Oath of vengeance
In Mormonism, the oath of vengeance (or law of vengeance) was an oath that was made by participants in the endowment ritual of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) between about 1845 and the early 1930s, in which participants vowed to pray that God would avenge the blood of the prophets Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith, who were assassinated in 1844 by a mob.
Incorporation into the Nauvoo EndowmentEdit
The oath of vengeance was an addition made to the Nauvoo endowment under the direction of Brigham Young by 1845 in the Nauvoo Temple, soon after the 1844 death of Joseph Smith. Participants agreed to be bound by the following oath:
You and each of you do covenant and promise that you will pray and never cease to pray to Almighty God to avenge the blood of the prophets upon this nation, and that you will teach the same to your children and to your children's children unto the third and fourth generation.
The oath entered the endowment at a time when many Mormons hoped for retribution for the deaths of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. At least one member of the LDS First Presidency understood the oath to include a personal obligation that, "if he had ever met any of those who had taken a hand in that massacre he would undoubtedly have attempted to avenge the blood of the martyrs." However, other Mormons understood the oath to require only prayer for God's vengeance, and not any obligation to take vengeance personally.
The prayer to which endowed Mormons obligated themselves took place, in at least some cases, as part of the Mormon prayer circle ceremony, which was also part of the endowment, but was often performed separately.
Blood atonement is the idea that spilled blood "cries out" for retribution and finds several examples in Mormon scripture as well as numerous references in the speeches and writings of early LDS Church leaders. In the Bible, for example, the blood of Abel ascended to the ears of God after he was killed by Cain (Genesis 4:10). In the Book of Mormon, the "blood of a righteous man" (Gideon) was said to "come upon" the theocratic leader Alma "for vengeance" against the murderer (Nehor) (Alma 1:13). Mormon scripture also refers to the "cry" of the blood of the saints ascending from the ground up to the ears of God as a testimony against those who killed them (2 Nephi 26: 3; D&C 88:6).
According to Brigham Young, it was inevitable that Joseph Smith's blood, and the blood of all martyrs to the faith, would be "atoned for" in "His own due time". Their blood, he said, was "under the altar" and "crying to God, day and night, for vengeance". Young was the most prolific author of speeches referencing blood atonement; his most direct speech stated that a person who "has committed a sin that he knows will deprive him of that exaltation which he desires, and that he cannot attain to it without the shedding of his blood, and also knows that by having his blood shed he will atone for that sin, and be saved and exalted with the Gods, is there a man or woman in this house but what would say, 'shed my blood that I may be saved and exalted with the Gods?' All mankind love themselves, and let these principles be known by an individual, and he would be glad to have his blood shed. That would be loving themselves, even unto an eternal exaltation. Will you love your brothers or sisters likewise, when they have committed a sin that cannot be atoned for without the shedding of their blood? Will you love that man or woman well enough to shed their blood? That is what Jesus Christ meant."
The oath of vengeance was referenced by John D. Lee in his confession of his involvement in the Mountain Meadows massacre. Lee stated, "I believed then as I do now, that it was the will of every true Mormon in Utah, at that time, that the enemies of the Church should be killed as fast as possible, and that as this lot of people had men amongst them that were supposed to have helped kill the Prophets in the Carthage jail, the killing of all of them would be keeping our oaths and avenging the blood of the Prophets." After the events of the massacre became known to the U.S. government, Lee was the only man out of the dozens of participants who was executed by Utah's territorial government. In keeping with Mormon beliefs about blood atonement, Lee was executed by firing squad. Until 2004, Utah's capital punishment laws allowed the condemned to choose execution by firing squad.
Removal from EndowmentEdit
Beginning in 1919, LDS Church president Heber J. Grant appointed a committee charged with revising the endowment ceremony, which was done under the direction of apostle George F. Richards from 1921 to 1929. Richards revised the ceremony to eliminate the oath of vengeance, and the revision was formally implemented in the early 1930s.
A woman known only as "Mrs G.H.R." attended an endowment ceremony in September 1879 in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. She provided the information for a Salt Lake Tribune article detailing the endowment ceremony. In it, she described the oath of vengeance.
