The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Western culture and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Gay bashing and gay bullying is an attack, abuse, or assault committed against a person who is perceived by the aggressor to be gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. The attack may be physical or verbal. This can also include abuse, bullying or assaults perpetrated against a heterosexual person who the attacker perceives to be LGBT.
A "bashing" may be a specific, violent incident, with the verb form being used: to bash (e.g. "I was gay bashed."). Physical gay bashings have involved extreme violence and murder, such as the fatal gay bashing of Matthew Shepard. A verbal gay bashing might use sexual slurs, expletives, intimidation, and threatened violence. It also might take place in a political forum and include one or more common anti-gay slogans.
Bullying of gay/LGBT people involves intentional actions toward the victim, repeated negative actions by one or more people against another person, and an imbalance of physical or psychological power. Similar terms such as gay bullying, lesbian bullying, queer bullying, and queer bashing may also be formed.
Homophobia and gay bashing are longstanding and current issues, and have been officially documented worldwide for as long as gay people have been documented. Homophobia in the United States was widely documented in the press in the late 1940s and early 1950s, when many gay people were forced out of government by boards set up by Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower. As historian David K. Johnson explains:
The Lavender Scare helped fan the flames of the Red Scare. In popular discourse, communists and homosexuals were often conflated. Both groups were perceived as hidden subcultures with their own meeting places, literature, cultural codes, and bonds of loyalty. Both groups were thought to recruit to their ranks the psychologically weak or disturbed. And both groups were considered immoral and godless. Many people believed that the two groups were working together to undermine the government.
Johnson concludes that Senator Joe McCarthy, notorious for his attacks on alleged communists in government, was often pressured by his allies to denounce homosexuals in government, but he resisted and did not do so. Using rumors collected by Drew Pearson, one Nevada publisher wrote in 1952 that both McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, were homosexuals.[note 1] Washington Post editor Benjamin C. Bradlee said, "There was a lot of time spent investigating" these allegations, "although no one came close to proving it." No reputable McCarthy biographer has accepted it as probable.[note 2]
Bullying of LGBT youthEdit
Egale Canada conducted a survey of more than 3700 high school students in Canada between December 2007 and June 2009. The final report of the survey, "Every Class in Every School", published in 2011, found that 70% of all students participating heard "that's so gay" daily at school, and 48% of respondents heard "faggot", "lezbo" and "dyke" daily. 58% or about 1400 of the 2400 heterosexual students participating in EGALE's survey found homophobic comments upsetting. Further, EGALE found that students not directly affected by homophobia, biphobia or transphobia were less aware of it. This finding relates to research done in the area of empathy gaps for social pain which suggests that those not directly experiencing social pain (in this case, bullying) consistently underestimate its effects and thus may not adequately respond to the needs of one experiencing social pain.
Graffiti found on school grounds and property, and its "relative permanence", is another form of queer bullying.
A research study of 78 eleven to fourteen-year-old boys conducted in twelve schools in London, England between 1998 and 1999 revealed that respondents who used the word "gay" to label another boy in a derogatory manner intended the word as "just a joke", "just a cuss" and not as a statement of one's perceived sexual orientation. American sociologist Michael Kimmel and American psychologist Gregory Herek write that masculinity is a renunciation of the feminine and that males shore up their sense of their masculinity by denigrating the feminine and ultimately the homosexual. Building on the notion of masculinity defining itself by what it is not, some researchers suggest that in fact the renunciation of the feminine may be misogyny. These intertwining issues were examined in 2007, when American sociologist CJ Pascoe described what she calls the "fag discourse" at an American high school in her book, Dude, You're a Fag.
Gay and lesbian youth are more likely to report bullying. In one study, boys who were bullied with taunts of being gay suffered more bullying and more negative effects compared with boys who were bullied with other categories of taunting.
Stress, anxiety and depression in LGBT communitiesEdit
Gay and lesbian youth can develop severe forms of depression and anxiety as they grow up. 71.4% of LGBT people experience Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). For LGBT individuals, MDD can be caused by any of the following: self-esteem, pressure to conform, minority stress, coming out, family rejection, parenting, relationship formation, and violence. Self-esteem and pressure to conform can cause anxiety for LGBT youth. When they are told what to look like and who to love, it puts a toll on their self-esteem. When people make comments about who they are, what they look like, who they love, etc. it begins to make them feel insecure, and as though they aren't good enough the way they are.
