Lakas–Christian Muslim Democrats, abbreviated as Lakas–CMD and also known simply as Lakas, is a political party in the Philippines. Lakas–CMD is considered to sit on the centre-right of the political spectrum and is influenced by Christian democracy and Islamic democracy. Since the 2022 elections, Lakas–CMD is currently the biggest party in the House of Representatives, with the party's president, Martin Romualdez, serving as Speaker of the House.[4] The party is a dominant member of the UniTeam Alliance led by President Bongbong Marcos.

Lakas–Christian Muslim Democrats
PresidentMartin Romualdez
ChairpersonBong Revilla Jr.
Secretary-GeneralJose Aquino II
President EmeritusGloria Macapagal Arroyo
FounderFidel Ramos
Raul Manglapus
FoundedDecember 1991; 32 years ago (1991-12) (original form)
June 18, 2008; 15 years ago (2008-06-18) (current form)
Merger ofLakas–CMD and KAMPI
Headquarters3/F, Universal Re Building, 106 Paseo de Roxas, Legazpi Village, Makati, 1229 Metro Manila
Youth wingLakas Youth
IdeologyChristian democracy
Islamic democracy
Filipino nationalism
Political positionCentre-right[3]
National affiliationUniTeam (2021–present)
Coalition for Change (2016–2021)
International affiliationCentrist Democrat International
Colors        Sky blue, gold, green, orange
Seats in the Senate
1 / 24
Seats in the House of Representatives
100 / 316
Provincial governorships
8 / 82
Provincial board members
18 / 1,023
City and municipal mayorships
68 / 1,634
City and municipal councilors
514 / 16,812

Lakas–CMD has produced one President of the Philippines, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was in power when the party was formed in 2009, and one vice president, Sara Duterte, who was elected in 2022.

Lakas–CMD was founded in 2008, after the original Lakas–CMD party merged with the Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (KAMPI), forming Lakas Kampi CMD. The party later reverted to its original name and removed KAMPI after many of its members defected to the National Unity Party (NUP).[5]

After the 2010 elections, the party was split into both the majority and minority blocs. By 2013, Lakas supported most candidates of the opposition coalition United Nationalist Alliance in the 2013 Senate election, although the party was still split.[6][7] After the 2016 elections, the party joined the majority bloc led by PDP–Laban, the party of the winner of the presidential election, Rodrigo Duterte. In the 2019 elections, the party joined the Hugpong ng Pagbabago alliance. After the 2022 elections, Lakas won the vice presidency and replaced PDP–Laban as the largest party in Congress, leading the majority bloc.[8]

History edit

Origins edit

After the Hello Garci scandal, the party was split into two main factions in 2006, one led by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and another by former president Fidel V. Ramos, who had initially supported Arroyo despite the scandal but later called for her resignation.[9]

On January 16, 2008, Lakas spokesman and legal counsel Raul Lambino released a list of potential Lakas senatorial bets for 2010. Except for Parañaque Representative Eduardo Zialcita, they were not yet identified.[10]

Former House Speaker Jose de Venecia Jr. resigned his post as president of Lakas–CMD on March 10, 2008; he rejected the proposition of former president Fidel Ramos to give him the title Chairman-emeritus. The then current House Speaker Prospero Nograles was sworn in as the new president of Lakas–CMD party and Feliciano Belmonte Jr. as vice president for Metro Manila affairs on the same day.

On June 18, 2008, President Arroyo confirmed the merger of the original Lakas–Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas–CMD) and the Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (KAMPI) parties. Both parties adopted the "equity of the incumbent" principle, as the merger would account for almost 200 national and 8,000 local officials, amid Arroyo's prediction of 2010 elections victory. The party's president, Prospero Nograles, and KAMPI chairperson, Ronaldo Puno, signed the covenant at the Davao City regional caucus.[11][12] Ramos announced on February 6, 2008, that the Lakas–CMD name would be retained even after the merger, and asserted that de Venecia will remain as the party's president.[13]

On August 9, 2009, de Venecia and Ramos led fifty members from Lakas in objecting to its merger with KAMPI on May 28, 2009. The faction retained de Venecia its president with Ramos as the Chairman Emeritus. Ramos refused the offer to become the Chairman Emeritus of the new party after being named in the interim party organization. De Venecia filed a resolution at the Commission on Elections to declare the merger null and void.[14] However, the Supreme Court ultimately upheld the legality of the merger, citing the failure of de Venecia "to sufficiently show that any grave abuse of discretion was committed by the Commission on Elections in rendering the challenged resolution."[15][16]

