Mormonism and violence(Redirected from List of Mormon wars and massacres)
The neutrality of this article is disputed. (April 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Mormonism and Mormon adherents have been subjected to, as well as in a few instances themselves used, significant violence throughout much of the religion's history. In the early history of the United States, violence was used as a form of control. Many people of different faiths used violence in order to harass and persecute people who adhered to different religious beliefs. The members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, especially in its early history, were both the victims and sometimes the perpetrators of violence in much the same way as were the followers of other major religions. Mormons were violently persecuted and pushed from Ohio to Missouri, from Missouri to Illinois and from Illinois, they were pushed west to the Utah Territory. There were incidents of massacre, home burning and pillaging, followed by the death of their founder, Joseph Smith. Smith died from multiple gunshot wounds in a gun battle while jailed in Carthage; Smith defended himself a small pistol smuggled to him by Cyrus Wheelock. However, there were also a few notable incidents in which Latter-day Saints perpetrated violence, such as the Mountain Meadows Massacre.
History of religious violence against MormonsEdit
Early Mormon history is marked by many instances of violence, which have helped to shape the church's views on violence. The first significant instance occurred in Missouri. Mormons who lived there tended to vote as a bloc, which often lead to the unseating of the local political leadership. Differences culminated in hostilities and the eventual issuing of an executive order (often called the Extermination Order) by Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs declaring "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State." Three days later, a militia unit attacked a Mormon settlement at Haun's Mill, resulting in the death of 18 Mormons and no militiamen. The Extermination Order was not formally rescinded until 1976.
In Nauvoo, Illinois, conflict was often based on the tendency of Mormons to "dominate community, economic, and political life wherever they landed." The city of Nauvoo had become the largest in Illinois, the city council was predominantly Mormon, and the Nauvoo Legion (the Mormon militia) continued to grow. Other issues of contention included polygamy, freedom of speech, anti-slavery views during Smith’s presidential campaign, and the deification of man. After the destruction of the press of the Nauvoo Expositor, Joseph Smith was arrested and incarcerated in Carthage Jail where he was killed by a mob on June 27, 1844. The conflict in Illinois became so severe that most of the residents of Nauvoo fled across the Mississippi River in February 1846.
After Mormons established a community hundreds of miles away in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, anti-Mormon activists in the Utah Territory convinced President Buchanan that the Mormons in the territory were rebelling against the United States under the direction of Brigham Young. In response in 1857 Buchanan sent one-third of United States's standing army to Utah in what is known as the Utah War. During the Utah War, the Mountain Meadows Massacre occurred.
Mormon views on capital punishmentEdit
Capital punishment in Mormon scriptureEdit
Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, was a strong proponent of capital punishment, and he favored execution methods that involved the shedding of blood as retribution for crimes of bloodshed. In 1843, he or his scribe commented that the common execution method in Christian nations was hanging, "instead of blood for blood according to the law of heaven." In a March 4, 1843, debate with church leader George A. Smith, who argued against capital punishment, Smith said that if he ever had the opportunity to enact a death penalty law, he "was opposed to hanging" the convict; rather, he would "shoot him, or cut off his head, spill his blood on the ground, and let the smoke thereof ascend up to God" (Roberts 1909, p. 296). In the church's April 6, 1843, general conference, Smith said he would "wring a thief's neck off if I can find him. if I cannot bring him to justice any other way." Sidney Rigdon, Smith's counselor in the First Presidency, also supported capital punishment involving the spilling of blood, stating, "There are men standing in your midst that you cant do anything with them but cut their throat & bury them." On the other hand, Smith was willing to tolerate the presence of men "as corrupt as the devil himself" in Nauvoo, Illinois, who "had been guilty of murder and robbery," in the chance that they might "come to the waters of baptism through repentance, and redeem a part of their allotted time" (Roberts 1932).