"Coming-out" is when an LGBT individual makes it known that they are gay, lesbian, etc. Coming out can be very stressful, and youth need family support at this time. But often they instead experience rejection, leaving them feeling unwanted and unloved. This can set them into a downward spiral of depression. Parenting and relationship formation are very closely related. It was only in March 2016, that it became legal for LGBT parents to adopt in all 50 states. Not being able to conceive their own child can already cause depression, but being denied the right to adopt has caused LGBT people additional pain and stress. Minority stress is defined as a stress experienced by LGBT individuals due to their sexual orientation/gender identity. Violence can slip anybody into a depressed state whether the violence is a type of physical abuse, mental abuse, or verbal abuse. A person can be harassed to the point where their depression becomes too much and they no longer experience any happiness. These factors all work together and make it extremely hard to avoid MDD.
Effect of bullying on LGBT youthEdit
Being bullied can make victims feel chronically sad and unsafe in the world. Bullying will affect a student's experience of school. Some victims might feel paralyzed and withdraw socially as a coping mechanism. Other victims of queer bullying may begin to live the effects of learned helplessness. Queer or questioning students may try to pass as heterosexual in order to avoid queer bullying. Passing isolates the student from other queer or questioning students, potential allies, and support. Adults who try to pass also may feel the effects emotionally and psychologically, of this effort to conceal their true identities. Queer and questioning youth who experience bullying have a higher incidence of substance abuse and STI and HIV infection, which may carry through to adulthood. Queer bullying may also be seen as a manifestation of what American academic Ilan Meyer calls minority stress, which may affect sexual and ethno-racial minorities attempting to exist within a challenging broader society.
Homophobic and transphobic violence in educational settings can be categorized as explicit and implicit. Explicit homophobic and transphobic violence consists of overt acts that make subjects feel uncomfortable, hurt, humiliated or intimidated. Peers and educational staff are unlikely to intervene when witnessing these incidents. This contributes to normalizing such acts that become accepted as either a routine disciplinary measure or a means to resolve conflicts among students. Homophobic and transphobic violence – as with all school-related gender-based violence – is acutely underreported due to subjects’ fear of retribution, combined with inadequate or non-existent reporting, support and redress systems. The absence of effective policies, protection or remedies contributes to a vicious cycle where incidents become increasingly normal.
Implicit homophobic and transphobic violence, sometimes called ‘symbolic violence’ or ‘institutional’ violence, is subtler than explicit violence. It consists of pervasive representations or attitudes that sometimes feel harmless or natural to the school community, but that allow or encourage homophobia and transphobia, including perpetuating harmful stereotypes. Policies and guidelines can reinforce or embed these representations or attitudes, whether in an individual institution or across an entire education sector. This way, they can become part of everyday practices and rules guiding school behaviour. Examples of implicit homophobic and transphobic violence include:
- Asserting that some subjects are better suited to students based on their sexual orientation or gender identity/expression (for example, science for heterosexual male students and drama for gay male students).
- Suggesting that it is normal for heterosexual students to have greater agency or influence (for example, with the opinions of LGBTI students treated as marginal and unimportant).
- Reinforcing stereotypes related to sexual orientation or gender identity/expression in curriculum materials or teacher training, such as through images and discourse (for example, that refer to heterosexuality as ‘normal’).
- Reinforcing stereotypes related to sexual orientation or gender identity/expression in educational policies, rules and regulations (for example, by not even acknowledging that LGBTI students are part of the school community and by not specifying them in relevant policies).
Statistics and examplesEdit
Teens face harassment, threats, and violence. A 1998 study in the US by Mental Health America found that students heard anti-gay slurs such as "homo", "faggot" and "sissy" about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutes. In a study conducted by the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, a union for UK professionals, the word "gay" was reported to be the most popular term of abuse heard by teachers on a regular basis.