Majority to minority (2010–2016) edit

In the 2010 elections, the party suffered several losses, and was split into both the majority and minority blocs. It lost the 2010 presidential election with Gilberto Teodoro as its presidential nominee while only two of its candidates in the 2010 Senate election won; the two joined the Liberal Party–led majority coalition. In the 2010 House of Representatives election, it won 47% of the seats contested in the district election. However, after Benigno Aquino III was sworn in as president on June 30, 2010, the majority of the former legislative members of Lakas were sworn as members of the reborn Liberal Party, Aquino's party. Other members led by Pablo P. Garcia established the neutral National Unity Party in December 2010.[17] After the split, the party's new chairman, Edcel Lagman, declared that the Lakas Kampi CMD coalition has "ceased to exist".[18] On May 11, 2012, the party decided to revert to its original name and drop Arroyo's KAMPI from the coalition.[5] It became one of the parties in the opposition after the 2010 elections.

The party weakened following Arroyo's arrest under charges of electoral fraud in 2011 which were later dismissed, and again in 2012, on charges of misuse of $8.8 million in state lottery funds; she would later be acquitted in 2017.[19] On February 5, 2013, senator Bong Revilla succeeded Lagman and became the party's chairperson, while 1st district representative of Leyte, Martin Romualdez, became the party's president.[20] In the 2013 Senate election, the party mostly supported several candidates from the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA), which counts previous Lakas members among its candidates, such as Migz Zubiri, Dick Gordon, and Mitos Magsaysay. Three out of nine UNA candidates were elected.

In 2016, the party initially planned to field senator Revilla for the presidential election.[21][22] However, he would be detained at the Philippine National Police custodial center at Camp Crame due to his alleged involvement in the pork barrel scam.[23] By August 2015, Lakas reportedly eyed to form an alliance with UNA and support vice president Jejomar Binay's candidacy for president.[24] However, by February 2016, the party failed to reach a consensus on who to support, eventually opting not to endorse any candidate for president.[25] The party supported the candidacy of Bongbong Marcos for vice president, who lost.[26][27]

Recovery under the Duterte administration (2016–2022) edit

After then Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte won the presidential election, Lakas signed a coalition agreement with Duterte's party, PDP–Laban, on May 18, 2016, joining several other political parties in the Coalition for Change, the administration's coalition.[28] In October 2017, Arroyo and two of her allies joined PDP–Laban. According to Arroyo, the move was done to "consolidate support for the president."[29] In September 2018, House Minority Leader Danilo Suarez, who had rejoined Lakas, announced that the party is rebuilding to restore its dominance before Arroyo stepped down as president.[30] On November 6, 2018, the party joined Hugpong ng Pagbabago,[31][32] with Revilla joining the coalition's senatorial slate for the 2019 Senate election. Revilla was reelected, marking Lakas' return to the upper chamber. The party also won a dozen seats in the 2019 House of Representatives elections. After the 2019 elections, several politicians joined the party.[33][34] Arroyo returned to the party on March 9, 2020.[35]

On November 17, 2021, Sara Duterte became the chairperson of the party, succeeding Revilla.[36] Following her move to Lakas, she announced her candidacy for vice president in the 2022 vice presidential election, becoming the running mate of Bongbong Marcos.[37] On November 29, 2021, the party formed the UniTeam Alliance with three other parties to support the candidacies of Marcos and Duterte.[38] The tandem won the elections, becoming the first presidential ticket to win together since Arroyo's victory along with her running mate in 2004.[39]

Return to dominance (2022–present) edit

Following the 2022 Philippine general election, which saw Lakas winning 26 seats in the House of Representatives as well as the vice presidency, 38 politicians moved to the party, most of whom belonged to the weakening PDP–Laban.[40] By the time the 19th Congress was opened, the party's seats in the House of Representatives increased from 12 in the 18th Congress to 64, replacing PDP–Laban as the dominant party in the lower house.[41][8] Prominent members of the party were elected to various leadership positions in the lower house; Romualdez was elected as the House Speaker while Arroyo and Isidro Ungab became deputy speakers.[42] As of May 2023, the party has 71 members in the lower chamber.[43]