Brigham Young, Smith's successor in the LDS Church, initially held views on capital punishment that were similar to those of Smith. On January 27, 1845, he spoke approvingly of Smith's toleration of "corrupt men" in Nauvoo who were guilty of murder and robbery on the chance that they might repent and be baptized (Roberts 1932). On the other hand, on February 25, 1846, after the Saints had left Nauvoo, Young threatened adherents who had stolen wagon cover strings and rail timber with having their throats cut "when they get out of the settlements where his orders could be executed"(Roberts 1932, p. 597). Later that year, Young gave orders that "when a man is found to be a thief,... cut his throat & thro' him in the River." Young also stated that the decapitation of repeated sinners "is the law of God & it shall be executed." There are no documented instances of such a sentence being carried out on the Mormon Trail.
In the Salt Lake Valley, Young acted as the executive authority while the Council of Fifty acted as a legislature. One of his main concerns in the early Mormon settlement was theft, and he swore that "a thief [sic] should not live in the Valley, for he would cut off their heads or be the means of haveing [sic] it done as the Lord lived." A Mormon listening to one of Young's sermons in 1849 recorded that he said that "if any one was catched stealing to shoot them dead on the spot and they should not be hurt for it."
In the Utah Territory, there was a law from 1851 to 1888 that allowed persons who were convicted of murder to be executed by decapitation; during that time, no person was executed by that method (Gardner 1979, p. 13).
"Blood atonement" is the controversial concept that there are certain sins to which the atonement of Jesus does not apply, and before a Mormon who has committed such sins can achieve the highest degree of salvation, he or she must personally atone for the sin by "hav[ing] their blood spilt upon the ground, that the smoke thereof might ascend to heaven as an offering for their sins" (Young 1856a, p. 53). Blood atonement was supposed to be voluntarily practiced by the sinner, or it was contemplated as being mandatory in a theoretical theocracy which was planned for the Utah Territory, but it was supposed to be carried out with love and compassion for the sinner, not out of a desire for vengeance (Young 1857, p. 220). The concept was first taught in the mid-1850s by the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) during the Mormon Reformation, when Brigham Young governed the Utah Territory as a near-theocracy. Even though there was discussion about implementing the doctrine, there is no direct evidence that it was ever practiced by the Mormon leadership in their capacity as the leaders of both church and state (Campbell 1988, ch. 11). There is inconclusive evidence, however, to suggest that the doctrine was independently enforced a few times by Mormon individuals (Stenhouse 1873, pp. 467–71). Scholars have also argued that the doctrine contributed to a culture of violence, which, combined with paranoia that resulted from the church's long history of being persecuted, incited several extrajudicial killings by Mormons, including the Mountain Meadows Massacre (Quinn 1997).
LDS Church leaders taught the concept of blood atonement well into the 20th century within the context of government-sanctioned capital punishment, and it was responsible for laws in the state of Utah that allowed prisoners on death row to be executed by firing squad (Salt Lake Tribune, 11 May 1994, p. D1). Although the LDS Church repudiated the teaching in 1978, it still has adherents within the LDS Church as well as adherents within Mormon fundamentalism, a schismatic branch of the Latter Day Saint movement whose adherents seek to follow early Mormon teachings to the letter. Despite its repudiation by the LDS Church, the concept also survives in Mormon culture, particularly with regard to capital crimes. In 1994, when the defense in the trial of James Edward Wood alleged that a local church leader had "talked to [Wood] about shedding his own blood," the LDS Church's First Presidency submitted a document to the court that denied the church's acceptance and practice of such a doctrine, and included the 1978 repudiation.
Historically, Mormon ritual provided an example in which capital punishment is contemplated, though not necessarily required, for violations of historical blood oaths in the endowment ritual. The blood oaths in the ceremony were related to protecting the ritual's secrecy. Participants made an oath that rather than ever revealing the secret gestures of the ceremony, they would rather have: "my throat... be cut from ear to ear, and my tongue torn out by its roots," "our breasts... be torn open, our hearts and vitals torn out and given to the birds of the air and the beasts of the field," "your body... be cut asunder and all your bowels gush out," showing an entire refusal to accept the promises made in the washing and anointing ordinances (Buerger 2002, p. 141). They were changed to a reference to "different ways in which life may be taken" (Buerger 2002, p. 141). The entire "penalty" portion of the ceremony was removed by the LDS Church in 1990, and during its lifetime, there is no documented instance in which a person has been killed for violating the oaths of secrecy.