About two-thirds of gay and lesbian students in British schools have suffered from gay bullying in 2007, according to a study done by the Schools Education Unit for LGB activist group Stonewall. Almost all that had been bullied had experienced verbal attacks, 41 percent had been physically attacked, and 17 percent had received death threats. It also showed that over 50% of teachers did not respond to homophobic language which they had explicitly heard in the classroom, and only 25% of schools had told their students that homophobic bullying was wrong, showing "a shocking picture of the extent of homophobic bullying undertaken by fellow pupils and, alarmingly, school staff", with further studies conducted by the same charity in 2012 stated that 90% of teachers had had no training on the prevention of homophobic bullying. However, Ofsted's new 2012 framework did ask schools what they would be doing in order to combat the issue.
The rate of suicide is higher among LGBT people. According to a 1979 Jay and Young study, 40 percent of gay men and 39 percent of gay women in the US had attempted or seriously thought about suicide. In the same study conducted by the Schools Education Unit for LGB activist group Stonewall, an online survey reported that 71 percent of the girl participants who identified as LGBTQ, and 57 percent of the boy participants who identified as LGBTQ had seriously considered suicide. In 1985, F. Paris estimated that suicides by gay youth may comprise up to 30 percent of all youth suicides in the US. This contributes to suicide being the third leading cause for death among youth aged 10–24, reported by the CDC. The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention has found that gay, lesbian and bisexual youth attempt suicide at a rate three to six times that of similar-age heterosexual youth. The Schools Education Unit also reports that in the same online survey, 25 percent of the people who identified as LGBTQ, have attempted to commit suicide.
- In 1996, Jamie Nabozny won a landmark lawsuit (Nabozny v. Podlesny) against officials at his former public high school in Ashland, Wisconsin over their refusal to intervene in the "relentless antigay verbal and physical abuse by fellow students" to which he had been subjected and which had resulted in his hospitalization.
- Matthew Shepard was an American college student at the University of Wyoming who was both tortured and murdered in Laramie, Wyoming in October 1998, allegedly due to his sexual orientation. His death ultimately led to anti-bullying legislation such as the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act.
- High school student Derek Henkle faced inaction from school officials when repeatedly harassed by his peers in Reno, Nevada. His lawsuit against the school district and several administrators ended in a 2002 settlement in which the district agreed to create a series of policies to protect gay and lesbian students and to pay Henkle $451,000.
- Damilola Taylor was attacked by a local gang of youths on November 27, 2000 in Peckham, South London; he bled to death after being stabbed with a broken bottle in the thigh, which severed the femoral artery. The BBC, Telegraph, Guardian and Independent newspapers reported at the time that during the weeks between arriving in the UK from Nigeria and the attack he had been subjected to bullying and beating, which included homophobic remarks by a group of boys at his school. "The bullies told him that he was gay." He "may not have understood why he was being bullied at school, or why some other children taunted him about being 'gay' – the word meant nothing to him." He had to ask his mother what 'gay' meant, she said "Boys were swearing at him, saying lots of horrible words. They were calling him names." His mother had spoken about this bullying, but the teachers failed to take it seriously. "She said pupils had accused her son of being gay and had beaten him last Friday." One month after the murder, his father said, "I spoke to him and he was crying that he was being bullied and being called names. He was being called 'gay'." In the New Statesman two years later, when there had still been no convictions for the crime, Peter Tatchell, gay human rights campaigner, said, "In the days leading up to his murder in south London in November 2000, he was subjected to vicious homophobic abuse and assaults," and asked why the authorities had ignored this before and after his death.
- In 2009, Carl Joseph Walker Hoover, an 11-year-old boy in Springfield, Massachusetts, hanged himself with an electrical cord. His mother said his classmates at his middle school had bullied and called him "gay" on a daily basis.
- In 2010, a gay man from Cameroon was granted asylum in the United Kingdom after reporting that he had been attacked by an angry mob in Cameroon after they saw him kissing his male partner. The Communications Minister of Cameroon, Issa Tchiroma, denied the allegation of persecution of homosexuals.
- Tyler Clementi committed suicide on September 22, 2010, after his roommate at Rutgers University secretly recorded his sexual encounter with another man.
- A 32-year-old man in Paisley, Scotland was bullied and harassed by his employer, a Glasgow publishing firm, before he was fired. He later sued the company and won a £120,000 award.
