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p. 1125
  197. ^ Clymer, p. 42.
  198. ^ a b c Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p. 1126
  199. ^ Clymer, pp. 6, 153.
  200. ^ Clymer, pp. 5, 178, 190. Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland.
  201. ^ Clymer, p. 153. Friction-drive, built in Wisconsin.
  202. ^ Freund, Klaus, ed. (August 1981). Auto Katalog 1982 (in German). 25. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 165.
  203. ^ Clymer, p. 209. Distinct from the GM division.
  204. ^ Clymer, pp. 13, 23.
  205. ^ Clymer, p. 209. Distinct from Porter Motor Company.
  206. ^ Flory, p. 1016. Distinct from Powell Manufacturing Company?
  207. ^ Clymer, p. 209. Distinct from the pickup.
  208. ^ Clymer, p. 190. Cars & trucks, based in Cleveland.
  209. ^ Clymer, p. 149.
  210. ^ Clymer, p. 209. Distinct from Reading Steamer.
  211. ^ Clymer, p. 209. Said to be the cheapest car ever built.
  212. ^ Clymer, pp. 122-124. Producer of four-axle Octoauto and twin rear axle Sextoauto in Columbus, Indiana.
  213. ^ Clymer, p. 209. 1895 car produced by Remington Arms Company.
  214. ^ "Renaissance Cars Inc. / Zebra Motors Inc". Retrieved September 3, 2014.
  215. ^ Clymer, pp. 22, 209.
  216. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 209.
  217. ^ Clymer, p. 209. Distinct from Rogers Steamobile. One of three companies by this name.
  218. ^ Rolls Royce
  219. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1273
  220. ^ Clymer, p. 8. A tricycle.
  221. ^ Clymer, p. 209. Also known as Dumont.
  222. ^ Clymer, p. 8.
  223. ^ Clymer, pp. 90, 209.
  224. ^ Clymer, p. 209. Distinct from Chrysler Sebring.
  225. ^ Clymer, p. 5. Built in Buffalo, New York.
  226. ^ Clymer, p. 88. Built by William H. Sharp.
  227. ^ "Shay Model A Roadster". shayhistory.com. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  228. ^ Dixie Junior and Dixie Tourist (1908-1910- Retrieved October 28, 2018
  229. ^ The Horseless Age: The Automobile Trade Magazine, Volume 22- Retrieved October 28, 2018
  230. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Unrelated to the steam car company.
  231. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 210.
  232. ^ Clymer, p. 210. One of two companies with this name.
  233. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Distinct from Stanley Motor Carriage Company.
  234. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Distinct from Stearns (automobile).
  235. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 512
  236. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1351
  237. ^ Clymer, p. 210. One of three companies by this name.
  238. ^ Clymer, pp. 23, 210. Steam cars. One of three companies by this name.
  239. ^ Production was continued in Canada until 1966.
  240. ^ Flory, p. 1016. Fitting Cadillac V8s into Studebakers was common in the 1950s, under the nickname Studillac, as well as into Fords as Fordillacs; it appears Flory has mistaken it.
  241. ^ Clymer, pp. 38, 210.
  242. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Not to be confused with models from Dodge, Plymouth, Studebaker, Nash Motors, Chevrolet, or GMC.
  243. ^ Clymer, p. 52.
  244. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Unrelated to Summit Racing Equipment.
  245. ^ Clymer, p. 190, locates them in Cleveland.
  246. ^ Clymer, pp. 170, 210.
  247. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1417–1419
  248. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1423–1424
  249. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1463, 45
  250. ^ Clymer, p. 22; Kimes 1985, pp. 769, 1472
  251. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Unrelated to Triumph Motor Company sportscars or Triumph Engineering Co Ltd motorcycles.
  252. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Distinct from the Victor steam cars.
  253. ^ "The Victor Page Automobile & The Victor W. Page Corp". www.american-automobiles.com. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  254. ^ Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945. Krause Publications, 1985, p. 1455. ISBN 0-87341-045-9.
  255. ^ Clymer, p. 135. Built in Painesville, Ohio.
  256. ^ Detroit-based builder of "generic" cars without badges so dealers could badge them as desired. Clymer, p.146.
  257. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Distinct from Ward (electric automobile company).
  258. ^ Clymer, p. 210. Distinct from Ward (automobile company).
  259. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1491
  260. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1519
  261. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1521

SourcesEdit

  • Automobile Quarterly (eds.). The American Car Since 1775. Kutztown, PA: Automobile Quarterly, Inc., 1971. ISBN 0-525-05300-X
  • Bird, Anthony and Douglas-Scott Montagu of Beaulieu, Edward: Steam Cars, 1770–1970, Littlehampton Book Services Ltd., 1971. ISBN 0-304-93707-X: ISBN 978-0-304-93707-3
  • Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925. New York: Bonanza Books, 1950.
  • Clymer, Floyd and Gahagan, Harry W.: Floyd Clymer's Steam Car Scrapbook, Literary Licensing, LLC, 2012. ISBN 1-258-42699-4; ISBN 978-1-258-42699-6
  • Georgano, Nick (Ed.). The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000. ISBN 1-57958-293-1
  • Evans, Richard J.: Steam Cars (Shire Album), Shire Publications Ltd (booklet) 1985. ISBN 0-85263-774-8; ISBN 978-0-85263-774-6
  • Headfield, John: American Steam-Car Pioneers: A Scrapbook (1st edition). Newcomen Society in North, 1984. ISBN 9994065904; ISBN 978-9994065905
  • Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945. Krause Publications, 1975. ISBN 0-87341-111-0
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