Law of vengeanceEdit
After the death of Joseph Smith, Brigham Young added an oath of vengeance to the Nauvoo endowment ritual. Participants in the ritual made an oath to pray that God would "avenge the blood of the prophets on this nation" (Buerger 2002, p. 134). "The prophets" were Joseph and Hyrum Smith, and "this nation" was the United States (Buerger 2002, p. 134). The oath was removed from the ceremony during the 1920s (Buerger 2002, pp. 139–40).
In 1877, Young noted what he viewed as a similarity between Smith's death and the blood atonement doctrine in that "whether we believe in blood atonement or not," Smith and other prophets "sealed their testimony with their blood."
Alleged instances of theological violenceEdit
Mountain Meadows MassacreEdit
The widely publicized Mountain Meadows Massacre of September 11, 1857, during the Utah War, was a mass killing of Arkansan emigrants by a Mormon militia led by prominent Mormon leader John D. Lee, who was later excommunicated and executed for his role in the killings. After escalating rumors that some of the emigrants had participated in early Mormon persecution, the militia attacked the emigrants, forced them to surrender, and killed most of them in cold blood, although a few children did survive. The Mormons forcibly adopted these children, and the massacre was blamed on largely uninvolved Indians.
Though widely connected with the blood atonement doctrine by the United States press and general public, there is no direct evidence that the massacre was related to "saving" the emigrants by the shedding of their blood (as they had not entered into Mormon covenants); rather, most commentators view it as an act of intended retribution. Brigham Young was accused with either directing the massacre, or with complicity after the fact. When Young was interviewed on the matter and asked if he believed in blood atonement, he replied, "I do, and I believe that Lee has not half atoned for his great crime." He said "we believe that execution should be done by the shedding of blood instead of by hanging," but only "according to the laws of the land" (Young 1877, p. 242).
American troops who visited the site later constructed a cairn at the site, topped with a sign saying "Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord." When Young visited the site sometime afterward, according to a Mormon present, he remarked "Vengeance is mine, and I have taken a little"; his party proceeded to destroy the cairn and memorial.
In its early days, the LDS Church was not a staunch critic of same-sex relationships. The state of Utah did not have a sodomy law until it was imposed on the state by the U.S. federal government. Nonetheless, church leaders have encouraged young male Latter-day Saints to defend themselves, physically if necessary, against sexual assaults by other men. In October 1976, LDS Church apostle Boyd K. Packer gave a sermon entitled "To Young Men Only". The sermon was later published as a pamphlet and was widely circulated to LDS young men. Openly gay historian D. Michael Quinn criticized Packer's comments, saying they constituted an endorsement of gay bashing, and he also claimed that the church itself endorses such behavior by continuing to publish Packer's speech.
On July 5, 2015, the LDS Church issued an official statement in response to the Supreme Court ruling on gay marriage and to clarify its official position of non-violence to the LGBT community:
The gospel of Jesus Christ teaches us to love and treat all people with kindness and civility—even when we disagree. We affirm that those who avail themselves of laws or court rulings authorizing same-sex marriage should not be treated disrespectfully. Indeed, the Church has advocated for rights of same-sex couples in matters of hospitalization and medical care, fair housing and employment, and probate, so long as these do not infringe on the integrity of the traditional family or the constitutional rights of churches.