- On October 14, 2011, Canadian teenager Jamie Hubley, the son of Ottawa city councillor Allan Hubley, committed suicide after having blogged for a month about the anti-gay bullying he was facing at school. The bullying had begun as early as Grade 7, with students on Jamie's bus attempting to stuff batteries in his mouth because he preferred figure skating over hockey.
- Phillip Parker, a 14-year-old openly gay student in Gordonsville, Tennessee, was found dead on January 20, 2012. He committed suicide because of gay bullying. His father, who is also named Phillip, says that "That's my son. I love him. I miss him. He shouldn't have had to kill himself to be brought to life." Along the body was a letter, which was written: "Please help me mom".
- Kenneth Weishuhn, a 14-year-old freshman from South O'Brien High School in Iowa, hanged himself in his family's garage after intense anti-gay bullying, cyberbullying and death threats in 2012. His suicide was covered nationally and raised questions about what culpability bullies have in suicides.
- Jadin Bell, a 15-year-old youth in La Grande, Oregon, tried to commit suicide by hanging after intense anti-gay bullying at his high school in 2013. After life support was removed, Bell died at the OHSU hospital. His father Joe Bell started a walk across America to raise awareness about gay bullying, but was hit and killed by a truck halfway through his journey.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2010)
In the Philippines, legislators implemented Republic Act No. 10627, otherwise known as the Anti-Bullying Act of 2013, in schools. According to the said law, gender-based bullying is defined as ˮany act that humiliates or excludes a person on the basis of perceived or actual sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI)ˮ.
Notable in the United States is the It Gets Better Project, for which celebrities and ordinary LGBT people make YouTube videos and share messages of hope for gay teens. The organization works with USA, The Trevor Project and the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. The Safe Schools Coalition provides resources for teachers and students where bullying is a problem. Egale Canada works with LGBT Canadian citizens. In Brazil, the Gay Group of Bahia (Grupo Gay da Bahia) provides support. LGBT South Africans can turn to the South African Human Rights Commission.[failed verification]
- After McCarthy called him an ex-Communist, Hank Greenspun wrote: "It is common talk among homosexuals in Milwaukee who rendezvous in the White Horse Inn that Senator Joe McCarthy has often engaged in homosexual activities." Las Vegas Sun, October 25, 1952. McCarthy later explained he meant to call Greenspun an ex-convict (which was true), rather than an ex-Communist (which was false).
- The allegations are specifically rejected in Richard Rovere, Senator Joe McCarthy (1969), p. 68; see also Robert D. Dean, Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (2001) p. 149 (includes Bradlee quote); Kyle A. Cuordileone, Manhood and American Political Culture in the Cold War (2003), p. 94; Thomas Patrick Doherty, Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture, (2003), p. 228. Geoff Schumacher, Sun, Sin & Suburbia: An Essential History of Modern Las Vegas (2004), p. 144, concludes, "Greenspun descended into mud-spewing rhetoric that would make the National Enquirer blanch." Knowing that McCarthy would not dare enter Nevada, where he would be served with a lawsuit for defaming Greenspun, Greenspun punished McCarthy with his own weapon of anonymous, scandalous accusations.
- "Bullying Myths and Facts". US Dept of Education. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- Meyer, Doug (2015). Violence against Queer People. Rutgers University Press.
- Rogers, Thomas (December 12, 2010). "Explaining American schools' gay bullying epidemic". Salon.com. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Sears, Brad; Hunter, Nan D.; Mallory, Christy (September 2009). Documenting Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in State Employment (PDF). Los Angeles: The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Public Policy at UCLA School of Law. p. 5–3.
From 1947 to 1961, more than 5,000 allegedly homosexual federal civil servants lost their jobs in the purges for no reason other than sexual orientation, and thousands of applicants were also rejected for federal employment for the same reason. During this period, more than 1,000 men and women were fired for suspected homosexuality from the State Department alone—a far greater number than were dismissed for their membership in the Communist party. The Cold War and anti-communist efforts provided the setting in which a sustained attack upon gay men and lesbians took place. The history of this 'Lavender Scare' by the federal government has been extensively documented by historian David Johnson. Johnson has demonstrated that during this era government officials intentionally engaged in campaigns to associate homosexuality with Communism: 'homosexual' and 'pervert' became synonyms for 'Communist' and 'traitor.' LGBT people were treated as a national security threat, demanding the attention of Congress, the courts, statehouses, and the media.