In 1889, several members of the LDS Church that had emigrated from other countries applied for citizenship to the United States. Their loyalty to the United States was called into question due to rumors of oaths taken during the endowment ceremony. The following testimonies are found in the transcripts of those court proceedings.
Abraham H. Cannon, a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the LDS Church, wrote in his diary, December 6, 1889, the description his father, apostle George Q. Cannon gave of the oath of vengeance.
Relation to other Mormon "blood" doctrinesEdit
Because LDS Church members are advised against speaking in detail about the rituals of the temple, there are few records regarding interrelated doctrines and rituals once they have been altered or removed. Blood atonement is usually a more general concept, with specific temple rituals such as the oath of vengeance and "blood oaths" or "penalties" acting as specific applications of blood atonement.
The blood oaths in the LDS Church temple ceremony, which were discontinued church-wide in 1990, depicted a willingness to have one's throat cut from ear to ear should the participant reveal certain portions of the sacred rituals or fail to keep promises given during the washing and anointing ordinances.
The oath of vengeance is related to blood atonement in that both require capital punishment for sins regarded as unusually heinous. In early Mormonism, repentance for crimes such as murder or adultery, where restitution is not possible, involved personal sacrifice in order to make redemption possible through the atonement of Jesus Christ. Blood atonement was preached as a method of personal redemption, preferably voluntary, that could reinstate the possibility of salvation.
- Buerger (1987, p. 53).
- Buerger (1987, p. 52), citing Burrows & Foraker (1906, pp. 6–7); see also Burrows & Foraker (1904a, pp. 741–43, 791–92); Burrows & Foraker (1904b, pp. 77–79, 148–49, 151–53, 160–62, 181–83, 189–90, 759, 762–64, 779); Burrows & Foraker (1906, pp. 68–69, 495–97); Krakauer (2003, p. 196).
- Buerger (2002, p. 134).
- Buerger (1987, p. 53), citing the example of Allen Stout, a former Danite, who upon seeing the coffins of Joseph and Hyrum, vowed that he "would never let an opportunity slip unimproved of avenging their blood."
- Buerger (1987, pp. 53–54).
- Buerger (1987, p. 54)
- Testimony of disaffected Mormon August W. Lundstrom before the United States Senate, as reported in Burrows & Foraker (1904b, p. 161).
- Bancroft & Hubert Howe (1859, p. 358)
- Young (1853, p. 32).
- Young (1853, p. 32).
- Journal of Discourses, vol.4, pp. 215–21.
- The Confession of John D. Lee, Mountain Meadows Association[full citation needed]
- Buerger (2002, pp. 139–40).
- Diary of Heber C. Kimball (21 December 1845),[full citation needed] saying that in the temple he had "covenanted, and will never rest … until those men who killed Joseph and Hyrum have been wiped out of the earth".
- Van Duesen (1846), pp. 3–9. "We are required to kneel at this altar, where we have an oath administered to us to this effect; that we will avenge the blood of Joseph Smith on this Nation, and teach our children the same. They tell us that the nation has winked at the abuse and persecution of the Mormons, and the murder of the Prophet in particular; Therefore the Lord is displeased with the nation, and means to destroy it; and this is the excuse for forming this league or conspiracy."
- Young (1876), p. [page needed], Chapter 22, Section 368. "[W]e swore that we would use every exertion to avenge the death of our Prophet Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum upon the Gentile race, and to teach our children to foster this spirit of revenge also".
- Mrs. G.H.R. (1879), p. 4. "We were then made to swear to avenge the deaths of Joseph Smith, the martyr, together with that of his brother, Hyrum, on this American nation, and that we would teach our children and our children's children to do so. The penalty for this grip and oath was disembowelment."
- McMillan (1903), pp. 10–11. John Bond: "The second one, I was put under, was to avenge the blood of the prophets against the Government of the United States, teach that to my children and my children's children from generation to generation, and everlastingly keep them after them. The penalty, I believe, was that the heart, or the bowels, would be torn out,—something to that effect, so far as my memory will carry me."