List of Mormon wars and massacresEdit
|1838||Missouri||1838 Mormon War||22 (including 17 at Haun's Mill)||aka Missouri Mormon War|
|October 18, 1838||Daviess County, Missouri||Daviess County expedition||No casualties, but many were wounded||Under the command of Apostle David W. Patten, Mormons burned and looted non-Mormon homes (part of Missouri War)|
|October 24, 1838||Missouri||Battle of Crooked River||4||Under the command of Apostle David W. Patten, Mormons attacked the Missouri state militia (part of Missouri War)|
|October 30, 1838||Missouri||Haun's Mill Massacre||17||Missourian vigilantes attacked a Mormon town (part of Missouri War)|
|1844–45||Nauvoo, Illinois||Mormon War in Illinois||3||Skirmish proceeding the Mormon Exodus|
|1849||Battle Creek (Pleasant Grove, Utah)||Battle Creek||4+||Attack on Timpanogos after taking Mormon cattle|
|1850||Fort Utah (Provo, Utah)||Battle at Fort Utah||40-100 Timpanogos, 1 Mormon||Mormon settlers attacked the Timpanogos|
|1851||Skull Valley||William McBride Massacre||9 Goshutes||Captain William McBride attacked a Goshute camp after they took cattle from Charles White.|
|April 1851||Skull Valley||Porter Rockwell Massacre||around 7 Utes||In attempt to find horse thieves, Captain Porter Rockwell came upon a tribe of Utes. He took them prisoner, but after determining they didn't know anything about the horse thieves, he executed them.|
|1853||Utah||Walker War||12 Mormons and ~12 Native Americans||Series of battles between Mormon and various indigenous tribes led by Walkara|
|1857||Mountain Meadows, Utah||Mountain Meadows Massacre||120||Nauvoo Legion attacked the Baker–Fancher emigrant wagon train, resulting in the mass slaughter of the emigrant party|
|1857-1858||Utah||Utah War||some non-Mormon civilians||American troops coming into Utah after rumors of a Mormon rebellion|
|1862||Kington Fort||Morrisite War||11||Battle between the Church of the Firstborn (Morrisite) and the Utah Territorial Militia|
|1865–72||Utah||Black Hawk War (Utah)||~70 Mormons and 140 Native Americans||Series of battles led by Black Hawk involving various indigenous tribes|
|1866||Circleville, Utah||Circleville Massacre||~30 Paiutes||Circleville residents captured and executed the Paiute band as tensions in the Black Hawk War escalated.|
Violence in the Mormon scripturesEdit
There are many wars mentioned in the Book of Mormon. Battles often occur between peoples called the Nephites and Lamanites, but other groups attacked or drawn into battle included "secret combinations" (i.e., organized criminals), factions among the Jaredites, and the Army of Helaman.
The Book of Mormon concludes with a war between the Nephites and Lamanites. The final prophet of the Book of Mormon, a Nephite named Moroni, laments that his people have participated in sexual violence, torture, and cannibalism:
And notwithstanding this great abomination of the Lamanites, it doth not exceed that of our people in Moriantum. For behold, many of the daughters of the Lamanites have they taken prisoners; and after depriving them of that which was most dear and precious above all things, which is chastity and virtue—And after they had done this thing, they did murder them in a most cruel manner, torturing their bodies even unto death; and after they have done this, they devour their flesh like unto wild beasts, because of the hardness of their hearts; and they do it for a token of bravery.
Several decapitations and dismemberments are also described in the Book of Mormon. In chapter 4 of the First Book of Nephi, the prophet Nephi obeys the Holy Spirit and cuts off the head of Laban, the owner of an ancient record that would be valuable to Nephi's descendents. In Ether chapter 15, Coriantumr, a warrior and the final survivor of the Jaredites, decapitates Shiz, a Jaredite foe. In Alma chapter 17, Ammon (a Nephite missionary) defends a king's livestock by cutting off the arms of several thieves.
In chapter 9 of the Third Book of Nephi, Jesus announces to ancient Americans that he has destroyed more than a dozen cities and their inhabitants because of the inhabitants' sins. He announces that he destroyed some cities by causing them "to be burned with fire because of their sins and their wickedness," while others were "sunk in the depths of the sea" or "covered with earth". The text reports that some of the victims mourned, "O that we had repented before this great and terrible day, and had not killed and stoned the prophets, and cast them out; then would our mothers and our fair daughters, and our children have been spared".
The Book of Mormon is not unique in describing divinely directed or sanctioned violence. Additional examples appear in the Old Testament, which Mormons also consider to be sacred scripture.