- "An interview with David K. Johnson". University of Chicago Press.
- Every Class in Every School, Final Report on the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia, Biphobia, and Transphobia in Canadian Schools, Egale Canada
- Nordgren, L. F.; Banas, K.; MacDonald, G. (2011). "Empathy Gaps for Social Pain: Why People Underestimate the Pain of Social Suffering". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 100 (1): 120–128. doi:10.1037/a0020938. PMID 21219077.
- Crozier, W. R.; Skliopidou, E. (2002). "Adult Recollections of Name-calling at School". Educational Psychology. 22 (1): 113–124. doi:10.1080/01443410120101288.
- Phoenix, A.; Frosh, S.; Pattman, R. (2003). "Producing Contradictory Masculine Subject Positions: Narratives of Threat, Homophobia and Bullying in 11-14 Year Old Boys". Journal of Social Issues. 59 (1): 179–195. doi:10.1111/1540-4560.t01-1-00011.
- Smith, G. W. (1998). "The Ideology of "Fag": The School Experience of Gay Students". The Sociological Quarterly. 39 (2): 309–335. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1998.tb00506.x.
- Swearer, S. M.; Turner, R. K.; Givens, J. E.; Pollack, W. S. (2008). "You're So Gay!": Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?". School Psychology Review. 37 (2): 160–173.
- Russell, S. T.; Joyner, K. (2001). "Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study". American Journal of Public Health. 91 (8): 1276–1281. doi:10.2105/ajph.91.8.1276. PMC 1446760. PMID 11499118.
- Williams, T.; Connolly, J.; Pepler, D.; Craig, W. (2005). "Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents" (PDF). Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 34 (5): 471–482. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.459.218. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-7264-x.
- Pascoe, C. J. (2007). Dude You're a Fag, Masculinity and Sexuality in High School. Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press
- Kimmel, M. (2010). Masculinity as Homophobia, Fear, Shame and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity. In M. S. Kimmel & A. L. Ferber (Eds.), Privilege, A Reader (pp.107-131). Boulder: Westview Press
- Herek, G. M. (1986). "On Heterosexual Masculinity, Some Psychical Consequences of the Social Construction of Gender and Sexuality". American Behavioral Scientist. 29 (5): 563–577. doi:10.1177/000276486029005005.
- Berlan, ED; Corliss, HL; Field, AE; et al. (April 2010). "Sexual Orientation and Bullying Among Adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study". Journal of Adolescent Health. 46 (4): 366–71. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.10.015. PMC 2844864. PMID 20307826.
- Swearer, SM; Turner, RT; Givens, JE (2008). ""You're so gay!": Do different forms of bullying matter for adolescent males?". School Psychology Review. 37.
- Sweet, Matt. "Depression and Anxiety in LGBT People: What You Need to Know" (PDF). Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- Sweet, Matt. "Depression and Anxiety in the LGBT People: What You Need to Know" (PDF).
- Reilly, Mollie (April 2016). "Same-Sex Couples Can Now Adopt Children in All 50 States". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- Meyer, Ilan (March 1995). "Minority Stress and Mental Health in Gay Men". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 36 (1): 38–56. doi:10.2307/2137286. JSTOR 2137286. PMID 7738327. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Glew, G. M.; Fan, M.; Katon, W.; Rivara, F. P.; Kernic, M. A. (2005). "Bullying, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Academic Performance in Elementary School". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 159 (11): 1026–1031. doi:10.1001/archpedi.159.11.1026. PMID 16275791.
- Roth, D. A.; Coles, M. E.; Heimberg, R. G. (2002). "The relationship between memories for childhood teasing and anxiety and depression in adulthood". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 16 (2): 149–164. doi:10.1016/s0887-6185(01)00096-2.
- Russell, S. T.; Ryan, C.; Toomey, R. B.; Diaz, R. M.; Sanchez, J. (2011). "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment". Journal of School Health. 81 (5): 223–230. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00583.x. PMID 21517860.
- Rivers, I (2004). "Recollections of Bullying at School and Their Long-Term Implications for Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals". Crisis. 25 (4): 169–175. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.25.4.169. PMID 15580852.