On May 17, 2023, Arroyo was demoted from senior deputy speaker to deputy speaker, reportedly due to her plotting to oust Romualdez from his position.[44] Arroyo has subsequently denied the allegations.[45][46] She was replaced by Aurelio Gonzales Jr. of PDP–Laban. The party later also signed a partnership agreement with PDP–Laban.[47] Following Arroyo's demotion, vice president and party chair Duterte resigned from the party on May 19, 2023. She stated that her leadership "cannot be poisoned by political toxicity."[48][49]

Ideology edit

Lakas–CMD adheres to the Christian democracy and Islamic democracy ideologies, adopting the same ideologies of its predecessor party, and is a member of the Centrist Democrats International (CDI). The party also advocates for a shift from the present presidential system to a parliamentary form of government through constitutional amendments and through establishing peace talks with Muslim separatists and communist rebels.[50]

Lakas–CMD has always focused on economic growth and development, stronger ties with the United States, creation of jobs, and strong cooperation between the executive and legislative branches of government. The party is distinct in its ecumenical inclusion of Muslim leaders in its political alliance.[51] The party has tended to be more popular in the Mindanao provinces.

Current party officials edit

List of party chairpersons edit

  • Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2008–2009)
  • Gilberto Teodoro (2009–2010)
  • Amelita Villarosa (2010)
  • Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2010–2011)
  • Edcel Lagman (2011–2012)
  • Bong Revilla, Jr. (2012–2021)
  • Sara Duterte (2021–2023)
  • Bong Revilla, Jr. (2023–present)

Candidates for Philippine general elections edit

2010 edit

Presidential ticket edit

For senator edit

2016 edit

For senator edit

2019 edit

For senator edit

2022 edit

Presidential ticket edit

Electoral performance edit

Presidential elections edit

Year Candidate Votes % Result Outcome
2010 Gilbert Teodoro 4,095,839 11.33 Lost Benigno Aquino III (Liberal) won
2016 None Rodrigo Duterte (PDP–Laban) won
2022 None; Duterte's running mate was Bongbong Marcos (PFP) 31,629,783 58.77 Won Bongbong Marcos (PFP) won

Vice presidential elections edit

Year Candidate Votes % Result Outcome
2010 Edu Manzano 807,728 2.30 Lost Jejomar Binay (PDP–Laban) won
2016 None; endorsed Bongbong Marcos (Independent) Leni Robredo (Liberal) won
2022 Sara Duterte 32,208,417 61.53 Won Sara Duterte won