- Act in Relation to Service
- Act for the relief of Indian Slaves and Prisoners
- Christianity and violence
- Criticism of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- Gladdenites (Attempted move to Utah)
- Honor killing, a practice that is similar to the Mormon concept of blood atonement
- Islam and violence
- Judaism and violence
- Latter Day Saint martyrs
- Mormon Battalion
- Pace memorandum
- Utah in the American Civil War
- Wars mentioned in the Book of Mormon
- Gregor, Anthony James (2006), The Search for Neofascism, Cambridge University Press, p. 164, ISBN 978-0-521-85920-2,
A long and doleful history of violence attended the founding, establishment, and fostering of [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints] ... Nonetheless, little purpose would be served in identifying the [church] as neofascist.
- Bagley, Will (2004), Blood of the Prophets, University of Oklahoma Press, p. xvii, ISBN 978-0-8061-3639-4
- Monroe, R.D., "Congress and the Mexican War, 1844-1849", Lincoln's Biography, Lincoln/Net: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University Libraries, retrieved 2012-04-24
- VandeCreek, Drew E., "Religion and Culture", Historical Themes, Lincoln/Net: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University Libraries, retrieved 2012-04-24
- This statement is found in Roberts 1902, p. 435, which was written by Willard Richardsin 1843 (Jessee 441). Years before making this remark, however, Smith was quoted as saying that the hanging of Judas Iscariot was not a suicide, but an execution carried out by Saint Peter (Peck 1839, pp. 26, 54–55).
- George A. Smith later changed his views on capital punishment, and would write the first criminal code in Utah which allowed both execution by firing squad and decapitation (Gardner 1979, p. 14).
- first manuscript version, minutes of general conference, LDS Archives. See Quinn 1997, p. 531, n.140.
- April 6, 1844, statement compiled on April 24, 1844, by Thomas Bullock, LDS Church Archives. See Quinn 1997, p. 531, n.140.
- Diary of Thomas Bullock, 13 December 1846.
- Diary of Willard Richards, Dec. 20, 1846; Watson, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 1846-1847, p. 480.
- Diary of Mary Haskin Parker Richards, 16 Apr. 1848.
- Daniel Davis diary, 8 July 1849, LDS archives, quoted in (Quinn 1997, p. 247).
- Stack, Peggy Fletcher (November 5, 1994), "Concept of Blood Atonement Survives in Utah Despite Repudiation", Salt Lake Tribune,
In the past decade, potential jurors in every Utah capital homicide were asked whether they believed in the Mormon concept of 'blood atonement.'The article also notes that Arthur Gary Bishop, a convicted serial killer, was told by a top church leader that "blood atonement ended with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ."
- Journal of Discourses 18:361 (May 6, 1877).
- Karakuer, Jon. Under the Banner of Heaven. New York: Anchor Books. p. 232. ISBN 1-4000-3280-6.
- Lippy, Charles H. (2006), Faith in America, Praeger Publishers, pp. 108–109, ISBN 978-0-275-98605-6
- Swedin, Gottfrid (2003), Healing souls, University of Illinois Press, pp. 173–174, ISBN 978-0-252-02864-9
- Quinn 2001, pp. 375–377
- Holland, Jeffrey R. (October 2007), "Helping Those Who Struggle with Same-Gender Attraction", Ensign
- Quinn 2001, pp. 382–384
- "The LDS Church (Mormons) & homosexuality. Church statements: 1976 to 1999". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 2012-04-24.; Packer had said, "There are some men who entice young men to join them in these immoral acts. If you are ever approached to participate in anything like that, it is time to vigorously resist. While I was in a mission on one occasion, a missionary said he had something to confess. I was very worried because he just could not get himself to tell me what he had done. After patient encouragement he finally blurted out, "I hit my companion." "Oh, is that all," I said in great relief. "But I floored him," he said. After learning a little more, my response was "Well, thanks. Somebody had to do it, and it wouldn't be well for a General Authority to solve the problem that way" I am not recommending that course to you, but I am not omitting it. You must protect yourself." Packer 1976
- "Interview of D. Michael Quinn". PBS. 30 April 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Quinn, D. Michael (Fall 2000), "Prelude to the National 'Defense of Marriage' Campaign: Civil Discrimination Against Feared or Despised Minorities" (PDF), Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 33 (3): 1–52
- "Top Church Leaders Counsel Members After Supreme Court Same Sex Marriage Decision", MormonNewsRoom.org, retrieved 31 Aug 2015
- Moroni 9:9–10.