- Meyer, I. H. (1995). "Minority Stress and Mental Health in Gay Men". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 36 (1): 38–56. doi:10.2307/2137286. JSTOR 2137286. PMID 7738327.
- GMR, UNESCO, and UNGEI, ‘School-related gender-based violence is preventing the achievement of quality education for all: Policy Paper 17 at 59th session of the Commission on the Status of Women in New York City’, 59th session of the Commission on the Status of Women in New York City. UNESCO, p. 16, 2015.
- Plan International, ‘A Girl’s Right to Learn Without Fear: Working to end gender-based violence at school’, Plan Limited, Surrey, 2013.
- S. Bloom, J. Levy, N. Karim, L. Stefanik, M. Kincaid, D. Bartel, and K. Grimes, ‘Guidance for Gender Based Violence (GBV) Monitoring and Mitigation within Non-GBV Focused Sectoral Programming’, CARE USA, 2014.
- Plan UK, ‘Ending school-related gender-based violence: Brie ng paper’, London, 2013.
- UNESCO (2016). Out in the Open: Education sector responses to violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity/expression (PDF). Paris, UNESCO. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-3-100150-5.
- ICGBV, ‘Addressing School Related Gender Based Violence: Learning from Practice: Learning Brief No. 10’, Irish Consortium on Gender Based Violence, Dublin, 2013.
- F. Leach, M. Dunne, and F. Salvi, ‘School-Related Gender based Violence: A global review of current issues and approaches in policy, programming and implementation responses to School-Related Gender-Based Violence (SRGBV) for the Education Sector’, UNESCO, 2014.
- "Mental Health American, Bullying and Gay Youth". National Mental Health Association. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012.
- "How 'gay' Became Children's Insult of Choice". BBC News. March 18, 2008.
- "Gay Bullying in Schools Common". BBC News. June 26, 2007.
- "Homophobic bullying". stonewall.org.uk. Stonewall. Retrieved December 25, 2014.
- "Gay Male and Lesbian Youth Suicide" (PDF). 1989. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2011.
- "The School Report" (PDF). Stonewall.
- "Suicide Prevention". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. February 5, 2019. Archived from the original on May 4, 2017.
- "Statistics". American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "The School Report" (PDF). Stonewall.
- "Nabozny v. Podlesny". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- "About Us - Matthew Shepard Foundation".
- Merjian, Armen H. (Fall 2009). "Henkle v. Gregory: A Landmark Struggle against Student Gay Bashing" (PDF). Cardozo Journal of Law & Gender. 16 (1): 41–64. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Damilola's grieving father speaks out". BBC News. November 30, 2000.
- Hopkins, Nick (November 29, 2000). "Death of a schoolboy". The Guardian.
- Bennetto, Jason (November 29, 2000). "His mother told teachers he was being bullied. Now she must bury him". Independent.
- Steele, John (June 19, 2001). "Damilola's father attacks loss of values". The Telegraph.
- Tatchell, Peter (January 13, 2003). "A victim of homophobia?". New Statesman.
- "Hoover". WCVB TV, Boston. Archived from the original on October 5, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Cameroon Denies Homosexuals Face Persecution". BBC News. July 8, 2010.
- Parker, Ian (February 6, 2012). "The Story of a Suicide". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- "Harassed gay man's £120,000 award". BBC News. October 2, 2010.
- "15-year-old Jamie Hubley's lonely cry for acceptance". Ottawa Citizen, October 17, 2011.
- "Mallick: Meet the boy the bullies broke". Toronto Star, October 18, 2011.
- "Phillip Parker, Gay Tennessee Teen, Commits Suicide After Enduring Bullying (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. Huffigton Post. January 23, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "Phillip Parker Suicide: Bullied Teen's Final Words Were 'Please Help Me Mom'". International Business Times. January 23, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "Kenneth Weishuhn, Gay Iowa Teen, Commits Suicide After Allegedly Receiving Death Threats". Huffington Post. April 17, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- Mulvihill, Evan (April 18, 2012). "Heartbreaking Details Emerge In Suicide Of Out Iowa Teen Kenneth Weishuhn". Queerty. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- Nichols, James (October 10, 2013). "Jadin Bell's Father, Joe Bell, Killed While Walking Cross Country For Tribute To Dead Gay Teen". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
- "Jadin Bell's father Joe Bell of La Grande killed by truck while walking in memory of son". Oregon Live. October 10, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
- "SB3266 Text". Archived from the original on March 11, 2011.