Legislative elections edit

Current members, 18th Congress edit

House of Representatives edit

District Representatives edit

Allied Partylist Representatives edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Romualdez reaffirms support for Duterte's federalism agenda". Philippine Daily Inquirer. June 5, 2019. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  2. ^ Manalastas, Jester P. (June 5, 2019). "Federalism push renewed". Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  3. ^ Dayley, Robert (2016). Southeast Asia In The New International Era. ISBN 9780813350110. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  4. ^ Cruz, Maricel (July 20, 2022). "Lakas-CMD now biggest party in House, ranks swell to 64". Manila Standard. Archived from the original on July 28, 2022. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Lakas drops GMA's Kampi from coalition". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
  6. ^ Clapano, Jose Rodel. "Lakas-CMD supports UNA Senate bets". Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  7. ^ Boncocan, Karen (February 5, 2013). "Lakas-CMD to carry 10 bets from LP, UNA". Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  8. ^ a b Porcalla, Delon. "Lakas-CMD eyes replacing PDP-Laban in Congress". Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  9. ^ Liow, Joseph Chinyong (2022). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-000-57286-5. OCLC 1318991816.
  10. ^, Lakas lists down 30 senatorial bets for 2010—spokesman Archived September 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Manila Standard Today – Latest News in the Philippines". Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  12. ^ "Lakas-CMD, Kampi merge". GMA News Online. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  13. ^ "Ramos: De Venecia to remain president in Lakas-Kampi merger". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  14. ^ "Lakas-Kampi-CMD merger in peril". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  15. ^ Liow, Joseph Chinyong (2022). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-000-57286-5. OCLC 1318991816. Meanwhile, de Venecia filed a resolution at the Commission on Elections for the Lakas-KAMPI merger to be nullified. The Supreme Court denied the appeal and upheld the legality of the resolution.
  16. ^ Punay, Edu (January 1, 2010). "Supreme Court OKs merger of Lakas, Kampi". Philippine Star. Archived from the original on September 12, 2012.
  17. ^ Rosario, Ben (November 10, 2011). "National Unity Party accredited". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  18. ^ Cabacungan, Gil C. (January 9, 2012). "Lakas-Kampi is no more—Lagman". Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  19. ^ "SC upholds Arroyo's plunder acquittal with finality". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  20. ^ Salaverria, Leila B. (February 5, 2013). "Revilla not in a hurry for 2016 polls, says he's focused on May elections". Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  21. ^ "Lakas eyes Bong Revilla for 2016". RAPPLER. January 30, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
  22. ^ Boncocan, Karen (January 31, 2013). "Bong Revilla a strong contender in 2016 – Lakas-CMD". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  23. ^ "Bong Revilla off to surrender to anti-graft court". Rappler. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  24. ^ Nicolas, Fiona (August 5, 2015). "Lakas-CMD might root for Binay". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on June 5, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  25. ^ "Arroyo's Lakas split on who to support in 2016 polls - POLITIKO". February 3, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  26. ^ "Gloria boys suportado si Bongbong Marcos". DZIQ Radyo Inquirer 990AM. February 18, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  27. ^ "LAKAS-CMD THROWS SUPPORT BEHIND BONGBONG MARCOS". Senate of The Philippines. April 14, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  28. ^ Abadicio, Camille (May 18, 2016). "PDP-Laban, Lakas-CMD sign 'coalition for change'". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on June 5, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  29. ^ Yap, DJ (October 11, 2017). "Arroyo, 2 of her former Cabinet members join PDP-Laban". Retrieved June 4, 2022.
  30. ^ "Lakas-CMD party rebuilding; GMA return being anticipated". Manila Bulletin. September 26, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  31. ^ "Lakas-CMD eyes coalition with Hugpong ng Pagbabago". CNN Philippines. August 20, 2018. Archived from the original on June 5, 2022. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  32. ^ Reyes, Ronald (November 6, 2018). "Hugpong ng Pagbabago unites with partylist, Lakas-CMD". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  33. ^ Roxas, Pathricia Ann V. (September 3, 2019). "Lakas-CMD 'strengthens political influence,' welcomes new members". Retrieved June 4, 2022.
  34. ^ Galvez, Daphne (October 18, 2020). "6 more House members join Lakas-CMD party". Retrieved June 4, 2022.
  35. ^ "Arroyo, De Venecia reunite as Lakas-CMD vow to 'win' members back". RAPPLER. March 9, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2022.
  36. ^ Bordey, Hana. "Sara Duterte accepts Lakas-CMD chairmanship". GMA News Online. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
  37. ^ "Sara Duterte scraps reelection bid for vice-presidential run". Archived from the original on November 13, 2021. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  38. ^ "Four political parties forge UniTeam alliance pact for Bongbong-Sara tandem". Manila Bulletin. November 25, 2021. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  39. ^ Andrade, Jeannette I.; Aurelio, Julie M. (May 26, 2022). "Congress proclaims Marcos, Duterte". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  40. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (June 9, 2022). "Lakas-CMD gains more members in House". Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  41. ^ "Lakas-CMD now biggest party in House, ranks swell to 64". Manila Standard. July 20, 2022. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  42. ^ Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (July 25, 2022). "Arroyo is House new senior deputy speaker, Dalipe Majority Floor Leader". Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  43. ^ "Romualdez, Arroyo together in another House event; 19 more join Lakas-CMD". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 24, 2023.
  44. ^ "Gloria Arroyo demoted, loses 'senior' title in House deputy speakership". RAPPLER. May 17, 2023. Retrieved May 24, 2023.
  45. ^ Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (May 18, 2023). "Arroyo breaks silence: My actions were misconstrued, I was accused of staging House coup". Retrieved May 24, 2023.
  46. ^ "Gloria Arroyo denies ouster plot vs Speaker Romualdez". RAPPLER. May 18, 2023. Retrieved May 24, 2023.
  47. ^ News, GMA Integrated (May 22, 2023). "Lakas-CMD, PDP-Laban sign partnership agreement". GMA News Online. Retrieved May 24, 2023. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  48. ^ "From GMA to Sara Duterte: The ties that bind". RAPPLER. May 20, 2023. Retrieved May 24, 2023.
  49. ^ Mateo, Janvic. "Sara mum on House squabble, GMA meet". Retrieved May 24, 2023.
  50. ^ "Con-com official welcomes Lakas-CMD support for Charter change". January 7, 2006. Retrieved June 4, 2022.
  51. ^ Dayley, Robert (2016). Southeast Asia In The New International Era. ISBN 9780813350110. Retrieved April 19, 2017.

External links edit