- 1 Nephi 4.
- Ether 15:29–32.
- Alma 17.
- 3 Nephi 9.
- 3 Nephi 8:25.
- Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1889), The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft: History of Utah, 1540–1886, 26, San Francisco: History Company.
- Beck, Martha (2005), Leaving the Saints, New York: Crown Publishers, ISBN 0-609-60991-2.
- Buerger, David John (2002), The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (2nd ed.), Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-176-7.
- Campbell, Eugene E. (1988), Establishing Zion: The Mormon Church in the American West, 1847–1869, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, archived from the original on 2007-08-08.
- Cannon, Frank J.; Knapp, George L. (1913), Brigham Young and His Mormon Empire, New York: Fleming H. Revell Co..
- Cummings, Richard J (1982), "Quintessential Mormonism: Literal-mindedness as a Way of Life", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 15 (4), archived from the original on 2011-06-13.
- Denton, Sally (2003), American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857, London: Secker & Warburg, ISBN 0-436-27601-1.
- Evans, Richard C (1920), Forty Years in the Mormon Church: Why I Left It, Self published, ISBN 0-665-74163-4.
- Gardner, Martin R (Spring 1979), "Mormonism and Capital Punishment: A Doctrinal Perspective, Past and Present", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 12 (1), archived from the original on 2011-06-13.
- Grant, Jedediah M. (March 12, 1854), "Discourse", Deseret News (published July 27, 1854), 4 (20), pp. 1–2, ISBN 0-9653734-4-4, archived from the original on December 15, 2012.
- Grant, Jedediah M. (September 21, 1856), "Rebuking Iniquity", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards (published 1857), pp. 49–51.
- Jessee, Dean C. (1971), "The Writing of Joseph Smith's History" (PDF), BYU Studies, 11 (4): 439–73, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27.
- Kimball, Heber C. (January 11, 1857a), "The Body of Christ-Parable of the Vine-A Wile Enthusiastic Spirit Not of God-The Saints Should Not Unwisely Expose Each Others' Follies", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards (published 1857), pp. 164–81.
- Kimball, Heber C. (August 16, 1857b), "Limits of Forebearance-Apostates-Economy-Giving Endowments", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards (published 1857), pp. 374–76.
- Krakauer, Jon (2003), Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith, Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-50951-0.
- Lambert, Neal E.; Cracroft, Richard H. (March 1972), "Through Gentile Eyes: A Hundred Years of the Mormon in Fiction", New Era, Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church.
- May, Dean L (1987), Utah: A People's History, Salt Lake City, Utah: Bonneville Books, ISBN 0-87480-284-9.
- McConkie, Bruce R (1966), Mormon Doctrine (2 ed.), Salt Lake City, ISBN 0-88494-446-8.
- McConkie, Bruce R (October 18, 1978), Letter from Bruce R. McConkie to Thomas B. McAffee.
- McKeever, Bill, Blood Atonement - If It Was Never Taught, Why Do So Many Mormons Believe It?, Mormonism Research Ministry, retrieved 2012-04-24.
- Packer, Boyd K. (1976), To Young Men Only: General Conference Priesthood Session, October 2, 1976, LDS Church.
- Parker, Mike, Did Brigham Young Say that He Would Kill an Adulterous Wife with a Javelin?, Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research (FAIR).
- Peck, Reed (September 18, 1839), Reed Peck manuscript, Quincy Adams City, Illinois.
- Penrose, Charles W. (November 17, 1880), "Capital Punishment for Capital Crime", Deseret News, 29 (42), p. 664, archived from the original on October 21, 2013.
- Penrose, Charles W. (July 4, 1883), "An Unpardonable Offense", Deseret News, 32 (24), p. 376[permanent dead link].
- Penrose, Charles W. (1884), Blood Atonement, As Taught by Leading Elders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City.
- Pratt, Parley P. (December 31, 1855), "Marriage and Morals in Utah", Deseret News (published January 16, 1856), 5 (45), pp. 356–57, archived from the original on October 21, 2013.