- "Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10627". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Government of the Philippines. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Stonewall, Mayor of London Launch Anti-Homophobic Bullying DVD". Uk gay news. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Information for Schools on Homophobic Bullying". www.antibullying.net.
- "The Russian LGBT Network". Ilga. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "CBS employees join the It Gets Better Project". CNET. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Adam Lambert Revamps 'Aftermath' for The Trevor Project". MTV. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Dan Savage: For Gay Teens, Life 'Gets Better'". NPR. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Gay Rights Organization Egale Canada Applauds Decision On Dire Straits Song". City news. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Grupo Gay da Bahia - GGB". www.ggb.org.br.
- "Grupo Gay da Bahia "premia" Dilma como inimiga número 1 dos homossexuais". Repórter Alagoas (in Portuguese). March 9, 2012. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "kit anti-homofobia: grupo Gay da Bahia dá troféu de "inimiga da causa" a presidente Dilma Rousseff". TV Recôncavo (in Portuguese). October 3, 2012. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Meyer, Doug (2015). Violence against Queer People: Race, Class, Gender, and the Persistence of Anti-LGBT Discrimination. Rutgers University Press.
- Duncan, Neil (2001). Sexual Bullying: Gender Conflict and Pupil Culture in Secondary Schools. UK: Routledge.
- Meyer, Elizabeth (2009). Gender, Bullying, and Harassment: Strategies to End Sexism and Homophobia in Schools. USA: Teacher’s College Press.
- Cyberbullying and the LGBT Community. USA: Human Rights Campaign.
- "You Have to Be Strong to Be Gay": Bullying and Educational Attainment in LGB New Zealanders. New Zealand: Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services. 2008.
- Traversing the Margins: Intersectionalities in the Bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth. New Zealand: Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services. 2008.
- Homophobic Bullying and Same-Sex Desire in Anglo-American Schools: An Historical Perspective. New Zealand: Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services. 2008.
- Boswell, John (1980). Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. ISBN 978-0-226-06711-7.
- Cuordileone, K. A. (2000). "'Politics in an Age of Anxiety': Cold War Political Culture and the Crisis in American Masculinity". Journal of American History. 87 (2): 515–45. doi:10.2307/2568762. JSTOR 2568762.
- D'Emilio, John (1989). "The Homosexual Menace: The Politics of Sexuality in Cold War America". In Peiss, Kathy; Simmons, Christina (eds.). Passion and Power: Sexuality in History. Temple University Press. pp. 226–40.
- Edsall, Nicholas C. (2003). Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World. U. of Virginia Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8139-2543-1.
- D'Emilio, John; Freedman, Estelle B. (1997). Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America, Second Edition. ISBN 978-0-226-14264-7.
- Fone, Byrne (2001). Homophobia: A History. ISBN 978-0-312-42030-7.
- Hatheway, Jay (2003). The Gilded Age Construction of Modern American Homophobia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23492-8.
- Jenness, Valerie; Richman, Kimberly D. (2002). "Anti-Gay and Lesbian Violence and Its Discontents". In Richardson, Diane; Seidman, Steven (eds.). Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies. pp. 403+.
- Jenness, Valerie; Grattet, Ryken (2001). Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement. ISBN 978-0-87154-409-4.
- Johnson, David K. (2004). The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-40190-4.
- Kantor, Martin (1998). Homophobia: Description, Development, and Dynamics of Gay Bashing. ISBN 978-0-275-95530-4.
- Minton, Henry L. (2002). Departing from Deviance: A History of Homosexual Rights and Emancipatory Science in America. U. of Chicago Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-226-53044-4.
- Padva, Gilad (2007). "Media and Popular Culture Representations of LGBT Bullying". Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services. 19 (3–4): 105–118. doi:10.1080/10538720802161615.
- Downs, Alan (2005). The Velvet Rage, Overcoming the Pain of Growing Up Gay in a Straight Man's World. Da Capo Press.
- Pascoe, CJ (2007). "Dude, You're a Fag", Masculinity and Sexuality in High School. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520271487.
- Olweus, Dan (1993). Bullying at School, What We Know and What We Can Do. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631192398.