- McMillan (1903), pp. 16–17. Bishop Andrew Cannon: "Well, as near as I can remember I was sworn to avenge to blood of the prophets, that was understood, indirectly, to refer to Joseph Smith. ... The understanding was, that any parties who were guilty, or consented to their death, as near as I understand it. "
- Cannon, entry for December 6, 1889, p. 205. "About 4:30 p.m. this meeting adjourned and was followed by a meeting of Presidents Woodruff, Cannon and Smith and Bros. Lyman and Grant. ... In speaking of the recent examination before Judge Anderson Father said that he understood when he had his endowments in Nauvoo that he took an oath against the murderers of the Prophet Joseph as well as other prophets, and if he had ever met any of those who had taken a hand in that massacre he would undoubtedly have attempted to avenge the blood of the martyrs."
- United States Senate (1904b), pp. 79, 149-149. J. H. Wallis, Sr.:"That you and each of you will never cease to importune High Heaven for vengeance upon this nation for the blood of the prophets who have been slain."
- United States Senate (1904b), pp. 152–53, 161. August W. Lundstrum: "We and each of us solemnly covenant and promise that we shall ask God to avenge the blood of Joseph Smith upon this nation. There is something more added, but that is all I can remember verbatim. That is the essential part. ... It was in regard to teaching our children and children's children to the last generation to the same effect."
- United States Senate (1904b), p. 189. Mrs. Annie Elliott: "One, I remember, they told me to pray and never cease to pray to get revenge on the blood of the prophets on this nation, and also teach it to my children and children's children."
- E.g., Butler, Shanna (January 2006), "How to Talk about the Temple", New Era: 44
- Buerger 2002
- Buerger 2002, p. 141
- Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1889), The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Vol. XXVI: History of Utah 1540-1886, San Francisco: The History Company.
- Buerger, David John (1987), "The Development of the Mormon Temple Endowment Ceremony", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 20 (4): 33–76, archived from the original on 2011-06-13.
- Buerger, David John (2002), The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (2nd ed.), Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-176-7.
- Cannon, Abraham H., Daily Journal of Abraham H. Cannon.[full citation needed]
- Krakauer, John (2003), Under the Banner of Heaver: A Story of Violent Faith (1st ed.), New York: Doubleday, a Division of Random House, ISBN 0-385-50951-0.
- McMillan, Henry G., ed. (1903), The Inside of Mormonism: A Judicial Examination of the Endowment Oaths Administered in All the Mormon Temples, by the United States District Court for the Third Judicial District of Utah, to Determine Whether Membership in the Mormon Church Is Consistent with Citizenship in the United States, Salt Lake City: The Utah Americans.
- Mrs. G.H.R. (1879), Lifting the Vail, Salt Lake City, Utah: Salt Lake Tribune (published September 28, 1879).
- United States Senate (1904a), Burrows, Julius Caesar; Foraker, Joseph Benson, eds., Proceedings Before the Committee on Privileges and Elections of the United States Senate in the Matter of the Protests Against the Right of Hon. Reed Smoot, a Senator from the State of Utah, to Hold His Seat, 1, Washington: Government Printing Office.
- United States Senate (1904b), Burrows, Julius Caesar; Foraker, Joseph Benson, eds., Proceedings Before the Committee on Privileges and Elections of the United States Senate in the Matter of the Protests Against the Right of Hon. Reed Smoot, a Senator from the State of Utah, to Hold His Seat, 2, Washington: Government Printing Office.
- United States Senate (1906), Burrows, Julius Caesar; Foraker, Joseph Benson, eds., Proceedings Before the Committee on Privileges and Elections of the United States Senate in the Matter of the Protests Against the Right of Hon. Reed Smoot, a Senator from the State of Utah, to Hold His Seat, 4, Washington: Government Printing Office.
- Van Duesen, Increase (1846), The Mormon Endowment; A Secret Drama, or Conspiracy, in the Nauvoo Temple, in 1846, Syracuse, New York: N. M. D. Lathrop (published 1847).
- Young, Ann Eliza (1876), Wife No. 19: A Life In Bondage. A Full Expose of Mormonism, Chicago, Illinois; Cincinnati, Ohio: Dustin, Gilman and Co.
- Young, Brigham (April 6, 1853), "Necessity of Building Temples—the Endowment", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 2, Liverpool: F.D. & S.W. Richards (published 1855), pp. 29–33.