- Quinn, D. Michael (1997), The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-060-4.
- Quinn, D. Michael (2001), Same-Sex Dynamics Among Nineteenth-Century Americans: A Mormon Example, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 978-0-252-06958-1.
- Roberts, B. H., ed. (1902), History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1, Salt Lake City: Deseret News.
- Roberts, B. H., ed. (1909), History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 5, Salt Lake City: Deseret News.
- Roberts, B. H., ed. (1932), History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 7, Salt Lake City: Deseret News.
- Smith, Joseph Fielding (1954), McConkie, Bruce R., ed., Doctrines of Salvation, 1, Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, ISBN 0-88494-041-1.
- Smith, Joseph Fielding (1957), "The Doctrine of Blood Atonement", Answers to Gospel Questions, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book: 180–91.
- Smith, Joseph (May 1971), "The King Follett Sermon", Ensign, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
- Smith, William (October 29, 1845), "A Proclamation", Warsaw Signal, Warsaw, Illinois, 2 (32), ISBN 0-8006-4180-9.
- Snow, Lowell M (1992), "Blood Atonement", in Ludlow, Daniel H., Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 1, New York: Macmillan, p. 131.
- Stenhouse, T.B.H. (1873), The Rocky Mountain Saints: a Full and Complete History of the Mormons, from the First Vision of Joseph Smith to the Last Courtship of Brigham Young, New York: D. Appleton.
- Taylor, John (January 1884), "Ecclesiastical Control in Utah", North American Review, 138 (326): 1–13.
- Young, Brigham (February 5, 1852), Speech by Gov. Young in Joint Session of the Legeslature (sic), Brigham Young Addresses, Ms d 1234, Box 48, folder 3, LDS Church Historical Department, Salt Lake City, Utah.
- Young, Brigham (May 8, 1853), "President B. Young's Journey South—Indian Difficulties—Walker—Watching and Prayer—Thieves and Their Desserts—Eastern Intelligence—Financial State of the Church—Gaining Knowledge, etc.", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 1, Liverpool: F.D. & S.W. Richards (published 1854), pp. 103–120.
- Young, Brigham (March 2, 1856a), "The Necessity of the Saints Living up to the Light Which Has Been Given Them", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 3, Liverpool: Orson Pratt (published 1856), pp. 221–226.
- Young, Brigham (March 16, 1856b), "Instructions to the Bishops—Men Judged According to their Knowledge—Organization of the Spirit and Body—Thought and Labor to be Blended Together", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 3, Liverpool: Orson Pratt (published 1856), pp. 243–49.
- Young, Brigham (September 21, 1856c), "The People of God Disciplined by Trials—Atonement by the Shedding of Blood—Our Heavenly Father—A Privilege Given to all the Married Sisters in Utah", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards (published 1857), pp. 51–63.
- Young, Brigham (February 8, 1857), "To Know God is Eternal Life—God the Father of Our Spirits and Bodies—Things Created Spiritually First—Atonement by the Shedding of Blood", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards (published 1857), pp. 215–21.
- Young, Brigham (March 8, 1863), "The Persecutions of the Saints—Their Loyalty to the Constitution—The Mormon Battalion—The Laws of God Relative to the African Race", in Watt, G.D.; Long, J.V., Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 10, Liverpool: Daniel H. Wells (published 1865), pp. 104–111.
- Young, Brigham (April 7, 1867), "The Word of Wisdom—Degeneracy—Wickedness in the United States—How to Prolong Life", in Watt, G.D.; Sloan, E.L.; Evans, D.W., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 12, Liverpool: Albert Carrington (published 1869), pp. 117–123, ISBN 0-548-11500-1.
- Young, Brigham (April 30, 1877), "Interview with Brigham Young", Deseret News (published May 23, 1877), 26 (16), pp. 242–43, archived from the original on October 21, 2013.
- "Peace and Violence among 19th-Century Latter-day Saints", Gospel Topics, LDS.org, LDS Church
- Stack, Peggy Fletcher (May 13, 2014), "lds.org essay explores violent acts by and against Mormons", Salt Lake Tribune